NCERT Textbook - Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Geography Class 12

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Unit III Unit III Unit III Unit III Unit III
Chapter 9
PLANNING AND
SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT IN
INDIAN CONTEXT
The word ‘planning’ is not new to you as it is a
part of everyday usage. You must have used it
with reference to preparation for your
examination or visit to a hill station. It involves
the process of thinking, formulation of a scheme
or programme and implementation of a set of
actions to achieve some goal.  Though it is a
very broad term, in this chapter, it has been
used with reference to the process of economic
development. It is, thus different from the
traditional hit-and-miss methods by which
Overview of Planning Overview of Planning Overview of Planning Overview of Planning Overview of Planning
Perspective in India Perspective in India Perspective in India Perspective in India Perspective in India
India has centralised planning and the task
of planning in India has been entrusted to
the Planning Commission. It is a statutory
body headed by the Prime Minister and has
a Deputy Chairman and members.  The
planning in the country is largely carried out
through Five Year Plans.
The First Five Y ear Plan was launched in
1951 and covered the period, 1951-52 to
1955-56. Second and Third Five Year Plans
covered the period from 1956-57 to 1960-61
and 1961-62 to 1965-66 respectively. Two
successive droughts during mid-sixties
(1965-66 and 1966-67) and war with
Pakistan in 1965 forced plan holiday in 1966-
67 and 1968-69. This period was covered
by annual plans, which are also termed as
rolling plans. The Fourth Five Year Plan
began in 1969-70 and ended in 1973-74.
Following this the Fifth Five Y ear Plan began
in 1974-75 but it was terminated by the then
government one year earlier i.e. in 1977-78.
The Sixth Five Year Plan took off in 1980.
The Seventh Five Year Plan covered the
period between 1985 and 1990. Once again
due to the political instability and initiation
of liberalisation policy , the Eighth Five Year
Plan got delayed.  It covered the period, 1992
to 1997. The Ninth Five Year Plan covered
the period from 1997 to 2002. The T enth Plan
covered the period from 2002 to 2007. The
Eleventh Plan covered the period from 2007
to 2012. The Twelfth Five Year Plan initiated
in 2012 with a focus on Faster More
inclusive and sustainable growth.
2015-16
Page 2


Unit III Unit III Unit III Unit III Unit III
Chapter 9
PLANNING AND
SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT IN
INDIAN CONTEXT
The word ‘planning’ is not new to you as it is a
part of everyday usage. You must have used it
with reference to preparation for your
examination or visit to a hill station. It involves
the process of thinking, formulation of a scheme
or programme and implementation of a set of
actions to achieve some goal.  Though it is a
very broad term, in this chapter, it has been
used with reference to the process of economic
development. It is, thus different from the
traditional hit-and-miss methods by which
Overview of Planning Overview of Planning Overview of Planning Overview of Planning Overview of Planning
Perspective in India Perspective in India Perspective in India Perspective in India Perspective in India
India has centralised planning and the task
of planning in India has been entrusted to
the Planning Commission. It is a statutory
body headed by the Prime Minister and has
a Deputy Chairman and members.  The
planning in the country is largely carried out
through Five Year Plans.
The First Five Y ear Plan was launched in
1951 and covered the period, 1951-52 to
1955-56. Second and Third Five Year Plans
covered the period from 1956-57 to 1960-61
and 1961-62 to 1965-66 respectively. Two
successive droughts during mid-sixties
(1965-66 and 1966-67) and war with
Pakistan in 1965 forced plan holiday in 1966-
67 and 1968-69. This period was covered
by annual plans, which are also termed as
rolling plans. The Fourth Five Year Plan
began in 1969-70 and ended in 1973-74.
Following this the Fifth Five Y ear Plan began
in 1974-75 but it was terminated by the then
government one year earlier i.e. in 1977-78.
The Sixth Five Year Plan took off in 1980.
The Seventh Five Year Plan covered the
period between 1985 and 1990. Once again
due to the political instability and initiation
of liberalisation policy , the Eighth Five Year
Plan got delayed.  It covered the period, 1992
to 1997. The Ninth Five Year Plan covered
the period from 1997 to 2002. The T enth Plan
covered the period from 2002 to 2007. The
Eleventh Plan covered the period from 2007
to 2012. The Twelfth Five Year Plan initiated
in 2012 with a focus on Faster More
inclusive and sustainable growth.
