NCERT Textbook - Population Composition Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Geography Class 12

Created by: Mehtab Ahmed

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Population Composition Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Unit-II
Chapter-3
People of any country are diverse in many
respects. Each person is unique in her/his own
way.  People can be distinguished by their age,
sex and their place of residence.  Some of the
other distinguishing attributes of the population
are occupation, education and life expectancy.
SEX COMPOSITION
The number of women and men in a country is
an important demographic characteristic. The
ratio between the number of women and men in
the population is called the Sex Ratio.  In some
countries it is calculated by using the formula:
Male Population
 × 1000
Female Population
or the number of males per thousand
females.
In India, the sex ratio is worked out using the
formula:
Female Population
 × 1000
Male Population
or the number of females per thousand males.
The sex ratio is an important information
about the status of women in a country.
In regions where gender discrimination is
rampant, the sex ratio is bound to be
unfavourable to women.  Such areas are those
where the practice of female foeticide, female
infanticide and domestic violence against women
are prevalent.   One of the reasons could be lower
socio-economic status of women in these areas.
You must remember that more women in the
population does not mean they have a better
status.  It could be that the men might have
migrated to other areas for employment.
Natural Advantage v/s
Social Disadvantage
Females have a biological advantage over
males as they tend to be more resilient than
males yet this advantage is cancelled out
by the social disadvantages and
discriminations that they face.
Population
Composition
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


Unit-II
Chapter-3
People of any country are diverse in many
respects. Each person is unique in her/his own
way.  People can be distinguished by their age,
sex and their place of residence.  Some of the
other distinguishing attributes of the population
are occupation, education and life expectancy.
SEX COMPOSITION
The number of women and men in a country is
an important demographic characteristic. The
ratio between the number of women and men in
the population is called the Sex Ratio.  In some
countries it is calculated by using the formula:
Male Population
 × 1000
Female Population
or the number of males per thousand
females.
In India, the sex ratio is worked out using the
formula:
Female Population
 × 1000
Male Population
or the number of females per thousand males.
The sex ratio is an important information
about the status of women in a country.
In regions where gender discrimination is
rampant, the sex ratio is bound to be
unfavourable to women.  Such areas are those
where the practice of female foeticide, female
infanticide and domestic violence against women
are prevalent.   One of the reasons could be lower
socio-economic status of women in these areas.
You must remember that more women in the
population does not mean they have a better
status.  It could be that the men might have
migrated to other areas for employment.
Natural Advantage v/s
Social Disadvantage
Females have a biological advantage over
males as they tend to be more resilient than
males yet this advantage is cancelled out
by the social disadvantages and
discriminations that they face.
Population
Composition
© NCERT
not to be republished
Fundamentals of Human Geography 18
On an average, the world population
reflects a sex ratio of 102 males per 100 females.
The highest sex ratio in the world has been
recorded in Latvia where there are 85 males per
100 females. In contrast, in Qatar there are 311
males per 100 females.
The world pattern of sex ratio does not
exhibit variations in the developed regions of
the world.  The sex ratio is favourable for females
in 139 countries of the world and unfavourable
for them in the remaining 72 countries listed
by the United Nations.
In general, Asia has a low sex ratio.
Countries like China, India, Saudi Arabia,
Pakistan, Afghanistan have a lower sex ratio.
On the other extreme is greater part of
Europe (including Russia) where males are in
minority. A deficit of males in the populations
of many European countries is attributed to
better status of women, and an excessively
male-dominated out-migration to different
parts of the world in the past.
Age Structure
Age structure represents the number of people
of different age groups. This is an important
indicator of population composition, since a
large size of population in the age group of 15-
59 indicates a large working population. A
greater proportion of population above 60 years
represents an ageing population which requires
more expenditure on health care facilities.
Similarly high proportion of young population
would mean that the region has a high birth
rate and the population is youthful.
Age-Sex Pyramid
The age-sex structure of a population refers
to the number of females and males in
different age groups.  A population pyramid
is used to show the age-sex structure of the
population.
The shape of the population pyramid
reflects the characteristics of the population.
The left side shows the percentage of males while
the right side shows the percentage of women
in each age group.
Fig. 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3 show different types
of population pyramids.
Expanding Populations
The age-sex pyramid of Nigeria as you can see
is a triangular shaped pyramid with a wide
base and is typical of less developed countries.
