NCERT Textbook - Mass Media and Communications Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Sociology Class 12

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Mass Media and Communications Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Mass Media and
Communications
7
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Page 2


Mass Media and
Communications
7
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Social Change and Development in India
114
T he mass media include a wide variety of forms, including television,
newspapers, films, magazines, radio, advertisements, video games and CDs. They
are referred to as ‘mass’ media because they reach mass audiences – audiences
comprised of very large numbers of people. They are also sometimes referred to
as mass communications. For many in your generation it is probably difficult to
imagine a world without some form of mass media and communications.
ACTIVITY 7.1
Ø Imagine a world where there is no
television, no cinema, no newspapers, no
magazines, no internet, no telephones,
no mobile phones.
Ø Write down your daily activities in a day.
Identify the occasions when you used the
media in some way or the other.
Ø Find out from an older generation what
life was like without any of these forms
of communication. Compare it with your
life.
Ø Discuss the ways work and leisure has
changed with developments in
communication technologies.
  Mass media is part of our
everyday life. In many middle class
households across the country
people wake up only to put on the
radio, switch on the television, look
for the morning newspaper. The
younger children of the same
households may first glance at their mobile
phones to check their missed calls. Plumbers, electricians,
carpenters, painters and sundry other service providers in many urban centres
have a mobile telephone where they can be easily contacted. Many shops in
cities increasingly have a small television set. Customers who come in may
exchange bits of conversation about the cricket match being telecasted or the
film being shown. Indians abroad keep regular touch with friends and families
back home over the internet and telephone. Migrants from working class
population in the cities are regularly in touch with their families in the villages
over the phone. Have you seen the range of advertisements of mobile phones?
@R. K. Laxman
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Page 3


Mass Media and
Communications
7
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Social Change and Development in India
114
T he mass media include a wide variety of forms, including television,
newspapers, films, magazines, radio, advertisements, video games and CDs. They
are referred to as ‘mass’ media because they reach mass audiences – audiences
comprised of very large numbers of people. They are also sometimes referred to
as mass communications. For many in your generation it is probably difficult to
imagine a world without some form of mass media and communications.
ACTIVITY 7.1
Ø Imagine a world where there is no
television, no cinema, no newspapers, no
magazines, no internet, no telephones,
no mobile phones.
Ø Write down your daily activities in a day.
Identify the occasions when you used the
media in some way or the other.
Ø Find out from an older generation what
life was like without any of these forms
of communication. Compare it with your
life.
Ø Discuss the ways work and leisure has
changed with developments in
communication technologies.
  Mass media is part of our
everyday life. In many middle class
households across the country
people wake up only to put on the
radio, switch on the television, look
for the morning newspaper. The
younger children of the same
households may first glance at their mobile
phones to check their missed calls. Plumbers, electricians,
carpenters, painters and sundry other service providers in many urban centres
have a mobile telephone where they can be easily contacted. Many shops in
cities increasingly have a small television set. Customers who come in may
exchange bits of conversation about the cricket match being telecasted or the
film being shown. Indians abroad keep regular touch with friends and families
back home over the internet and telephone. Migrants from working class
population in the cities are regularly in touch with their families in the villages
over the phone. Have you seen the range of advertisements of mobile phones?
@R. K. Laxman
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Mass Media and Communications
115
Have you noticed the diverse social groups that they are catering to? Are you
surprised that the CBSE Board results are available to you on both the internet
and over the mobile phone. Indeed this very book is available on the internet.
It is obvious that
there has been a
phenomenal expansion
of mass communication
of all kinds in recent
years. As students of
sociology, there are
many aspects to this
growth which is of great
interest to us. First,
while we recognise
the specificity of
the current comm-
unication revolution, it
is important to go back
a little and sketch out
the growth of modern
mass media in the
world and in India.