2015-16
reforms and reconstruction are often
undertaken. Generally, there are two
approaches to planning, i.e. sectoral planning
and regional planning.  The sectoral planning
means formulation and implementation of the
sets of schemes or programmes aimed at
development of various sectors of the economy
such as agriculture, irrigation, manufacturing,
power, construction, transport, communication,
social infrastructure and services.
There is no uniform economic development
over space in any country. Some areas are more
developed and some lag behind. This uneven
pattern of development over space necessitates
that the planners have a spatial perspective
and draw the plans to reduce regional
imbalance in development. This type of
planning is termed as regional planning.
Target Area Planning
The planning process has to take special care
of those areas which have remained
economically backward. As you know, the
economic development of a region depends
upon its resource base. But sometimes
resource-rich region also remain backward.
The economic development also requires
technology as well as investment besides the
resource. With the planning experience of
about one and half decades, it was realised
that regional imbalances in economic
development were getting accentuated. In
order to arrest the accentuation of regional and
social disparties, the Planning Commission
introduced the ‘target area’ and target group
approaches to planning. Some of the examples
of programmes directed towards the
development of target areas are Command
Area Development Programme, Drought Prone
Area Development Programme, Desert
Development Programme, Hill Area
Development Programme. The Small Farmers
Development Agency (SFDA) and Marginal
Farmers Development Agency (MFDA) which
are the examples of target group programme.
In the 8th Five year Plan special area
programmes were designed to develop
infrastructure in hill areas, north-eastern
states, tribal areas and backward areas.
Hill Area Development Programme
Hill Area Development Programmes were
initiated during Fifth Five Year Plan covering 15
districts comprising all the hilly districts of Uttar
Pradesh (present Uttarakhand), Mikir Hill and
North Cachar hills of Assam, Darjiling district of
West Bengal and Nilgiri district of Tamil Nadu.
The National Committee on the Development of
Backward Area in 1981 recommended that all
the hill areas in the country having height above
600 m and not covered under tribal sub-plan
be treated as backward hill areas.
The detailed plans for the development of hill
areas were drawn keeping in view their
topographical, ecological, social and economic
conditions. These programmes aimed at
harnessing the indigenous resources of the hill
areas through development of horticulture,
plantation agriculture, animal husbandry, poultry,
forestry and small-scale and village industry.
Drought Prone Area Programme
This programme was initiated during the
Fourth Five Year Plan with the objectives of
providing employment to the people in
drought-prone areas and creating productive
assets. Initially this programme laid emphasis
on the construction of labour-intensive civil
works. But later on, it emphasised on irrigation
projects, land development programmes,
afforestation, grassland development and
creation of basic rural infrastructure such as
electricity, roads, market, credit and services.
National Committee on Development of
Backward Areas, reviewed the performance of
this programme. It has been observed that this
programme is largely confined to the
development of agriculture and allied sectors
with major focus on restoration of ecological
balance. Since growing population pressure is
forcing the society to utilise the marginal lands
for agriculture, and, thereby causing ecological
degradation, there is a need to create alternative
employment opportunities in the drought-
prone areas. The other strategies of
development of these areas include adoption of
integrated watershed development approach at
the micro-level. The restoration of ecological
balance between water, soil, plants, and human
Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context     105
2015-16
Page 3


Unit III Unit III Unit III Unit III Unit III
Chapter 9
PLANNING AND
SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT IN
INDIAN CONTEXT
The word ‘planning’ is not new to you as it is a
part of everyday usage. You must have used it
with reference to preparation for your
examination or visit to a hill station. It involves
the process of thinking, formulation of a scheme
or programme and implementation of a set of
actions to achieve some goal.  Though it is a
very broad term, in this chapter, it has been
used with reference to the process of economic
development. It is, thus different from the
traditional hit-and-miss methods by which
Overview of Planning Overview of Planning Overview of Planning Overview of Planning Overview of Planning
Perspective in India Perspective in India Perspective in India Perspective in India Perspective in India
India has centralised planning and the task
of planning in India has been entrusted to
the Planning Commission. It is a statutory
body headed by the Prime Minister and has
a Deputy Chairman and members.  The
planning in the country is largely carried out
through Five Year Plans.
The First Five Y ear Plan was launched in
1951 and covered the period, 1951-52 to
1955-56. Second and Third Five Year Plans
covered the period from 1956-57 to 1960-61
and 1961-62 to 1965-66 respectively. Two
successive droughts during mid-sixties
(1965-66 and 1966-67) and war with
Pakistan in 1965 forced plan holiday in 1966-
67 and 1968-69. This period was covered
by annual plans, which are also termed as
rolling plans. The Fourth Five Year Plan
began in 1969-70 and ended in 1973-74.