These have larger populations in lower age
groups due to high birth rates. If you construct
the pyramids for Bangladesh and Mexico, it
would look the same.
Source: Demographic Year Book, 2009-10
Fig. 3.1: Expanding Population
Constant Population
Australia’s age-sex pyramid is bell shaped and
tapered towards the top.  This shows birth and
death rates are almost equal leading to a near
constant population.
Source: Demographic Year Book, 2009-10
Fig. 3.2: Constant Population
Nigeria
Per cent
Per cent
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


Unit-II
Chapter-3
People of any country are diverse in many
respects. Each person is unique in her/his own
way.  People can be distinguished by their age,
sex and their place of residence.  Some of the
other distinguishing attributes of the population
are occupation, education and life expectancy.
SEX COMPOSITION
The number of women and men in a country is
an important demographic characteristic. The
ratio between the number of women and men in
the population is called the Sex Ratio.  In some
countries it is calculated by using the formula:
Male Population
 × 1000
Female Population
or the number of males per thousand
females.
In India, the sex ratio is worked out using the
formula:
Female Population
 × 1000
Male Population
or the number of females per thousand males.
The sex ratio is an important information
about the status of women in a country.
In regions where gender discrimination is
rampant, the sex ratio is bound to be
unfavourable to women.  Such areas are those
where the practice of female foeticide, female
infanticide and domestic violence against women
are prevalent.   One of the reasons could be lower
socio-economic status of women in these areas.
You must remember that more women in the
population does not mean they have a better
status.  It could be that the men might have
migrated to other areas for employment.
Natural Advantage v/s
Social Disadvantage
Females have a biological advantage over
males as they tend to be more resilient than
males yet this advantage is cancelled out
by the social disadvantages and
discriminations that they face.
Population
Composition
© NCERT
not to be republished
Fundamentals of Human Geography 18
On an average, the world population
reflects a sex ratio of 102 males per 100 females.
The highest sex ratio in the world has been
recorded in Latvia where there are 85 males per
100 females. In contrast, in Qatar there are 311
males per 100 females.
The world pattern of sex ratio does not
exhibit variations in the developed regions of
the world.  The sex ratio is favourable for females
in 139 countries of the world and unfavourable
for them in the remaining 72 countries listed
by the United Nations.
In general, Asia has a low sex ratio.
Countries like China, India, Saudi Arabia,
Pakistan, Afghanistan have a lower sex ratio.
On the other extreme is greater part of
Europe (including Russia) where males are in
minority. A deficit of males in the populations
of many European countries is attributed to
better status of women, and an excessively
male-dominated out-migration to different
parts of the world in the past.
Age Structure
Age structure represents the number of people
of different age groups. This is an important
indicator of population composition, since a
large size of population in the age group of 15-
59 indicates a large working population. A
greater proportion of population above 60 years
represents an ageing population which requires
more expenditure on health care facilities.
Similarly high proportion of young population
would mean that the region has a high birth
rate and the population is youthful.
Age-Sex Pyramid
The age-sex structure of a population refers
to the number of females and males in
different age groups.  A population pyramid
is used to show the age-sex structure of the
population.
The shape of the population pyramid
reflects the characteristics of the population.
The left side shows the percentage of males while
the right side shows the percentage of women
in each age group.
Fig. 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3 show different types
of population pyramids.
Expanding Populations
The age-sex pyramid of Nigeria as you can see
is a triangular shaped pyramid with a wide
base and is typical of less developed countries.
These have larger populations in lower age
groups due to high birth rates. If you construct
the pyramids for Bangladesh and Mexico, it
would look the same.
Source: Demographic Year Book, 2009-10
Fig. 3.1: Expanding Population
Constant Population
Australia’s age-sex pyramid is bell shaped and
tapered towards the top.  This shows birth and
death rates are almost equal leading to a near
constant population.
Source: Demographic Year Book, 2009-10
Fig. 3.2: Constant Population
Nigeria
Per cent
Per cent
© NCERT
not to be republished
Population Composition     19
Declining Populations
The Japan pyramid has a narrow base and a
tapered top showing low birth and death rates.
The population growth in developed countries
is usually zero or negative.
Source: Demographic Year Book, 2009-10
Fig. 3.3: Declining Population
Draw a population pyramid of the children in your school
and describe its characteristics.
