NCERT Textbook - Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

NCERT Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12)

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


which reforms and reconstruction are often
undertaken. Generally, there are two
approaches to planning, i.e., sectoral planning
and regional planning. Sectoral planning
means formulation and implementation of the
sets of schemes or programmes aimed at
development of various sectors of the
economy, such as agriculture, irrigation,
manufacturing, power, construction,
transport, communication, social
infrastructure and services.
There is no uniform economic development
over space in any country. Some areas are more
developed and some lag behind. This uneven
pattern of development over space necessitates
that the planners have a spatial perspective
and draw the plans to reduce regional
imbalance in development. This type of
planning is termed as regional planning.
Unit III
Chapter 9
PLANNING AND
SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT IN
INDIAN CONTEXT
The word ‘planning’ is not new to you as it is
a part of everyday usage. You must have used
it with reference to preparation for your
examination or visit to a hill station. It involves
the process of thinking, formulation of a
scheme or programme and implementation of
a set of actions to achieve some goal. Though
it is a very broad term, in this chapter, it has
been used with reference to the process of
economic development. It is, thus different
from the traditional hit-and-miss methods by
On 1 January 2015, the NITI Aayog was
formed. India adopted centralised planning
after Independence, but subsequently, it
graduated into decentralised multi-level
planning. The responsibility of plan formulation
was with the Planning Comminssion at the
Centre, State and district levels. But on 1
January 2015, the Planning Commision was
replaced by the NITI Aayog.
NITI Aayog has been set up with the objective
of involving the states in economic policy
making for India for providing strategic and
technical advice to the Central and State
governments.
2020-21
Page 2


which reforms and reconstruction are often
undertaken. Generally, there are two
approaches to planning, i.e., sectoral planning
and regional planning. Sectoral planning
means formulation and implementation of the
sets of schemes or programmes aimed at
development of various sectors of the
economy, such as agriculture, irrigation,
manufacturing, power, construction,
transport, communication, social
infrastructure and services.
There is no uniform economic development
over space in any country. Some areas are more
developed and some lag behind. This uneven
pattern of development over space necessitates
that the planners have a spatial perspective
and draw the plans to reduce regional
imbalance in development. This type of
planning is termed as regional planning.
Unit III
Chapter 9
PLANNING AND
SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT IN
INDIAN CONTEXT
The word ‘planning’ is not new to you as it is
a part of everyday usage. You must have used
it with reference to preparation for your
examination or visit to a hill station. It involves
the process of thinking, formulation of a
scheme or programme and implementation of
a set of actions to achieve some goal. Though
it is a very broad term, in this chapter, it has
been used with reference to the process of
economic development. It is, thus different
from the traditional hit-and-miss methods by
On 1 January 2015, the NITI Aayog was
formed. India adopted centralised planning
after Independence, but subsequently, it
graduated into decentralised multi-level
planning. The responsibility of plan formulation
was with the Planning Comminssion at the
Centre, State and district levels. But on 1
January 2015, the Planning Commision was
replaced by the NITI Aayog.
NITI Aayog has been set up with the objective
of involving the states in economic policy
making for India for providing strategic and
technical advice to the Central and State
governments.
2020-21
plantation, agriculture, animal husbandry,
poultry, forestry and small-scale and village
industry.
Drought Prone Area Programme
This programme was initiated during the
Fourth Five Year Plan with the objectives of
providing employment to the people in
drought-prone areas and creating productive
assets. Initially, this programme laid emphasis
on the construction of labour-intensive civil
works. But later on, it emphasised on irrigation
projects, land development programmes,
afforestation, grassland development and
creation of basic rural infrastructure, such as
electricity, roads, market, credit and services.
The National Committee on Development
of Backward Areas reviewed the performance
of this programme. It has been observed that
this programme is largely confined to the
development of agriculture and allied sectors
with major focus on restoration of ecological
balance. Since growing population pressure is
forcing the society to utilise the marginal lands
for agriculture, and, thereby causing ecological
degradation, there is a need to create alternative
employment opportunities in the drought-
prone areas. The other strategies of
development of these areas include adoption of
integrated watershed development approach at
the micro-level. The restoration of ecological
balance between water, soil, plants, and human
and animal population should be a basic
consideration in the strategy of development of
drought-prone areas.
The Planning Commission of India (1967)
identified 67 districts (entire or partly) of the
country prone to drought. The Irrigation
Commission (1972) introduced the criterion of
30 per cent irrigated area and demarcated the
drought-prone areas. Broadly, the drought-
prone area in India spread over semi-arid and
arid tract of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Western
Madhya Pradesh, Marathwada region of
Maharashtra, Rayalseema and Telangana
plateaus of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka plateau
and highlands and interior parts of Tamil Nadu.
The drought-prone areas of Punjab, Haryana
and north-Rajasthan are largely protected due
to spread of irrigation in these regions.
Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context     105
Target Area Planning
The planning process has to take special care
of those areas which have remained
economically backward. As you know, the
economic development of a region depends
upon its resource base. But sometimes
resource-rich region also remain backward.
Economic development requires technology, as
well as, investment besides resources. With the
planning experience of about one-and-a-half
decades, it was realised that regional
imbalances in economic development were
getting accentuated. In order to arrest the
accentuation of regional and social disparties,
the Planning Commission introduced the
‘target area’ and target group approaches to
planning. Some of the examples of
programmes directed towards the
development of target areas are Command
Area Development Programme, Drought Prone
Area Development Programme, Desert
Development Programme, Hill Area
Development Programme. The Small Farmers
Development Agency (SFDA) and Marginal
Farmers Development Agency (MFDA) which
are the examples of target group programme.
In the 8th Five Year Plan special area
programmes were designed to develop
infrastructure in hill areas, north-eastern
states, tribal areas and backward areas.
Hill Area Development Programme
Hill Area Development Programmes were
initiated during the Fifth Five Year Plan covering
15 districts comprising all the hilly districts of
Uttar Pradesh (present Uttarakhand), Mikir Hill
and North Cachar hills of Assam, Darjeeling
district of W est Bengal and Nilgiri district of Tamil
Nadu. The National Committee on the
Development of Backward Area in 1981
recommended that all the hill areas in the
country having height above 600 m and not
covered under tribal sub-plan be treated as
backward hill areas.
The detailed plans for the development of hill
areas were drawn keeping in view their
topographical, ecological, social and economic
conditions. These programmes aimed at
harnessing the indigenous resources of the hill
areas through development of horticulture,
2020-21
Page 3


