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48 CONTEMPORARY INDIA-I
POPULATION
C
an you imagine a world without human
beings? Who would have utilised
the resources and created social and
cultural environment? The people are
important to develop the economy and the
society. The people make and use resources
and are themselves resources with varying
quality.  Coal is but a piece of rock, until people
were able to invent technology to obtain it and
make it ‘resource’. Natural events, like a flood
or a Tsunami, becomes a ‘disaster’ only when
they affect a crowded village or a town.
Hence, population is the pivotal element in
social studies. It is the point of reference from
which all other elements are observed and from
which they derive significance and meaning.
‘Resources’, ‘calamities’ and ‘disasters’ are all
meaningful only in relation to human beings.
Their numbers, distribution, growth and
characteristics or qualities provide the basic
background for understanding and
appreciating all aspects of the environment.
Human beings are producers and
consumers of earth’s resources. Therefore, it
is important to know how many people are
there in a country, where do they live, how and
why their numbers are increasing and what
are their characteristics.  The census of India
provides us with information regarding the
population of our country.
POPULATION SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION
India’s Population Size and Distribution
by Numbers
India’s population as on March 2011 stood at
1,210.6 million, which account for 17.5 per
cent of the world’s population. These 1.21
billion people are unevenly distributed over our
country’s vast area of 3.28 million square km,
which accounts for 2.4 per cent of the world’s
area (Figure 6.1).
The 2011 Census data reveal that Uttar
Pradesh with a population size of 199 million
is the most populous state of India. Uttar
Pradesh accounts for about 16 per cent of the
country’s population.  On the other hand, the
Himalayan state of Sikkim has a population of
just about 0.6 million and Lakshadweep has
only 64,429 people.
Almost half of India’s population lives in
just five states. These are Uttar Pradesh,
Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra
Pradesh. Rajasthan, the biggest state in terms
of area, has only 5.5 per cent of the total
population of India (Figure 6.2)
  • What could be the reason
of uneven distribution of population in India?
Census
A census is an official enumeration of population done periodically. In India, the first census was held in the year
1872. The first complete census, however, was taken in the year 1881. Since then, censuses have been held
regularly every tenth year.
The Indian Census is the most comprehensive source of demographic, social and economic data. Have you
ever seen a census report? Check in your library if it has one.
6
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 2


48 CONTEMPORARY INDIA-I
POPULATION
C
an you imagine a world without human
beings? Who would have utilised
the resources and created social and
cultural environment? The people are
important to develop the economy and the
society. The people make and use resources
and are themselves resources with varying
quality.  Coal is but a piece of rock, until people
were able to invent technology to obtain it and
make it ‘resource’. Natural events, like a flood
or a Tsunami, becomes a ‘disaster’ only when
they affect a crowded village or a town.
Hence, population is the pivotal element in
social studies. It is the point of reference from
which all other elements are observed and from
which they derive significance and meaning.
‘Resources’, ‘calamities’ and ‘disasters’ are all
meaningful only in relation to human beings.
Their numbers, distribution, growth and
characteristics or qualities provide the basic
background for understanding and
appreciating all aspects of the environment.
Human beings are producers and
consumers of earth’s resources. Therefore, it
is important to know how many people are
there in a country, where do they live, how and
why their numbers are increasing and what
are their characteristics.  The census of India
provides us with information regarding the
population of our country.
POPULATION SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION
India’s Population Size and Distribution
by Numbers
India’s population as on March 2011 stood at
1,210.6 million, which account for 17.5 per
cent of the world’s population. These 1.21
billion people are unevenly distributed over our
country’s vast area of 3.28 million square km,
which accounts for 2.4 per cent of the world’s
area (Figure 6.1).
The 2011 Census data reveal that Uttar
Pradesh with a population size of 199 million
is the most populous state of India. Uttar
Pradesh accounts for about 16 per cent of the
country’s population.  On the other hand, the
Himalayan state of Sikkim has a population of
just about 0.6 million and Lakshadweep has
only 64,429 people.
Almost half of India’s population lives in
just five states. These are Uttar Pradesh,
Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra
Pradesh. Rajasthan, the biggest state in terms
of area, has only 5.5 per cent of the total
population of India (Figure 6.2)
  • What could be the reason
of uneven distribution of population in India?