This helps us realise
that like any other
social institution the
structure and content
of mass media is shaped by changes in
the economic, political and socio-cultural contexts. For instance, we see how
central the state and its vision of development influenced the media in the first
decades after independence. And how in the post 1990 period of globalisation
the market has a key role to play. Second, this help us better appreciate how
the relationship between mass media and communication with society is
dialectical. Both influence each other. The nature and role of mass media is
influenced by the society in which it is located. At the same time the far reaching
influence of mass media on society cannot be over-emphasised. We shall see
this dialectical relationship when we discuss in this chapter (a) the role of media
in colonial India, (b) in the first decades after independence and (c) and finally
in the context of globalisation. Third, mass communication is different from
other means of communication as it requires a formal structural organisation
to meet large-scale capital, production and management demands. You will
find, therefore, that the state and/or the market have a major role in the structure
and functioning of mass media. Mass media functions through very large
organisations with major investments and large body of employees. Fourth,
there are sharp differences between how easily different sections of people can
use mass media. You will recall the concept of digital divide from the last chapter.
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Page 4


Mass Media and
Communications
7
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Social Change and Development in India
114
T he mass media include a wide variety of forms, including television,
newspapers, films, magazines, radio, advertisements, video games and CDs. They
are referred to as ‘mass’ media because they reach mass audiences – audiences
comprised of very large numbers of people. They are also sometimes referred to
as mass communications. For many in your generation it is probably difficult to
imagine a world without some form of mass media and communications.
ACTIVITY 7.1
Ø Imagine a world where there is no
television, no cinema, no newspapers, no
magazines, no internet, no telephones,
no mobile phones.
Ø Write down your daily activities in a day.
Identify the occasions when you used the
media in some way or the other.
Ø Find out from an older generation what
life was like without any of these forms
of communication. Compare it with your
life.
Ø Discuss the ways work and leisure has
changed with developments in
communication technologies.
  Mass media is part of our
everyday life. In many middle class
households across the country
people wake up only to put on the
radio, switch on the television, look
for the morning newspaper. The
younger children of the same
households may first glance at their mobile
phones to check their missed calls. Plumbers, electricians,
carpenters, painters and sundry other service providers in many urban centres
have a mobile telephone where they can be easily contacted. Many shops in
cities increasingly have a small television set. Customers who come in may
exchange bits of conversation about the cricket match being telecasted or the
film being shown. Indians abroad keep regular touch with friends and families
back home over the internet and telephone. Migrants from working class
population in the cities are regularly in touch with their families in the villages
over the phone. Have you seen the range of advertisements of mobile phones?
@R. K. Laxman
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Mass Media and Communications
115
Have you noticed the diverse social groups that they are catering to? Are you
surprised that the CBSE Board results are available to you on both the internet
and over the mobile phone. Indeed this very book is available on the internet.
It is obvious that
there has been a
phenomenal expansion
of mass communication
of all kinds in recent
years. As students of
sociology, there are
many aspects to this
growth which is of great
interest to us. First,
while we recognise
the specificity of
the current comm-
unication revolution, it
is important to go back
a little and sketch out
the growth of modern
mass media in the
world and in India.
This helps us realise
that like any other
social institution the
structure and content
of mass media is shaped by changes in
the economic, political and socio-cultural contexts. For instance, we see how
central the state and its vision of development influenced the media in the first
decades after independence. And how in the post 1990 period of globalisation
the market has a key role to play. Second, this help us better appreciate how
the relationship between mass media and communication with society is
dialectical. Both influence each other. The nature and role of mass media is
influenced by the society in which it is located. At the same time the far reaching
influence of mass media on society cannot be over-emphasised. We shall see
this dialectical relationship when we discuss in this chapter (a) the role of media
in colonial India, (b) in the first decades after independence and (c) and finally
in the context of globalisation. Third, mass communication is different from
other means of communication as it requires a formal structural organisation
to meet large-scale capital, production and management demands. You will
find, therefore, that the state and/or the market have a major role in the structure
and functioning of mass media. Mass media functions through very large
organisations with major investments and large body of employees. Fourth,
there are sharp differences between how easily different sections of people can
use mass media. You will recall the concept of digital divide from the last chapter.