which reforms and reconstruction are often
undertaken. Generally, there are two
approaches to planning, i.e., sectoral planning
and regional planning. Sectoral planning
means formulation and implementation of the
sets of schemes or programmes aimed at
development of various sectors of the
economy, such as agriculture, irrigation,
manufacturing, power, construction,
transport, communication, social
infrastructure and services.
There is no uniform economic development
over space in any country. Some areas are more
developed and some lag behind. This uneven
pattern of development over space necessitates
that the planners have a spatial perspective
and draw the plans to reduce regional
imbalance in development. This type of
planning is termed as regional planning.
Unit III
Chapter 9
PLANNING AND
SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT IN
INDIAN CONTEXT
The word ‘planning’ is not new to you as it is
a part of everyday usage. You must have used
it with reference to preparation for your
examination or visit to a hill station. It involves
the process of thinking, formulation of a
scheme or programme and implementation of
a set of actions to achieve some goal. Though
it is a very broad term, in this chapter, it has
been used with reference to the process of
economic development. It is, thus different
from the traditional hit-and-miss methods by
On 1 January 2015, the NITI Aayog was
formed. India adopted centralised planning
after Independence, but subsequently, it
graduated into decentralised multi-level
planning. The responsibility of plan formulation
was with the Planning Comminssion at the
Centre, State and district levels. But on 1
January 2015, the Planning Commision was
replaced by the NITI Aayog.
NITI Aayog has been set up with the objective
of involving the states in economic policy
making for India for providing strategic and
technical advice to the Central and State
governments.
2020-21
plantation, agriculture, animal husbandry,
poultry, forestry and small-scale and village
industry.
Drought Prone Area Programme
This programme was initiated during the
Fourth Five Year Plan with the objectives of
providing employment to the people in
drought-prone areas and creating productive
assets. Initially, this programme laid emphasis
on the construction of labour-intensive civil
works. But later on, it emphasised on irrigation
projects, land development programmes,
afforestation, grassland development and
creation of basic rural infrastructure, such as
electricity, roads, market, credit and services.
The National Committee on Development
of Backward Areas reviewed the performance
of this programme. It has been observed that
this programme is largely confined to the
development of agriculture and allied sectors
with major focus on restoration of ecological
balance. Since growing population pressure is
forcing the society to utilise the marginal lands
for agriculture, and, thereby causing ecological
degradation, there is a need to create alternative
employment opportunities in the drought-
prone areas. The other strategies of
development of these areas include adoption of
integrated watershed development approach at
the micro-level. The restoration of ecological
balance between water, soil, plants, and human
and animal population should be a basic
consideration in the strategy of development of
drought-prone areas.
The Planning Commission of India (1967)
identified 67 districts (entire or partly) of the
country prone to drought. The Irrigation
Commission (1972) introduced the criterion of
30 per cent irrigated area and demarcated the
drought-prone areas. Broadly, the drought-
prone area in India spread over semi-arid and
arid tract of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Western
Madhya Pradesh, Marathwada region of
Maharashtra, Rayalseema and Telangana
plateaus of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka plateau
and highlands and interior parts of Tamil Nadu.
The drought-prone areas of Punjab, Haryana
and north-Rajasthan are largely protected due
to spread of irrigation in these regions.
Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context     105
Target Area Planning
The planning process has to take special care
of those areas which have remained