Following this the Fifth Five Y ear Plan began
in 1974-75 but it was terminated by the then
government one year earlier i.e. in 1977-78.
The Sixth Five Year Plan took off in 1980.
The Seventh Five Year Plan covered the
period between 1985 and 1990. Once again
due to the political instability and initiation
of liberalisation policy , the Eighth Five Year
Plan got delayed.  It covered the period, 1992
to 1997. The Ninth Five Year Plan covered
the period from 1997 to 2002. The T enth Plan
covered the period from 2002 to 2007. The
Eleventh Plan covered the period from 2007
to 2012. The Twelfth Five Year Plan initiated
in 2012 with a focus on Faster More
inclusive and sustainable growth.
2015-16
reforms and reconstruction are often
undertaken. Generally, there are two
approaches to planning, i.e. sectoral planning
and regional planning.  The sectoral planning
means formulation and implementation of the
sets of schemes or programmes aimed at
development of various sectors of the economy
such as agriculture, irrigation, manufacturing,
power, construction, transport, communication,
social infrastructure and services.
There is no uniform economic development
over space in any country. Some areas are more
developed and some lag behind. This uneven
pattern of development over space necessitates
that the planners have a spatial perspective
and draw the plans to reduce regional
imbalance in development. This type of
planning is termed as regional planning.
Target Area Planning
The planning process has to take special care
of those areas which have remained
economically backward. As you know, the
economic development of a region depends
upon its resource base. But sometimes
resource-rich region also remain backward.
The economic development also requires
technology as well as investment besides the
resource. With the planning experience of
about one and half decades, it was realised
that regional imbalances in economic
development were getting accentuated. In
order to arrest the accentuation of regional and
social disparties, the Planning Commission
introduced the ‘target area’ and target group
approaches to planning. Some of the examples
of programmes directed towards the
development of target areas are Command
Area Development Programme, Drought Prone
Area Development Programme, Desert
Development Programme, Hill Area
Development Programme. The Small Farmers
Development Agency (SFDA) and Marginal
Farmers Development Agency (MFDA) which
are the examples of target group programme.
In the 8th Five year Plan special area
programmes were designed to develop
infrastructure in hill areas, north-eastern
states, tribal areas and backward areas.
Hill Area Development Programme
Hill Area Development Programmes were
initiated during Fifth Five Year Plan covering 15
districts comprising all the hilly districts of Uttar
Pradesh (present Uttarakhand), Mikir Hill and
North Cachar hills of Assam, Darjiling district of
West Bengal and Nilgiri district of Tamil Nadu.
The National Committee on the Development of
Backward Area in 1981 recommended that all
the hill areas in the country having height above
600 m and not covered under tribal sub-plan
be treated as backward hill areas.
The detailed plans for the development of hill
areas were drawn keeping in view their
topographical, ecological, social and economic
conditions. These programmes aimed at
harnessing the indigenous resources of the hill
areas through development of horticulture,
plantation agriculture, animal husbandry, poultry,
forestry and small-scale and village industry.
Drought Prone Area Programme
This programme was initiated during the
Fourth Five Year Plan with the objectives of
providing employment to the people in
drought-prone areas and creating productive
assets. Initially this programme laid emphasis
on the construction of labour-intensive civil
works. But later on, it emphasised on irrigation
projects, land development programmes,
afforestation, grassland development and
creation of basic rural infrastructure such as
electricity, roads, market, credit and services.
National Committee on Development of
Backward Areas, reviewed the performance of
this programme. It has been observed that this
programme is largely confined to the
development of agriculture and allied sectors
with major focus on restoration of ecological
balance. Since growing population pressure is
forcing the society to utilise the marginal lands
for agriculture, and, thereby causing ecological
degradation, there is a need to create alternative
employment opportunities in the drought-
prone areas. The other strategies of
development of these areas include adoption of
integrated watershed development approach at
the micro-level. The restoration of ecological
balance between water, soil, plants, and human
Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context     105
2015-16
106 India : People and Economy
and animal population should be a basic
consideration in the strategy of development of
drought-prone areas.
Planning Commission of India (1967)
identified 67 districts (entire or partly) of the
country prone to drought. Irrigation
Commission (1972) introduced the criterion of
30 per cent irrigated area and demarcated the
drought prone areas.  Broadly, the drought-
prone area in India spread over semi-arid and
arid tract of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Western
Madhya Pradesh, Marathwada region of
Maharashtra, Rayalseema and Telangana
plateaus of Andhra Pradesh, Karantka plateau
and highlands and interior parts of Tamil Nadu.