Ageing Population
Population ageing is the process by which
the share of the older population becomes
proportionally larger. This is a new
phenomenon of the twentieth century . In most
of the developed countries of the world,
population in higher age groups has increased
due to increased life expectancy. With a
reduction in birth rates, the proportion of
children in the population has declined.
RURAL URBAN COMPOSITION
The division of population into rural and urban
is based on the residence. This division is
necessary because rural and urban life styles
differ from each other in terms of their livelihood
and social conditions. The age-sex-occupational
structure, density of population and level of
development vary between rural and urban areas.
The criteria for differentiating rural and
urban population varies from country to country.
In general terms rural areas are those where
people are engaged in primary activities and urban
areas are those when majority of the working
population is engaged in non-primary activities.
Fig. 3.4 shows rural urban sex composition
of selected countries. The rural and urban
differences in sex ratio in Canada and West
European countries like Finland are just the
opposite of those in African and Asian countries
like Zimbabwe and Nepal respectively.  In
Western countries, males outnumber females
in rural areas and females outnumber the males
in urban areas. In  countries like Nepal, Pakistan
and India the case is reverse. The excess of
females in urban areas of U.S.A., Canada and
Europe is the result of influx of females from
rural areas to avail of the vast job opportunities.
Farming in these developed countries is also
highly mechanised and remains largely a male
occupation. By contrast the sex ratio in Asian
urban areas remains male dominated due to
the predominance of male migration.  It is also
worth noting that in countries like India, female
participation in farming activity in rural area is
fairly high. Shortage of housing, high cost of
living, paucity of job opportunities and lack of
security in cities, discourage women to migrate
from rural to urban areas.
Literacy
Proportion of literate population of a country
in an indicator of its socio-economic
development as it reveals the standard of living,
social status of females, availability of
educational facilities and policies of
government. Level of economic development is
both a cause and consequence of literacy. In
India – literacy rate denotes the percentage of
population above 7 years of age, who is able to
read, write and have the ability to do arithmetic
calculations with understanding.
Occupational Structure
The working population (i.e. women and men
of the age group – 15 to 59) take part in various
occupations ranging from agriculture, forestry,
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


Unit-II
Chapter-3
People of any country are diverse in many
respects. Each person is unique in her/his own
way.  People can be distinguished by their age,
sex and their place of residence.  Some of the
other distinguishing attributes of the population
are occupation, education and life expectancy.
SEX COMPOSITION
The number of women and men in a country is
an important demographic characteristic. The
ratio between the number of women and men in
the population is called the Sex Ratio.  In some
countries it is calculated by using the formula:
Male Population
 × 1000
Female Population
or the number of males per thousand
females.
In India, the sex ratio is worked out using the
formula:
Female Population
 × 1000
Male Population
or the number of females per thousand males.
The sex ratio is an important information
about the status of women in a country.
In regions where gender discrimination is
rampant, the sex ratio is bound to be
unfavourable to women.  Such areas are those
where the practice of female foeticide, female
infanticide and domestic violence against women
are prevalent.   One of the reasons could be lower
socio-economic status of women in these areas.
You must remember that more women in the
population does not mean they have a better
status.  It could be that the men might have
migrated to other areas for employment.
Natural Advantage v/s
Social Disadvantage
Females have a biological advantage over
males as they tend to be more resilient than
males yet this advantage is cancelled out
by the social disadvantages and
discriminations that they face.
Population
Composition
© NCERT
not to be republished
Fundamentals of Human Geography 18
On an average, the world population
reflects a sex ratio of 102 males per 100 females.
The highest sex ratio in the world has been
recorded in Latvia where there are 85 males per
100 females. In contrast, in Qatar there are 311
males per 100 females.
The world pattern of sex ratio does not
exhibit variations in the developed regions of
the world.  The sex ratio is favourable for females
in 139 countries of the world and unfavourable
for them in the remaining 72 countries listed
by the United Nations.
In general, Asia has a low sex ratio.
Countries like China, India, Saudi Arabia,
Pakistan, Afghanistan have a lower sex ratio.
On the other extreme is greater part of
Europe (including Russia) where males are in
minority. A deficit of males in the populations
of many European countries is attributed to
better status of women, and an excessively
male-dominated out-migration to different
parts of the world in the past.