economically backward. As you know, the
economic development of a region depends
upon its resource base. But sometimes
resource-rich region also remain backward.
Economic development requires technology, as
well as, investment besides resources. With the
planning experience of about one-and-a-half
decades, it was realised that regional
imbalances in economic development were
getting accentuated. In order to arrest the
accentuation of regional and social disparties,
the Planning Commission introduced the
‘target area’ and target group approaches to
planning. Some of the examples of
programmes directed towards the
development of target areas are Command
Area Development Programme, Drought Prone
Area Development Programme, Desert
Development Programme, Hill Area
Development Programme. The Small Farmers
Development Agency (SFDA) and Marginal
Farmers Development Agency (MFDA) which
are the examples of target group programme.
In the 8th Five Year Plan special area
programmes were designed to develop
infrastructure in hill areas, north-eastern
states, tribal areas and backward areas.
Hill Area Development Programme
Hill Area Development Programmes were
initiated during the Fifth Five Year Plan covering
15 districts comprising all the hilly districts of
Uttar Pradesh (present Uttarakhand), Mikir Hill
and North Cachar hills of Assam, Darjeeling
district of W est Bengal and Nilgiri district of Tamil
Nadu. The National Committee on the
Development of Backward Area in 1981
recommended that all the hill areas in the
country having height above 600 m and not
covered under tribal sub-plan be treated as
backward hill areas.
The detailed plans for the development of hill
areas were drawn keeping in view their
topographical, ecological, social and economic
conditions. These programmes aimed at
harnessing the indigenous resources of the hill
areas through development of horticulture,
2020-21
106 India : People and Economy
Case Study – Integrated Tribal Development
Project in Bharmaur* Region
Bharmaur tribal area comprises Bharmaur and
Holi tehsils of Chamba district of Himachal
Pradesh. It is a notified tribal area since
21 November 1975. Bharmaur is inhabited by
‘Gaddi’, a tribal community who have
maintained a distinct identity in the Himalayan
region as they practised transhumance and
conversed through Gaddiali dialect.
Bharmaur tribal region has harsh climate
conditions, low resource base and fragile
environment. These factors have influenced the
society and Economy of the region. According
to the 2011 census, the total population of
Bharmaur sub-division was 39,113 i.e., 21
persons per sq km. It is one of the most
(economically and socially) backward areas of
Himachal Pradesh. Historically, the Gaddis
have experienced geographical and political
isolation and socio-economic deprivation. The
economy is largely based on agriculture and
allied activities such as sheep and goat rearing.
The process of development of tribal area
of Bharmaur started in 1970s when Gaddis
were included among ‘scheduled tribes’.  Under
Fig. 9.1
* The name Bharmaur is derived from Sanskrit word Brahmaur. In this book Bharmaur has been used to
retain the colloquial flavour.
the Fifth Five Year Plan, the tribal sub-plan was
introduced in 1974 and Bharmaur was
designated as one of the five Integrated Tribal
Development Projects (ITDP) in Himachal
Pradesh. This area development plan was aimed
at improving the quality of life of the Gaddis
This region lies between 32° 11’ N and
32°41’ N latitudes and 76° 22’ E and 76°
53’E longitudes. Spread over an area of
about 1,818 sq km, the region mostly lies
between 1,500 m to 3,700 m above the
mean sea level. This region popularly
known as the homeland of Gaddis is
surrounded by lofty mountains on all sides.
It has Pir Panjal in the north and Dhaula
Dhar in the south. In the east, the
extension of Dhaula Dhar converges with
Pir Panjal near Rohtang Pass. The river
Ravi and its tributaries– the Budhil and the
Tundahen, drain this territory, and carve
out deep gorges. These rivers divide the
region into four physiographic divisions
called Holi, Khani, Kugti and T undah areas.
Bharmaur experiences freezing weather
conditions and snowfall in winter. Its mean
monthly temperature in January remains
4°C and in July 26°C.
2020-21
Page 4