The drought prone areas of Punjab, Haryana
and north-Rajasthan are largely protected due
to spread of irrigation in these regions.
Case Study – Integrated Tribal Development
Project in Bharmaur* Region
Bharmaur tribal area comprises Bharmaur and
Holi tehsils of Chamba district of Himachal
Pradesh. It is a notified tribal area since
21 November 1975. Bharmaur is inhabited by
‘Gaddi’, a tribal community who have
maintained a distinct identity in the Himalayan
region as they practised transhumance and
conversed through Gaddiali dialect.
This region lies between 32° 11’ N and 32°41’
N latitudes and 76° 22’ E and 76° 53’E
longitudes. Spread over an area of about
1,818 sq km, the region mostly lies between
1,500 m to 3,700 m above the mean sea
level. This region popularly known as the
homeland of Gaddis is surrounded by lofty
mountains on all sides. It has Pir Panjal in
the north and Dhaula Dhar in the south. In
the east, the extension of Dhaula Dhar
converges with Pir Panjal near Rohtang
Pass. The river Ravi and its tributaries– the
Budhil and the T undahen, drain this territory ,
and carve out deep gorges. These rivers
divide the region into four physiographic
divisions called Holi, Khani, Kugti and
Tundah areas.  Bharmaur experiences
freezing weather conditions and snowfall in
winter. Its mean monthly temperature in
January remains 4°C and in July 26°C.
Bharmaur tribal region has harsh climate
conditions, low resource base and fragile
environment. These factors have influenced the
society and Economy of the region. According
to the 2011 census, the total population of
Bharmaur sub-division was 39,113 i.e., 21
persons per sq km. It is one of the most
Fig. 9.1
* The name Bharmaur is derived from Sanskrit word Brahmaur. In this book Bharmaur has been used to
retain the colloquial flavour.
2015-16
Page 4


Unit III Unit III Unit III Unit III Unit III
Chapter 9
PLANNING AND
SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT IN
INDIAN CONTEXT
The word ‘planning’ is not new to you as it is a
part of everyday usage. You must have used it
with reference to preparation for your
examination or visit to a hill station. It involves
the process of thinking, formulation of a scheme
or programme and implementation of a set of
actions to achieve some goal.  Though it is a
very broad term, in this chapter, it has been
used with reference to the process of economic
development. It is, thus different from the
traditional hit-and-miss methods by which
Overview of Planning Overview of Planning Overview of Planning Overview of Planning Overview of Planning
Perspective in India Perspective in India Perspective in India Perspective in India Perspective in India
India has centralised planning and the task
of planning in India has been entrusted to
the Planning Commission. It is a statutory
body headed by the Prime Minister and has
a Deputy Chairman and members.  The
planning in the country is largely carried out
through Five Year Plans.
The First Five Y ear Plan was launched in
1951 and covered the period, 1951-52 to
1955-56. Second and Third Five Year Plans
covered the period from 1956-57 to 1960-61
and 1961-62 to 1965-66 respectively. Two
successive droughts during mid-sixties
(1965-66 and 1966-67) and war with
Pakistan in 1965 forced plan holiday in 1966-
67 and 1968-69. This period was covered
by annual plans, which are also termed as
rolling plans. The Fourth Five Year Plan
began in 1969-70 and ended in 1973-74.
Following this the Fifth Five Y ear Plan began
in 1974-75 but it was terminated by the then
government one year earlier i.e. in 1977-78.
The Sixth Five Year Plan took off in 1980.
The Seventh Five Year Plan covered the
period between 1985 and 1990. Once again
due to the political instability and initiation
of liberalisation policy , the Eighth Five Year
Plan got delayed.  It covered the period, 1992
to 1997. The Ninth Five Year Plan covered
the period from 1997 to 2002. The T enth Plan
covered the period from 2002 to 2007. The
Eleventh Plan covered the period from 2007
to 2012. The Twelfth Five Year Plan initiated
in 2012 with a focus on Faster More
inclusive and sustainable growth.
2015-16
reforms and reconstruction are often
undertaken. Generally, there are two
approaches to planning, i.e. sectoral planning
and regional planning.  The sectoral planning
means formulation and implementation of the
sets of schemes or programmes aimed at
development of various sectors of the economy
such as agriculture, irrigation, manufacturing,
power, construction, transport, communication,
social infrastructure and services.