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Social Change and Development in India
116
7.1 THE BEGINNINGS OF MODERN MASS MEDIA
The first modern mass media institution began with the development of the
printing press. Although the history of print in certain societies dates back to
many centuries, the first attempts at printing books using modern technologies
began in Europe. This technique was first developed by Johann Gutenberg in
1440. Initial attempts at printing were restricted to religious books.
With the Industrial Revolution, the
print industry also grew. The first products
of the press were restricted to an audience
of literate elites. It was only in the mid 19
th
century, with further development in
technologies, transportation and literacy
that newspapers began to reach out to a
mass audience. People living in different
corners of the country found themselves
reading or hearing the same news. It has
been suggested that this was in many ways
responsible for people across a country to
feel connected and develop
a sense of belonging or ‘we
feeling’. The well known
scholar Benedict Anderson
has thus argued that this
helped the growth of
nationalism, the feeling that
people who did not even
know of each other’s existence feel like members of a family. It gave people who
would never meet each other a sense of togetherness. Anderson thus suggested
that we could think of the nation as an ‘imagined community’.
You will recall how 19
th
 century social reformers often wrote and debated in
newspapers and journals. The growth of Indian nationalism was closely linked
to its struggle against colonialism. It emerged in the wake of the institutional
changes brought about by British rule in India. Anti colonial public opinion
was nurtured and channelised by the nationalist press, which was vocal in its
opposition to the oppressive measures of the colonial state. This led the colonial
government to clamp down on the nationalist press and impose censorship, for
instance during the Ilbert Bill agitation in 1883. Association with the national
Visuals of a Printing Press and a TV Newsroom in
21st Century, India
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Page 5


Mass Media and
Communications
7
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Social Change and Development in India
114
T he mass media include a wide variety of forms, including television,
newspapers, films, magazines, radio, advertisements, video games and CDs. They
are referred to as ‘mass’ media because they reach mass audiences – audiences
comprised of very large numbers of people. They are also sometimes referred to
as mass communications. For many in your generation it is probably difficult to
imagine a world without some form of mass media and communications.
ACTIVITY 7.1
Ø Imagine a world where there is no
television, no cinema, no newspapers, no
magazines, no internet, no telephones,
no mobile phones.
Ø Write down your daily activities in a day.
Identify the occasions when you used the
media in some way or the other.
Ø Find out from an older generation what
life was like without any of these forms
of communication. Compare it with your
life.
Ø Discuss the ways work and leisure has
changed with developments in
communication technologies.
  Mass media is part of our
everyday life. In many middle class
households across the country
people wake up only to put on the
radio, switch on the television, look
for the morning newspaper. The
younger children of the same
households may first glance at their mobile
phones to check their missed calls. Plumbers, electricians,
carpenters, painters and sundry other service providers in many urban centres
have a mobile telephone where they can be easily contacted. Many shops in
cities increasingly have a small television set. Customers who come in may
exchange bits of conversation about the cricket match being telecasted or the
film being shown. Indians abroad keep regular touch with friends and families
back home over the internet and telephone. Migrants from working class
population in the cities are regularly in touch with their families in the villages
over the phone. Have you seen the range of advertisements of mobile phones?
@R. K. Laxman
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Mass Media and Communications
115
Have you noticed the diverse social groups that they are catering to? Are you
surprised that the CBSE Board results are available to you on both the internet
and over the mobile phone. Indeed this very book is available on the internet.
It is obvious that
there has been a
phenomenal expansion
of mass communication
of all kinds in recent
years. As students of
sociology, there are
many aspects to this
growth which is of great
interest to us. First,
while we recognise
the specificity of
the current comm-
unication revolution, it
is important to go back
a little and sketch out
the growth of modern
mass media in the
world and in India.