Census
A census is an official enumeration of population done periodically. In India, the first census was held in the year
1872. The first complete census, however, was taken in the year 1881. Since then, censuses have been held
regularly every tenth year.
The Indian Census is the most comprehensive source of demographic, social and economic data. Have you
ever seen a census report? Check in your library if it has one.
6
Rationalised 2023-24
POPULATION 49
India’s Population Distribution by Density
Population density provides a better picture
of the uneven distribution. Population density
is calculated as the number of persons per unit
area. India is one of the most densely populated
countries of the world.
India, 17.5%
Rest of the world, 82.5%
Rest of the world, 97.6%
India, 2.4%
AREA
POPULATION
Fig 6.1 : India’s Share of World’s Area and Population
Fig. 6.2: Distribution of Population
Source: Census of India, 2011
Do You Know
Only Bangladesh and Japan have
higher average population densities
than India. Find out the population
densities of Bangladesh and Japan.
The population density of India in the year
2011 was 382 persons per sq km. Densities
vary from 1,102 persons per sq km in Bihar to
only 17 persons per sq km in Arunachal
Pradesh. A study of the Figure 6.3 shows the
pattern of uneven distribution of population
densities at the State level.
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 3


48 CONTEMPORARY INDIA-I
POPULATION
C
an you imagine a world without human
beings? Who would have utilised
the resources and created social and
cultural environment? The people are
important to develop the economy and the
society. The people make and use resources
and are themselves resources with varying
quality.  Coal is but a piece of rock, until people
were able to invent technology to obtain it and
make it ‘resource’. Natural events, like a flood
or a Tsunami, becomes a ‘disaster’ only when
they affect a crowded village or a town.
Hence, population is the pivotal element in
social studies. It is the point of reference from
which all other elements are observed and from
which they derive significance and meaning.
‘Resources’, ‘calamities’ and ‘disasters’ are all
meaningful only in relation to human beings.
Their numbers, distribution, growth and
characteristics or qualities provide the basic
background for understanding and
appreciating all aspects of the environment.
Human beings are producers and
consumers of earth’s resources. Therefore, it
is important to know how many people are
there in a country, where do they live, how and
why their numbers are increasing and what
are their characteristics.  The census of India
provides us with information regarding the
population of our country.
POPULATION SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION
India’s Population Size and Distribution
by Numbers
India’s population as on March 2011 stood at
1,210.6 million, which account for 17.5 per
cent of the world’s population. These 1.21
billion people are unevenly distributed over our
country’s vast area of 3.28 million square km,
which accounts for 2.4 per cent of the world’s
area (Figure 6.1).
The 2011 Census data reveal that Uttar
Pradesh with a population size of 199 million
is the most populous state of India. Uttar
Pradesh accounts for about 16 per cent of the
country’s population.  On the other hand, the
Himalayan state of Sikkim has a population of
just about 0.6 million and Lakshadweep has
only 64,429 people.
Almost half of India’s population lives in
just five states. These are Uttar Pradesh,
Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra
Pradesh. Rajasthan, the biggest state in terms
of area, has only 5.5 per cent of the total
population of India (Figure 6.2)
  • What could be the reason
of uneven distribution of population in India?
Census
A census is an official enumeration of population done periodically. In India, the first census was held in the year
1872. The first complete census, however, was taken in the year 1881. Since then, censuses have been held
regularly every tenth year.
The Indian Census is the most comprehensive source of demographic, social and economic data. Have you
ever seen a census report? Check in your library if it has one.
6
Rationalised 2023-24
POPULATION 49
India’s Population Distribution by Density
Population density provides a better picture
of the uneven distribution. Population density
is calculated as the number of persons per unit
area. India is one of the most densely populated
countries of the world.
India, 17.5%
Rest of the world, 82.5%
Rest of the world, 97.6%
India, 2.4%
AREA
POPULATION
Fig 6.1 : India’s Share of World’s Area and Population
Fig. 6.2: Distribution of Population
Source: Census of India, 2011
Do You Know
Only Bangladesh and Japan have
higher average population densities
than India. Find out the population
densities of Bangladesh and Japan.