which reforms and reconstruction are often
undertaken. Generally, there are two
approaches to planning, i.e., sectoral planning
and regional planning. Sectoral planning
means formulation and implementation of the
sets of schemes or programmes aimed at
development of various sectors of the
economy, such as agriculture, irrigation,
manufacturing, power, construction,
transport, communication, social
infrastructure and services.
There is no uniform economic development
over space in any country. Some areas are more
developed and some lag behind. This uneven
pattern of development over space necessitates
that the planners have a spatial perspective
and draw the plans to reduce regional
imbalance in development. This type of
planning is termed as regional planning.
Unit III
Chapter 9
PLANNING AND
SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT IN
INDIAN CONTEXT
The word ‘planning’ is not new to you as it is
a part of everyday usage. You must have used
it with reference to preparation for your
examination or visit to a hill station. It involves
the process of thinking, formulation of a
scheme or programme and implementation of
a set of actions to achieve some goal. Though
it is a very broad term, in this chapter, it has
been used with reference to the process of
economic development. It is, thus different
from the traditional hit-and-miss methods by
On 1 January 2015, the NITI Aayog was
formed. India adopted centralised planning
after Independence, but subsequently, it
graduated into decentralised multi-level
planning. The responsibility of plan formulation
was with the Planning Comminssion at the
Centre, State and district levels. But on 1
January 2015, the Planning Commision was
replaced by the NITI Aayog.
NITI Aayog has been set up with the objective
of involving the states in economic policy
making for India for providing strategic and
technical advice to the Central and State
governments.
2020-21
plantation, agriculture, animal husbandry,
poultry, forestry and small-scale and village
industry.
Drought Prone Area Programme
This programme was initiated during the
Fourth Five Year Plan with the objectives of
providing employment to the people in
drought-prone areas and creating productive
assets. Initially, this programme laid emphasis
on the construction of labour-intensive civil
works. But later on, it emphasised on irrigation
projects, land development programmes,
afforestation, grassland development and
creation of basic rural infrastructure, such as
electricity, roads, market, credit and services.
The National Committee on Development
of Backward Areas reviewed the performance
of this programme. It has been observed that
this programme is largely confined to the
development of agriculture and allied sectors
with major focus on restoration of ecological
balance. Since growing population pressure is
forcing the society to utilise the marginal lands
for agriculture, and, thereby causing ecological
degradation, there is a need to create alternative
employment opportunities in the drought-
prone areas. The other strategies of
development of these areas include adoption of
integrated watershed development approach at
the micro-level. The restoration of ecological
balance between water, soil, plants, and human
and animal population should be a basic
consideration in the strategy of development of
drought-prone areas.
The Planning Commission of India (1967)
identified 67 districts (entire or partly) of the
country prone to drought. The Irrigation
Commission (1972) introduced the criterion of
30 per cent irrigated area and demarcated the
drought-prone areas. Broadly, the drought-
prone area in India spread over semi-arid and
arid tract of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Western
Madhya Pradesh, Marathwada region of
Maharashtra, Rayalseema and Telangana
plateaus of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka plateau
and highlands and interior parts of Tamil Nadu.
The drought-prone areas of Punjab, Haryana
and north-Rajasthan are largely protected due
to spread of irrigation in these regions.
Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context     105
Target Area Planning
The planning process has to take special care
of those areas which have remained
economically backward. As you know, the
economic development of a region depends
upon its resource base. But sometimes
resource-rich region also remain backward.
Economic development requires technology, as
well as, investment besides resources. With the
planning experience of about one-and-a-half
decades, it was realised that regional