This helps us realise
that like any other
social institution the
structure and content
of mass media is shaped by changes in
the economic, political and socio-cultural contexts. For instance, we see how
central the state and its vision of development influenced the media in the first
decades after independence. And how in the post 1990 period of globalisation
the market has a key role to play. Second, this help us better appreciate how
the relationship between mass media and communication with society is
dialectical. Both influence each other. The nature and role of mass media is
influenced by the society in which it is located. At the same time the far reaching
influence of mass media on society cannot be over-emphasised. We shall see
this dialectical relationship when we discuss in this chapter (a) the role of media
in colonial India, (b) in the first decades after independence and (c) and finally
in the context of globalisation. Third, mass communication is different from
other means of communication as it requires a formal structural organisation
to meet large-scale capital, production and management demands. You will
find, therefore, that the state and/or the market have a major role in the structure
and functioning of mass media. Mass media functions through very large
organisations with major investments and large body of employees. Fourth,
there are sharp differences between how easily different sections of people can
use mass media. You will recall the concept of digital divide from the last chapter.
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Social Change and Development in India
116
7.1 THE BEGINNINGS OF MODERN MASS MEDIA
The first modern mass media institution began with the development of the
printing press. Although the history of print in certain societies dates back to
many centuries, the first attempts at printing books using modern technologies
began in Europe. This technique was first developed by Johann Gutenberg in
1440. Initial attempts at printing were restricted to religious books.
With the Industrial Revolution, the
print industry also grew. The first products
of the press were restricted to an audience
of literate elites. It was only in the mid 19
th
century, with further development in
technologies, transportation and literacy
that newspapers began to reach out to a
mass audience. People living in different
corners of the country found themselves
reading or hearing the same news. It has
been suggested that this was in many ways
responsible for people across a country to
feel connected and develop
a sense of belonging or ‘we
feeling’. The well known
scholar Benedict Anderson
has thus argued that this
helped the growth of
nationalism, the feeling that
people who did not even
know of each other’s existence feel like members of a family. It gave people who
would never meet each other a sense of togetherness. Anderson thus suggested
that we could think of the nation as an ‘imagined community’.
You will recall how 19
th
 century social reformers often wrote and debated in
newspapers and journals. The growth of Indian nationalism was closely linked
to its struggle against colonialism. It emerged in the wake of the institutional
changes brought about by British rule in India. Anti colonial public opinion
was nurtured and channelised by the nationalist press, which was vocal in its
opposition to the oppressive measures of the colonial state. This led the colonial
government to clamp down on the nationalist press and impose censorship, for
instance during the Ilbert Bill agitation in 1883. Association with the national
Visuals of a Printing Press and a TV Newsroom in
21st Century, India
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Mass Media and Communications
117
movement led some of the nationalist newspapers like Kesari (Marathi),
Mathrubhumi (Malayalam), Amrita Bazar Patrika (English) to suffer the
displeasure of the colonial state. But that did not prevent them from advocating
the nationalist cause and demand an end to colonial rule.
Under British rule newspapers
and magazines, films and radio
comprised the range of mass
media. Radio was wholly owned by
the state. National views could
not be, therefore, expressed.
Newspapers and films though
autonomous from the state were
strictly monitored by the Raj.
Newspapers and magazines either
in English or vernacular were not
very widely circulated as the
literate public was limited. Yet their
influence far out stripped their
circulation as news and
information was read and spread
by word of mouth from commercial
and administrative hubs like
markets and trading centers as
well as courts and towns. The print
media carried a range of opinion,
which expressed their ideas of a
‘free India’. These variations were
carried over to independent India.
Ø Though a few newspapers had been started by people before Raja
Rammohun Roy, his Sambad-Kaumudi in Bengali published in 1821, and
Mirat-Ul-Akbar in Persian published in 1822, were the first publications in
India with a distinct nationalist and democratic approach.
Ø Fardoonji Murzban was the pioneer of the Gujarati Press in Bombay. It was as early as
1822 that he started the Bombay Samachar as a daily.
Ø Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar started the Shome Prakash in Bengali in 1858.
Ø The Times of India was founded in Bombay in 1861.
Ø The Pioneer in Allahabad in 1865.
Ø The Madras Mail in 1868.
Ø The Statesman in Calcutta in 1875.
Ø The Civil and Military Gazette in Lahore in 1876.
(Desai 1948)
BOX 7.1
117
2015-16(21/01/2015)
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