There is no uniform economic development
over space in any country. Some areas are more
developed and some lag behind. This uneven
pattern of development over space necessitates
that the planners have a spatial perspective
and draw the plans to reduce regional
imbalance in development. This type of
planning is termed as regional planning.
Target Area Planning
The planning process has to take special care
of those areas which have remained
economically backward. As you know, the
economic development of a region depends
upon its resource base. But sometimes
resource-rich region also remain backward.
The economic development also requires
technology as well as investment besides the
resource. With the planning experience of
about one and half decades, it was realised
that regional imbalances in economic
development were getting accentuated. In
order to arrest the accentuation of regional and
social disparties, the Planning Commission
introduced the ‘target area’ and target group
approaches to planning. Some of the examples
of programmes directed towards the
development of target areas are Command
Area Development Programme, Drought Prone
Area Development Programme, Desert
Development Programme, Hill Area
Development Programme. The Small Farmers
Development Agency (SFDA) and Marginal
Farmers Development Agency (MFDA) which
are the examples of target group programme.
In the 8th Five year Plan special area
programmes were designed to develop
infrastructure in hill areas, north-eastern
states, tribal areas and backward areas.
Hill Area Development Programme
Hill Area Development Programmes were
initiated during Fifth Five Year Plan covering 15
districts comprising all the hilly districts of Uttar
Pradesh (present Uttarakhand), Mikir Hill and
North Cachar hills of Assam, Darjiling district of
West Bengal and Nilgiri district of Tamil Nadu.
The National Committee on the Development of
Backward Area in 1981 recommended that all
the hill areas in the country having height above
600 m and not covered under tribal sub-plan
be treated as backward hill areas.
The detailed plans for the development of hill
areas were drawn keeping in view their
topographical, ecological, social and economic
conditions. These programmes aimed at
harnessing the indigenous resources of the hill
areas through development of horticulture,
plantation agriculture, animal husbandry, poultry,
forestry and small-scale and village industry.
Drought Prone Area Programme
This programme was initiated during the
Fourth Five Year Plan with the objectives of
providing employment to the people in
drought-prone areas and creating productive
assets. Initially this programme laid emphasis
on the construction of labour-intensive civil
works. But later on, it emphasised on irrigation
projects, land development programmes,
afforestation, grassland development and
creation of basic rural infrastructure such as
electricity, roads, market, credit and services.
National Committee on Development of
Backward Areas, reviewed the performance of
this programme. It has been observed that this
programme is largely confined to the
development of agriculture and allied sectors
with major focus on restoration of ecological
balance. Since growing population pressure is
forcing the society to utilise the marginal lands
for agriculture, and, thereby causing ecological
degradation, there is a need to create alternative
employment opportunities in the drought-
prone areas. The other strategies of
development of these areas include adoption of
integrated watershed development approach at
the micro-level. The restoration of ecological
balance between water, soil, plants, and human
Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context     105
2015-16
106 India : People and Economy
and animal population should be a basic
consideration in the strategy of development of
drought-prone areas.
Planning Commission of India (1967)
identified 67 districts (entire or partly) of the
country prone to drought. Irrigation
Commission (1972) introduced the criterion of
30 per cent irrigated area and demarcated the
drought prone areas.  Broadly, the drought-
prone area in India spread over semi-arid and
arid tract of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Western
Madhya Pradesh, Marathwada region of
Maharashtra, Rayalseema and Telangana
plateaus of Andhra Pradesh, Karantka plateau
and highlands and interior parts of Tamil Nadu.
The drought prone areas of Punjab, Haryana
and north-Rajasthan are largely protected due
to spread of irrigation in these regions.
Case Study – Integrated Tribal Development
Project in Bharmaur* Region
Bharmaur tribal area comprises Bharmaur and
Holi tehsils of Chamba district of Himachal
Pradesh. It is a notified tribal area since
21 November 1975. Bharmaur is inhabited by
‘Gaddi’, a tribal community who have
maintained a distinct identity in the Himalayan
region as they practised transhumance and
conversed through Gaddiali dialect.