imbalances in economic development were
getting accentuated. In order to arrest the
accentuation of regional and social disparties,
the Planning Commission introduced the
‘target area’ and target group approaches to
planning. Some of the examples of
programmes directed towards the
development of target areas are Command
Area Development Programme, Drought Prone
Area Development Programme, Desert
Development Programme, Hill Area
Development Programme. The Small Farmers
Development Agency (SFDA) and Marginal
Farmers Development Agency (MFDA) which
are the examples of target group programme.
In the 8th Five Year Plan special area
programmes were designed to develop
infrastructure in hill areas, north-eastern
states, tribal areas and backward areas.
Hill Area Development Programme
Hill Area Development Programmes were
initiated during the Fifth Five Year Plan covering
15 districts comprising all the hilly districts of
Uttar Pradesh (present Uttarakhand), Mikir Hill
and North Cachar hills of Assam, Darjeeling
district of W est Bengal and Nilgiri district of Tamil
Nadu. The National Committee on the
Development of Backward Area in 1981
recommended that all the hill areas in the
country having height above 600 m and not
covered under tribal sub-plan be treated as
backward hill areas.
The detailed plans for the development of hill
areas were drawn keeping in view their
topographical, ecological, social and economic
conditions. These programmes aimed at
harnessing the indigenous resources of the hill
areas through development of horticulture,
2020-21
106 India : People and Economy
Case Study – Integrated Tribal Development
Project in Bharmaur* Region
Bharmaur tribal area comprises Bharmaur and
Holi tehsils of Chamba district of Himachal
Pradesh. It is a notified tribal area since
21 November 1975. Bharmaur is inhabited by
‘Gaddi’, a tribal community who have
maintained a distinct identity in the Himalayan
region as they practised transhumance and
conversed through Gaddiali dialect.
Bharmaur tribal region has harsh climate
conditions, low resource base and fragile
environment. These factors have influenced the
society and Economy of the region. According
to the 2011 census, the total population of
Bharmaur sub-division was 39,113 i.e., 21
persons per sq km. It is one of the most
(economically and socially) backward areas of
Himachal Pradesh. Historically, the Gaddis
have experienced geographical and political
isolation and socio-economic deprivation. The
economy is largely based on agriculture and
allied activities such as sheep and goat rearing.
The process of development of tribal area
of Bharmaur started in 1970s when Gaddis
were included among ‘scheduled tribes’.  Under
Fig. 9.1
* The name Bharmaur is derived from Sanskrit word Brahmaur. In this book Bharmaur has been used to
retain the colloquial flavour.
the Fifth Five Year Plan, the tribal sub-plan was
introduced in 1974 and Bharmaur was
designated as one of the five Integrated Tribal
Development Projects (ITDP) in Himachal
Pradesh. This area development plan was aimed
at improving the quality of life of the Gaddis
This region lies between 32° 11’ N and
32°41’ N latitudes and 76° 22’ E and 76°
53’E longitudes. Spread over an area of
about 1,818 sq km, the region mostly lies
between 1,500 m to 3,700 m above the
mean sea level. This region popularly
known as the homeland of Gaddis is
surrounded by lofty mountains on all sides.
It has Pir Panjal in the north and Dhaula
Dhar in the south. In the east, the
extension of Dhaula Dhar converges with
Pir Panjal near Rohtang Pass. The river
Ravi and its tributaries– the Budhil and the
Tundahen, drain this territory, and carve
out deep gorges. These rivers divide the
region into four physiographic divisions
called Holi, Khani, Kugti and T undah areas.
Bharmaur experiences freezing weather
conditions and snowfall in winter. Its mean
monthly temperature in January remains
4°C and in July 26°C.
2020-21
Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context     107
Fig. 9.2
and narrowing the gap in the level of
development between Bharmaur and other
areas of Himachal Pradesh.  This plan laid the
highest priority on development of transport
and communications, agriculture and allied
activities, and social and community services.
The most significant contribution of tribal
sub-plan in Bharmaur region is the development
of infrastructure in terms of schools, healthcare
facilities, potable water, roads, communications
and electricity.  But the villages located along the
river Ravi in Holi and Khani areas are the main
Page 5