Age Structure
Age structure represents the number of people
of different age groups. This is an important
indicator of population composition, since a
large size of population in the age group of 15-
59 indicates a large working population. A
greater proportion of population above 60 years
represents an ageing population which requires
more expenditure on health care facilities.
Similarly high proportion of young population
would mean that the region has a high birth
rate and the population is youthful.
Age-Sex Pyramid
The age-sex structure of a population refers
to the number of females and males in
different age groups.  A population pyramid
is used to show the age-sex structure of the
population.
The shape of the population pyramid
reflects the characteristics of the population.
The left side shows the percentage of males while
the right side shows the percentage of women
in each age group.
Fig. 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3 show different types
of population pyramids.
Expanding Populations
The age-sex pyramid of Nigeria as you can see
is a triangular shaped pyramid with a wide
base and is typical of less developed countries.
These have larger populations in lower age
groups due to high birth rates. If you construct
the pyramids for Bangladesh and Mexico, it
would look the same.
Source: Demographic Year Book, 2009-10
Fig. 3.1: Expanding Population
Constant Population
Australia’s age-sex pyramid is bell shaped and
tapered towards the top.  This shows birth and
death rates are almost equal leading to a near
constant population.
Source: Demographic Year Book, 2009-10
Fig. 3.2: Constant Population
Nigeria
Per cent
Per cent
© NCERT
not to be republished
Population Composition     19
Declining Populations
The Japan pyramid has a narrow base and a
tapered top showing low birth and death rates.
The population growth in developed countries
is usually zero or negative.
Source: Demographic Year Book, 2009-10
Fig. 3.3: Declining Population
Draw a population pyramid of the children in your school
and describe its characteristics.
Ageing Population
Population ageing is the process by which
the share of the older population becomes
proportionally larger. This is a new
phenomenon of the twentieth century . In most
of the developed countries of the world,
population in higher age groups has increased
due to increased life expectancy. With a
reduction in birth rates, the proportion of
children in the population has declined.
RURAL URBAN COMPOSITION
The division of population into rural and urban
is based on the residence. This division is
necessary because rural and urban life styles
differ from each other in terms of their livelihood
and social conditions. The age-sex-occupational
structure, density of population and level of
development vary between rural and urban areas.
The criteria for differentiating rural and
urban population varies from country to country.
In general terms rural areas are those where
people are engaged in primary activities and urban
areas are those when majority of the working
population is engaged in non-primary activities.
Fig. 3.4 shows rural urban sex composition
of selected countries. The rural and urban
differences in sex ratio in Canada and West
European countries like Finland are just the
opposite of those in African and Asian countries
like Zimbabwe and Nepal respectively.  In
Western countries, males outnumber females
in rural areas and females outnumber the males
in urban areas. In  countries like Nepal, Pakistan
and India the case is reverse. The excess of
females in urban areas of U.S.A., Canada and
Europe is the result of influx of females from
rural areas to avail of the vast job opportunities.
Farming in these developed countries is also
highly mechanised and remains largely a male
occupation. By contrast the sex ratio in Asian
urban areas remains male dominated due to
the predominance of male migration.  It is also
worth noting that in countries like India, female
participation in farming activity in rural area is
fairly high. Shortage of housing, high cost of
living, paucity of job opportunities and lack of
security in cities, discourage women to migrate
from rural to urban areas.
Literacy
Proportion of literate population of a country
in an indicator of its socio-economic
development as it reveals the standard of living,
social status of females, availability of
educational facilities and policies of
government. Level of economic development is
both a cause and consequence of literacy. In
India – literacy rate denotes the percentage of
population above 7 years of age, who is able to
read, write and have the ability to do arithmetic
calculations with understanding.
Occupational Structure
The working population (i.e. women and men
of the age group – 15 to 59) take part in various
occupations ranging from agriculture, forestry,
© NCERT
not to be republished
Fundamentals of Human Geography 20
EXERCISES
1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.
(i) Which one of the following has caused the sex ratio of the United Arab
Emirates to be low?
(a) Selective migration of male working population
(b) High birth rate of males
(c) Low birth rate of females
(d) High out migration of females
fishing, manufacturing construction,
commercial transport, services, communication
and other unclassified services.