This region lies between 32° 11’ N and 32°41’
N latitudes and 76° 22’ E and 76° 53’E
longitudes. Spread over an area of about
1,818 sq km, the region mostly lies between
1,500 m to 3,700 m above the mean sea
level. This region popularly known as the
homeland of Gaddis is surrounded by lofty
mountains on all sides. It has Pir Panjal in
the north and Dhaula Dhar in the south. In
the east, the extension of Dhaula Dhar
converges with Pir Panjal near Rohtang
Pass. The river Ravi and its tributaries– the
Budhil and the T undahen, drain this territory ,
and carve out deep gorges. These rivers
divide the region into four physiographic
divisions called Holi, Khani, Kugti and
Tundah areas.  Bharmaur experiences
freezing weather conditions and snowfall in
winter. Its mean monthly temperature in
January remains 4°C and in July 26°C.
Bharmaur tribal region has harsh climate
conditions, low resource base and fragile
environment. These factors have influenced the
society and Economy of the region. According
to the 2011 census, the total population of
Bharmaur sub-division was 39,113 i.e., 21
persons per sq km. It is one of the most
Fig. 9.1
* The name Bharmaur is derived from Sanskrit word Brahmaur. In this book Bharmaur has been used to
retain the colloquial flavour.
2015-16
Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context     107
(economically and socially) backward areas of
Himachal Pradesh. Historically, the Gaddis
have experienced geographical and political
isolation and socio-economic deprivation. The
economy is largely based on agriculture and
allied activities such as sheep and goat rearing.
The process of development of tribal area
of Bharmaur started in 1970s when Gaddis
were included among ‘scheduled tribes’.  Under
the Fifth Five Year Plan, the tribal sub-plan was
introduced in 1974 and Bharmaur was
designated as one of the five Integrated Tribal
Development Projects (ITDP) in Himachal
Fig. 9.2
2015-16
Page 5


Unit III Unit III Unit III Unit III Unit III
Chapter 9
PLANNING AND
SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT IN
INDIAN CONTEXT
The word ‘planning’ is not new to you as it is a
part of everyday usage. You must have used it
with reference to preparation for your
examination or visit to a hill station. It involves
the process of thinking, formulation of a scheme
or programme and implementation of a set of
actions to achieve some goal.  Though it is a
very broad term, in this chapter, it has been
used with reference to the process of economic
development. It is, thus different from the
traditional hit-and-miss methods by which
Overview of Planning Overview of Planning Overview of Planning Overview of Planning Overview of Planning
Perspective in India Perspective in India Perspective in India Perspective in India Perspective in India
India has centralised planning and the task
of planning in India has been entrusted to
the Planning Commission. It is a statutory
body headed by the Prime Minister and has
a Deputy Chairman and members.  The
planning in the country is largely carried out
through Five Year Plans.
The First Five Y ear Plan was launched in
1951 and covered the period, 1951-52 to
1955-56. Second and Third Five Year Plans
covered the period from 1956-57 to 1960-61
and 1961-62 to 1965-66 respectively. Two
successive droughts during mid-sixties
(1965-66 and 1966-67) and war with
Pakistan in 1965 forced plan holiday in 1966-
67 and 1968-69. This period was covered
by annual plans, which are also termed as
rolling plans. The Fourth Five Year Plan
began in 1969-70 and ended in 1973-74.
Following this the Fifth Five Y ear Plan began
in 1974-75 but it was terminated by the then
government one year earlier i.e. in 1977-78.
The Sixth Five Year Plan took off in 1980.
The Seventh Five Year Plan covered the
period between 1985 and 1990. Once again
due to the political instability and initiation
of liberalisation policy , the Eighth Five Year
Plan got delayed.  It covered the period, 1992
to 1997. The Ninth Five Year Plan covered
the period from 1997 to 2002. The T enth Plan
covered the period from 2002 to 2007. The
Eleventh Plan covered the period from 2007
to 2012. The Twelfth Five Year Plan initiated
in 2012 with a focus on Faster More
inclusive and sustainable growth.
2015-16
reforms and reconstruction are often
undertaken. Generally, there are two
approaches to planning, i.e. sectoral planning
and regional planning.  The sectoral planning
means formulation and implementation of the
sets of schemes or programmes aimed at
development of various sectors of the economy
such as agriculture, irrigation, manufacturing,
power, construction, transport, communication,
social infrastructure and services.
There is no uniform economic development
over space in any country. Some areas are more
developed and some lag behind. This uneven
pattern of development over space necessitates
that the planners have a spatial perspective
and draw the plans to reduce regional
imbalance in development. This type of
planning is termed as regional planning.
Target Area Planning
The planning process has to take special care
of those areas which have remained
economically backward. As you know, the
economic development of a region depends
upon its resource base. But sometimes
resource-rich region also remain backward.