which reforms and reconstruction are often
undertaken. Generally, there are two
approaches to planning, i.e., sectoral planning
and regional planning. Sectoral planning
means formulation and implementation of the
sets of schemes or programmes aimed at
development of various sectors of the
economy, such as agriculture, irrigation,
manufacturing, power, construction,
transport, communication, social
infrastructure and services.
There is no uniform economic development
over space in any country. Some areas are more
developed and some lag behind. This uneven
pattern of development over space necessitates
that the planners have a spatial perspective
and draw the plans to reduce regional
imbalance in development. This type of
planning is termed as regional planning.
Unit III
Chapter 9
PLANNING AND
SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT IN
INDIAN CONTEXT
The word ‘planning’ is not new to you as it is
a part of everyday usage. You must have used
it with reference to preparation for your
examination or visit to a hill station. It involves
the process of thinking, formulation of a
scheme or programme and implementation of
a set of actions to achieve some goal. Though
it is a very broad term, in this chapter, it has
been used with reference to the process of
economic development. It is, thus different
from the traditional hit-and-miss methods by
On 1 January 2015, the NITI Aayog was
formed. India adopted centralised planning
after Independence, but subsequently, it
graduated into decentralised multi-level
planning. The responsibility of plan formulation
was with the Planning Comminssion at the
Centre, State and district levels. But on 1
January 2015, the Planning Commision was
replaced by the NITI Aayog.
NITI Aayog has been set up with the objective
of involving the states in economic policy
making for India for providing strategic and
technical advice to the Central and State
governments.
2020-21
plantation, agriculture, animal husbandry,
poultry, forestry and small-scale and village
industry.
Drought Prone Area Programme
This programme was initiated during the
Fourth Five Year Plan with the objectives of
providing employment to the people in
drought-prone areas and creating productive
assets. Initially, this programme laid emphasis
on the construction of labour-intensive civil
works. But later on, it emphasised on irrigation
projects, land development programmes,
afforestation, grassland development and
creation of basic rural infrastructure, such as
electricity, roads, market, credit and services.
The National Committee on Development
of Backward Areas reviewed the performance
of this programme. It has been observed that
this programme is largely confined to the
development of agriculture and allied sectors
with major focus on restoration of ecological
balance. Since growing population pressure is
forcing the society to utilise the marginal lands
for agriculture, and, thereby causing ecological
degradation, there is a need to create alternative
employment opportunities in the drought-
prone areas. The other strategies of
development of these areas include adoption of
integrated watershed development approach at
the micro-level. The restoration of ecological
balance between water, soil, plants, and human
and animal population should be a basic
consideration in the strategy of development of
drought-prone areas.
The Planning Commission of India (1967)
identified 67 districts (entire or partly) of the
country prone to drought. The Irrigation
Commission (1972) introduced the criterion of
30 per cent irrigated area and demarcated the
drought-prone areas. Broadly, the drought-
prone area in India spread over semi-arid and
arid tract of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Western
Madhya Pradesh, Marathwada region of
Maharashtra, Rayalseema and Telangana
plateaus of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka plateau
and highlands and interior parts of Tamil Nadu.
The drought-prone areas of Punjab, Haryana
and north-Rajasthan are largely protected due
to spread of irrigation in these regions.
Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context     105
Target Area Planning
The planning process has to take special care
of those areas which have remained
economically backward. As you know, the
economic development of a region depends
upon its resource base. But sometimes
resource-rich region also remain backward.
Economic development requires technology, as
well as, investment besides resources. With the
planning experience of about one-and-a-half
decades, it was realised that regional
imbalances in economic development were
getting accentuated. In order to arrest the
accentuation of regional and social disparties,
the Planning Commission introduced the