Agriculture, forestry, fishing and mining
are classified as primary activities
manufacturing as secondary, transport,
communication and other services as tertiary
and the jobs related to research and developing
ideas as quaternary activities. The proportion
of working population engaged in these four
sectors is a good indicator of the levels of
economic development of a nation. This is
because only a developed economy with
industries and infrastructure can
accommodate more workers in the secondary,
tertiary and quaternary sector. If the economy
is still in the primitive stages, then the
proportion of people engaged in primary
activities world be high as it involves  extraction
of natural resources.
1027
1063
1071
937
1060
1049
1085
965
900
1009
989
951
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
Zimbabwe Canada Brazil Nepal Finland New
Zealand
Country
Females per 1000 Males
Urban
Rural
Fig. 3.4: Rural Urban Sex Composition, 2003 (Selected Countries)
* 2006 Data
**
Source: Demographic Year Book, 2011
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


Unit-II
Chapter-3
People of any country are diverse in many
respects. Each person is unique in her/his own
way.  People can be distinguished by their age,
sex and their place of residence.  Some of the
other distinguishing attributes of the population
are occupation, education and life expectancy.
SEX COMPOSITION
The number of women and men in a country is
an important demographic characteristic. The
ratio between the number of women and men in
the population is called the Sex Ratio.  In some
countries it is calculated by using the formula:
Male Population
 × 1000
Female Population
or the number of males per thousand
females.
In India, the sex ratio is worked out using the
formula:
Female Population
 × 1000
Male Population
or the number of females per thousand males.
The sex ratio is an important information
about the status of women in a country.
In regions where gender discrimination is
rampant, the sex ratio is bound to be
unfavourable to women.  Such areas are those
where the practice of female foeticide, female
infanticide and domestic violence against women
are prevalent.   One of the reasons could be lower
socio-economic status of women in these areas.
You must remember that more women in the
population does not mean they have a better
status.  It could be that the men might have
migrated to other areas for employment.
Natural Advantage v/s
Social Disadvantage
Females have a biological advantage over
males as they tend to be more resilient than
males yet this advantage is cancelled out
by the social disadvantages and
discriminations that they face.
Population
Composition
© NCERT
not to be republished
Fundamentals of Human Geography 18
On an average, the world population
reflects a sex ratio of 102 males per 100 females.
The highest sex ratio in the world has been
recorded in Latvia where there are 85 males per
100 females. In contrast, in Qatar there are 311
males per 100 females.
The world pattern of sex ratio does not
exhibit variations in the developed regions of
the world.  The sex ratio is favourable for females
in 139 countries of the world and unfavourable
for them in the remaining 72 countries listed
by the United Nations.
In general, Asia has a low sex ratio.
Countries like China, India, Saudi Arabia,
Pakistan, Afghanistan have a lower sex ratio.
On the other extreme is greater part of
Europe (including Russia) where males are in
minority. A deficit of males in the populations
of many European countries is attributed to
better status of women, and an excessively
male-dominated out-migration to different
parts of the world in the past.
Age Structure
Age structure represents the number of people
of different age groups. This is an important
indicator of population composition, since a
large size of population in the age group of 15-
59 indicates a large working population. A
greater proportion of population above 60 years
represents an ageing population which requires
more expenditure on health care facilities.
Similarly high proportion of young population
would mean that the region has a high birth
rate and the population is youthful.
Age-Sex Pyramid
The age-sex structure of a population refers
to the number of females and males in
different age groups.  A population pyramid
is used to show the age-sex structure of the
population.
The shape of the population pyramid
reflects the characteristics of the population.
The left side shows the percentage of males while
the right side shows the percentage of women
in each age group.
Fig. 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3 show different types
of population pyramids.
Expanding Populations
The age-sex pyramid of Nigeria as you can see
is a triangular shaped pyramid with a wide
base and is typical of less developed countries.
These have larger populations in lower age
groups due to high birth rates. If you construct
the pyramids for Bangladesh and Mexico, it
would look the same.
Source: Demographic Year Book, 2009-10
Fig. 3.1: Expanding Population
Constant Population
Australia’s age-sex pyramid is bell shaped and
tapered towards the top.  This shows birth and
death rates are almost equal leading to a near
constant population.
Source: Demographic Year Book, 2009-10
Fig. 3.2: Constant Population
Nigeria
Per cent
Per cent
© NCERT
not to be republished
Population Composition     19
Declining Populations
The Japan pyramid has a narrow base and a
tapered top showing low birth and death rates.
The population growth in developed countries
is usually zero or negative.