The economic development also requires
technology as well as investment besides the
resource. With the planning experience of
about one and half decades, it was realised
that regional imbalances in economic
development were getting accentuated. In
order to arrest the accentuation of regional and
social disparties, the Planning Commission
introduced the ‘target area’ and target group
approaches to planning. Some of the examples
of programmes directed towards the
development of target areas are Command
Area Development Programme, Drought Prone
Area Development Programme, Desert
Development Programme, Hill Area
Development Programme. The Small Farmers
Development Agency (SFDA) and Marginal
Farmers Development Agency (MFDA) which
are the examples of target group programme.
In the 8th Five year Plan special area
programmes were designed to develop
infrastructure in hill areas, north-eastern
states, tribal areas and backward areas.
Hill Area Development Programme
Hill Area Development Programmes were
initiated during Fifth Five Year Plan covering 15
districts comprising all the hilly districts of Uttar
Pradesh (present Uttarakhand), Mikir Hill and
North Cachar hills of Assam, Darjiling district of
West Bengal and Nilgiri district of Tamil Nadu.
The National Committee on the Development of
Backward Area in 1981 recommended that all
the hill areas in the country having height above
600 m and not covered under tribal sub-plan
be treated as backward hill areas.
The detailed plans for the development of hill
areas were drawn keeping in view their
topographical, ecological, social and economic
conditions. These programmes aimed at
harnessing the indigenous resources of the hill
areas through development of horticulture,
plantation agriculture, animal husbandry, poultry,
forestry and small-scale and village industry.
Drought Prone Area Programme
This programme was initiated during the
Fourth Five Year Plan with the objectives of
providing employment to the people in
drought-prone areas and creating productive
assets. Initially this programme laid emphasis
on the construction of labour-intensive civil
works. But later on, it emphasised on irrigation
projects, land development programmes,
afforestation, grassland development and
creation of basic rural infrastructure such as
electricity, roads, market, credit and services.
National Committee on Development of
Backward Areas, reviewed the performance of
this programme. It has been observed that this
programme is largely confined to the
development of agriculture and allied sectors
with major focus on restoration of ecological
balance. Since growing population pressure is
forcing the society to utilise the marginal lands
for agriculture, and, thereby causing ecological
degradation, there is a need to create alternative
employment opportunities in the drought-
prone areas. The other strategies of
development of these areas include adoption of
integrated watershed development approach at
the micro-level. The restoration of ecological
balance between water, soil, plants, and human
Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context     105
2015-16
106 India : People and Economy
and animal population should be a basic
consideration in the strategy of development of
drought-prone areas.
Planning Commission of India (1967)
identified 67 districts (entire or partly) of the
country prone to drought. Irrigation
Commission (1972) introduced the criterion of
30 per cent irrigated area and demarcated the
drought prone areas.  Broadly, the drought-
prone area in India spread over semi-arid and
arid tract of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Western
Madhya Pradesh, Marathwada region of
Maharashtra, Rayalseema and Telangana
plateaus of Andhra Pradesh, Karantka plateau
and highlands and interior parts of Tamil Nadu.
The drought prone areas of Punjab, Haryana
and north-Rajasthan are largely protected due
to spread of irrigation in these regions.
Case Study – Integrated Tribal Development
Project in Bharmaur* Region
Bharmaur tribal area comprises Bharmaur and
Holi tehsils of Chamba district of Himachal
Pradesh. It is a notified tribal area since
21 November 1975. Bharmaur is inhabited by
‘Gaddi’, a tribal community who have
maintained a distinct identity in the Himalayan
region as they practised transhumance and
conversed through Gaddiali dialect.
This region lies between 32° 11’ N and 32°41’
N latitudes and 76° 22’ E and 76° 53’E
longitudes. Spread over an area of about
1,818 sq km, the region mostly lies between
1,500 m to 3,700 m above the mean sea
level. This region popularly known as the
homeland of Gaddis is surrounded by lofty
mountains on all sides. It has Pir Panjal in
the north and Dhaula Dhar in the south. In
the east, the extension of Dhaula Dhar
converges with Pir Panjal near Rohtang
Pass. The river Ravi and its tributaries– the
Budhil and the T undahen, drain this territory ,
and carve out deep gorges. These rivers
divide the region into four physiographic
divisions called Holi, Khani, Kugti and
Tundah areas.  Bharmaur experiences
freezing weather conditions and snowfall in
winter. Its mean monthly temperature in
January remains 4°C and in July 26°C.