‘target area’ and target group approaches to
planning. Some of the examples of
programmes directed towards the
development of target areas are Command
Area Development Programme, Drought Prone
Area Development Programme, Desert
Development Programme, Hill Area
Development Programme. The Small Farmers
Development Agency (SFDA) and Marginal
Farmers Development Agency (MFDA) which
are the examples of target group programme.
In the 8th Five Year Plan special area
programmes were designed to develop
infrastructure in hill areas, north-eastern
states, tribal areas and backward areas.
Hill Area Development Programme
Hill Area Development Programmes were
initiated during the Fifth Five Year Plan covering
15 districts comprising all the hilly districts of
Uttar Pradesh (present Uttarakhand), Mikir Hill
and North Cachar hills of Assam, Darjeeling
district of W est Bengal and Nilgiri district of Tamil
Nadu. The National Committee on the
Development of Backward Area in 1981
recommended that all the hill areas in the
country having height above 600 m and not
covered under tribal sub-plan be treated as
backward hill areas.
The detailed plans for the development of hill
areas were drawn keeping in view their
topographical, ecological, social and economic
conditions. These programmes aimed at
harnessing the indigenous resources of the hill
areas through development of horticulture,
2020-21
106 India : People and Economy
Case Study – Integrated Tribal Development
Project in Bharmaur* Region
Bharmaur tribal area comprises Bharmaur and
Holi tehsils of Chamba district of Himachal
Pradesh. It is a notified tribal area since
21 November 1975. Bharmaur is inhabited by
‘Gaddi’, a tribal community who have
maintained a distinct identity in the Himalayan
region as they practised transhumance and
conversed through Gaddiali dialect.
Bharmaur tribal region has harsh climate
conditions, low resource base and fragile
environment. These factors have influenced the
society and Economy of the region. According
to the 2011 census, the total population of
Bharmaur sub-division was 39,113 i.e., 21
persons per sq km. It is one of the most
(economically and socially) backward areas of
Himachal Pradesh. Historically, the Gaddis
have experienced geographical and political
isolation and socio-economic deprivation. The
economy is largely based on agriculture and
allied activities such as sheep and goat rearing.
The process of development of tribal area
of Bharmaur started in 1970s when Gaddis
were included among ‘scheduled tribes’.  Under
Fig. 9.1
* The name Bharmaur is derived from Sanskrit word Brahmaur. In this book Bharmaur has been used to
retain the colloquial flavour.
the Fifth Five Year Plan, the tribal sub-plan was
introduced in 1974 and Bharmaur was
designated as one of the five Integrated Tribal
Development Projects (ITDP) in Himachal
Pradesh. This area development plan was aimed
at improving the quality of life of the Gaddis
This region lies between 32° 11’ N and
32°41’ N latitudes and 76° 22’ E and 76°
53’E longitudes. Spread over an area of
about 1,818 sq km, the region mostly lies
between 1,500 m to 3,700 m above the
mean sea level. This region popularly
known as the homeland of Gaddis is
surrounded by lofty mountains on all sides.
It has Pir Panjal in the north and Dhaula
Dhar in the south. In the east, the
extension of Dhaula Dhar converges with
Pir Panjal near Rohtang Pass. The river
Ravi and its tributaries– the Budhil and the
Tundahen, drain this territory, and carve
out deep gorges. These rivers divide the
region into four physiographic divisions
called Holi, Khani, Kugti and T undah areas.
Bharmaur experiences freezing weather
conditions and snowfall in winter. Its mean
monthly temperature in January remains
4°C and in July 26°C.
2020-21
Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context     107
Fig. 9.2
and narrowing the gap in the level of
development between Bharmaur and other
areas of Himachal Pradesh.  This plan laid the
highest priority on development of transport
and communications, agriculture and allied
activities, and social and community services.
The most significant contribution of tribal
sub-plan in Bharmaur region is the development
of infrastructure in terms of schools, healthcare
facilities, potable water, roads, communications
and electricity.  But the villages located along the
river Ravi in Holi and Khani areas are the main
108 India : People and Economy
beneficiaries of infrastructural development. The
remote villages in Tundah and Kugti areas still
do not have sufficient infrastructure.
The social benefits derived from ITDP
include tremendous increase in literacy rate,
improvement in sex ratio and decline in child
marriage.  The female literacy rate in the region