Source: Demographic Year Book, 2009-10
Fig. 3.3: Declining Population
Draw a population pyramid of the children in your school
and describe its characteristics.
Ageing Population
Population ageing is the process by which
the share of the older population becomes
proportionally larger. This is a new
phenomenon of the twentieth century . In most
of the developed countries of the world,
population in higher age groups has increased
due to increased life expectancy. With a
reduction in birth rates, the proportion of
children in the population has declined.
RURAL URBAN COMPOSITION
The division of population into rural and urban
is based on the residence. This division is
necessary because rural and urban life styles
differ from each other in terms of their livelihood
and social conditions. The age-sex-occupational
structure, density of population and level of
development vary between rural and urban areas.
The criteria for differentiating rural and
urban population varies from country to country.
In general terms rural areas are those where
people are engaged in primary activities and urban
areas are those when majority of the working
population is engaged in non-primary activities.
Fig. 3.4 shows rural urban sex composition
of selected countries. The rural and urban
differences in sex ratio in Canada and West
European countries like Finland are just the
opposite of those in African and Asian countries
like Zimbabwe and Nepal respectively.  In
Western countries, males outnumber females
in rural areas and females outnumber the males
in urban areas. In  countries like Nepal, Pakistan
and India the case is reverse. The excess of
females in urban areas of U.S.A., Canada and
Europe is the result of influx of females from
rural areas to avail of the vast job opportunities.
Farming in these developed countries is also
highly mechanised and remains largely a male
occupation. By contrast the sex ratio in Asian
urban areas remains male dominated due to
the predominance of male migration.  It is also
worth noting that in countries like India, female
participation in farming activity in rural area is
fairly high. Shortage of housing, high cost of
living, paucity of job opportunities and lack of
security in cities, discourage women to migrate
from rural to urban areas.
Literacy
Proportion of literate population of a country
in an indicator of its socio-economic
development as it reveals the standard of living,
social status of females, availability of
educational facilities and policies of
government. Level of economic development is
both a cause and consequence of literacy. In
India – literacy rate denotes the percentage of
population above 7 years of age, who is able to
read, write and have the ability to do arithmetic
calculations with understanding.
Occupational Structure
The working population (i.e. women and men
of the age group – 15 to 59) take part in various
occupations ranging from agriculture, forestry,
© NCERT
not to be republished
Fundamentals of Human Geography 20
EXERCISES
1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.
(i) Which one of the following has caused the sex ratio of the United Arab
Emirates to be low?
(a) Selective migration of male working population
(b) High birth rate of males
(c) Low birth rate of females
(d) High out migration of females
fishing, manufacturing construction,
commercial transport, services, communication
and other unclassified services.
Agriculture, forestry, fishing and mining
are classified as primary activities
manufacturing as secondary, transport,
communication and other services as tertiary
and the jobs related to research and developing
ideas as quaternary activities. The proportion
of working population engaged in these four
sectors is a good indicator of the levels of
economic development of a nation. This is
because only a developed economy with
industries and infrastructure can
accommodate more workers in the secondary,
tertiary and quaternary sector. If the economy
is still in the primitive stages, then the
proportion of people engaged in primary
activities world be high as it involves  extraction
of natural resources.
1027
1063
1071
937
1060
1049
1085
965
900
1009
989
951
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
Zimbabwe Canada Brazil Nepal Finland New
Zealand
Country
Females per 1000 Males
Urban
Rural
Fig. 3.4: Rural Urban Sex Composition, 2003 (Selected Countries)
* 2006 Data
**
Source: Demographic Year Book, 2011
© NCERT
not to be republished
Population Composition     21
(ii) Which one of the following figures represents the working age group of the
population?
(a) 15 to 65 years (c) 15 to 66 years
(b) 15 to 64 years (d) 15 to 59 years
(iii) Which one of the following countries has the highest sex ratio in the world?
(a) Latvia (c) Japan
(b) United Arab Emirates (d) France
2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) What do you understand by population composition?
(ii) What is the significance of age-structure?
(iii) How is sex-ratio measured?
3. Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words.
(i) Describe the rural-urban composition of the population.
(ii) Discuss the factors responsible for imbalances in the sex-age found in
different parts of the world and occupational structure.
Project/Activity
Construct an age-sex pyramid for your district/state.
© NCERT
not to be republished
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