Bharmaur tribal region has harsh climate
conditions, low resource base and fragile
environment. These factors have influenced the
society and Economy of the region. According
to the 2011 census, the total population of
Bharmaur sub-division was 39,113 i.e., 21
persons per sq km. It is one of the most
Fig. 9.1
* The name Bharmaur is derived from Sanskrit word Brahmaur. In this book Bharmaur has been used to
retain the colloquial flavour.
2015-16
Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context     107
(economically and socially) backward areas of
Himachal Pradesh. Historically, the Gaddis
have experienced geographical and political
isolation and socio-economic deprivation. The
economy is largely based on agriculture and
allied activities such as sheep and goat rearing.
The process of development of tribal area
of Bharmaur started in 1970s when Gaddis
were included among ‘scheduled tribes’.  Under
the Fifth Five Year Plan, the tribal sub-plan was
introduced in 1974 and Bharmaur was
designated as one of the five Integrated Tribal
Development Projects (ITDP) in Himachal
Fig. 9.2
2015-16
108 India : People and Economy
Pradesh. This area development plan was aimed
at improving the quality of life of the Gaddis
and narrowing the gap in the level of
development between Bharmaur and other
areas of Himachal Pradesh.  This plan laid the
highest priority on development of transport
and communications, agriculture and allied
activities, and social and community services.
The most significant contribution of tribal
sub plan in Bharmaur region is the development
of infrastructure in terms of schools, health care
facilities, potable water, roads, communications
and electricity.  But the villages located along the
river Ravi in Holi and Khani areas are the main
beneficiaries of infrastructural development. The
remote villages in Tundah and Kugti areas still
do not have sufficient infrastructure.
The social benefits derived from ITDP
include tremendous increase in literacy rate,
improvement in sex ratio and decline in child
marriage.  The female literacy rate in the region
increased from 1.88 per cent in 1971 to 65 per
cent in 2011.  The difference between males and
females in literacy level i.e. gender inequality,
has also declined. Traditionally, the Gaddis had
subsistence agricultural-cum-pastoral
economy having emphasis on foodgrains and
livestock production. But during the last three
decades of twentieth century, the cultivation of
pulses and other cash crops has increased in
Bharmaur region.  But the crop cultivation is
still done with traditional technology. The
declining importance of pastoralism in the
economy of the region can be gauged from the
fact that at present only about one-tenth of the
total households practise transhumance. But
the Gaddis are still very mobile as a sizeable
section of them migrate to Kangra and
surrounding areas during winter to earn their
livings from wage labour.
Sustainable Development Sustainable Development Sustainable Development Sustainable Development Sustainable Development
The term development is generally used to
describe the state of particular societies and the
process of changes experienced by them.
During a fairly large period of human history,
the state of the societies has largely been
determined by the interaction processes
between human societies and their bio-physical
environment. The processes of human-
environment interaction depend upon the level
of technology and institutions nurtured by a
society. While the technology and institutions
have helped in increasing the pace of human-
environment interaction, the momentum thus,
generated in return has accelerated
technological progress and transformation and
creation of institutions.  Hence, development is
a multi-dimensional concept and signifies the
positive, irreversible transformation of the
economy, society and environment.
The concept of development is dynamic and
has evolved during the second half of twentieth
century. In the post World War II era, the concept
of development was synonymous to economic
growth which is measured in terms of temporal
increase in gross national product (GNP) and per
capita income/per capita consumption. But,
even the countries having high economic growth,
experienced speedy rise in poverty because of
its unequal distribution.  So, in 1970s, the
phrases such as redistribution with growth and
growth and equity were incorporated in the
definition of development. While dealing with the
questions related to redistribution and equity,
it was realised that the concept of development
cannot be restricted to the economic sphere
alone. It also includes the issues such as
improving the well-being and living standard of
people, availing of the health, education and
equality of opportunity and ensuring political
and civil rights. By 1980s, development emerged
as a concept encapsulating wide-spread
improvement in social as well as material well-
being of all in a society.
The notion of sustainable development
emerged in the wake of general rise in the
awareness of environmental issues in the late
1960s in Western World. It reflected the concern
of people about undesirable effects of industrial
development on the environment. The
publication of ‘The Population Bomb’ by
Ehrlich in 1968 and ‘The Limits to Growth’
by Meadows and others in 1972 further raised
the level of fear among environmentalists in
particular and people in general. This sets the
scenario for the emergence of new models of
development under a broad phrase
‘sustainable development.’
2015-16
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