increased from 1.88 per cent in 1971 to 65 per
cent in 2011.  The difference between males and
females in literacy level i.e. gender inequality,
has also declined. Traditionally, the Gaddis had
subsistence agricultural-cum-pastoral
economy having emphasis on foodgrains and
livestock production. But during the last three
decades of twentieth century, the cultivation of
pulses and other cash crops has increased in
Bharmaur region.  But the crop cultivation is
still done with traditional technology. The
declining importance of pastoralism in the
economy of the region can be gauged from the
fact that at present only about one-tenth of the
total households practise transhumance. But
the Gaddis are still very mobile as a sizeable
section of them migrate to Kangra and
surrounding areas during winter to earn their
livings from wage labour.
Sustainable Development Sustainable Development Sustainable Development Sustainable Development Sustainable Development
The term development is generally used to
describe the state of particular societies and the
process of changes experienced by them.
During a fairly large period of human history,
the state of the societies has largely been
determined by the interaction processes
between human societies and their bio-physical
environment. The processes of human-
environment interaction depend upon the level
of technology and institutions nurtured by a
society. While the technology and institutions
have helped in increasing the pace of human-
environment interaction, the momentum thus,
generated in return has accelerated
technological progress and transformation and
creation of institutions.  Hence, development is
a multi-dimensional concept and signifies the
positive, irreversible transformation of the
economy, society and environment.
The concept of development is dynamic and
has evolved during the second half of twentieth
century. In the post World W ar II era, the concept
of development was synonymous to economic
growth which is measured in terms of temporal
increase in gross national product (GNP) and per
capita income/per capita consumption. But,
even the countries having high economic growth,
experienced speedy rise in poverty because of
its unequal distribution.  So, in 1970s, the
phrases such as redistribution with growth and
growth and equity were incorporated in the
definition of development. While dealing with the
questions related to redistribution and equity,
it was realised that the concept of development
cannot be restricted to the economic sphere
alone. It also includes the issues such as
improving the well-being and living standard of
people, availing of the health, education and
equality of opportunity and ensuring political
and civil rights. By 1980s, development emerged
as a concept encapsulating wide-spread
improvement in social as well as material well-
being of all in a society.
The notion of sustainable development
emerged in the wake of general rise in the
awareness of environmental issues in the late
1960s in Western World. It reflected the concern
of people about undesirable effects of industrial
development on the environment. The publication
of ‘The Population Bomb’ by Ehrlich in 1968
and ‘The Limits to Growth’ by Meadows and
others in 1972 further raised the level of fear
among environmentalists in particular and people
in general. This sets the scenario for the
emergence of new models of development under
a broad phrase ‘sustainable development.’
Concerned with the growing opinion of world
community on the environmental issues, the
United Nations established a World Commission
on Environment and Development (WCED)
headed by the Norwegian Prime Minister Gro
Harlem Brundtland. The Commission gave its
report (also known as Brundtland Report) entitled
‘Our Common Future’ in 1987. The report defines
sustainable development as a “development that
meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations
to meet their own needs.”
Sustainable development takes care of
ecological, social and economic aspects of
development during the present times and pleads
2020-21
Read More
Offer running on EduRev: Apply code STAYHOME200 to get INR 200 off on our premium plan EduRev Infinity!

Related Searches

ppt

,

MCQs

,

NCERT Textbook - Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

,

Objective type Questions

,

study material

,

Semester Notes

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

Sample Paper

,

practice quizzes

,

mock tests for examination

,

Important questions

,

Viva Questions

,

Extra Questions

,

NCERT Textbook - Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

,

pdf

,

video lectures

,

NCERT Textbook - Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

,

past year papers

,

Summary

,

Exam

,

Free

;