The population density of India in the year
2011 was 382 persons per sq km. Densities
vary from 1,102 persons per sq km in Bihar to
only 17 persons per sq km in Arunachal
Pradesh. A study of the Figure 6.3 shows the
pattern of uneven distribution of population
densities at the State level.
Rationalised 2023-24
50 CONTEMPORARY INDIA-I
Note: Telangana became the 29th State of India in June 2014.
* State of Jammu and Kashmir was bifurcated into two union territories namely Jammu and
Kashmir and Ladakh on 05.08.19.
Fig. 6.3: Density of Population (Census of India 2011)
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 4


48 CONTEMPORARY INDIA-I
POPULATION
C
an you imagine a world without human
beings? Who would have utilised
the resources and created social and
cultural environment? The people are
important to develop the economy and the
society. The people make and use resources
and are themselves resources with varying
quality.  Coal is but a piece of rock, until people
were able to invent technology to obtain it and
make it ‘resource’. Natural events, like a flood
or a Tsunami, becomes a ‘disaster’ only when
they affect a crowded village or a town.
Hence, population is the pivotal element in
social studies. It is the point of reference from
which all other elements are observed and from
which they derive significance and meaning.
‘Resources’, ‘calamities’ and ‘disasters’ are all
meaningful only in relation to human beings.
Their numbers, distribution, growth and
characteristics or qualities provide the basic
background for understanding and
appreciating all aspects of the environment.
Human beings are producers and
consumers of earth’s resources. Therefore, it
is important to know how many people are
there in a country, where do they live, how and
why their numbers are increasing and what
are their characteristics.  The census of India
provides us with information regarding the
population of our country.
POPULATION SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION
India’s Population Size and Distribution
by Numbers
India’s population as on March 2011 stood at
1,210.6 million, which account for 17.5 per
cent of the world’s population. These 1.21
billion people are unevenly distributed over our
country’s vast area of 3.28 million square km,
which accounts for 2.4 per cent of the world’s
area (Figure 6.1).
The 2011 Census data reveal that Uttar
Pradesh with a population size of 199 million
is the most populous state of India. Uttar
Pradesh accounts for about 16 per cent of the
country’s population.  On the other hand, the
Himalayan state of Sikkim has a population of
just about 0.6 million and Lakshadweep has
only 64,429 people.
Almost half of India’s population lives in
just five states. These are Uttar Pradesh,
Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra
Pradesh. Rajasthan, the biggest state in terms
of area, has only 5.5 per cent of the total
population of India (Figure 6.2)
  • What could be the reason
of uneven distribution of population in India?
Census
A census is an official enumeration of population done periodically. In India, the first census was held in the year
1872. The first complete census, however, was taken in the year 1881. Since then, censuses have been held
regularly every tenth year.
The Indian Census is the most comprehensive source of demographic, social and economic data. Have you
ever seen a census report? Check in your library if it has one.
6
Rationalised 2023-24
POPULATION 49
India’s Population Distribution by Density
Population density provides a better picture
of the uneven distribution. Population density
is calculated as the number of persons per unit
area. India is one of the most densely populated
countries of the world.
India, 17.5%
Rest of the world, 82.5%
Rest of the world, 97.6%
India, 2.4%
AREA
POPULATION
Fig 6.1 : India’s Share of World’s Area and Population
Fig. 6.2: Distribution of Population
Source: Census of India, 2011
Do You Know
Only Bangladesh and Japan have
higher average population densities
than India. Find out the population
densities of Bangladesh and Japan.
The population density of India in the year
2011 was 382 persons per sq km. Densities
vary from 1,102 persons per sq km in Bihar to
only 17 persons per sq km in Arunachal
Pradesh. A study of the Figure 6.3 shows the
pattern of uneven distribution of population
densities at the State level.
Rationalised 2023-24
50 CONTEMPORARY INDIA-I
Note: Telangana became the 29th State of India in June 2014.
* State of Jammu and Kashmir was bifurcated into two union territories namely Jammu and
Kashmir and Ladakh on 05.08.19.
Fig. 6.3: Density of Population (Census of India 2011)
Rationalised 2023-24
POPULATION 51
2 per cent per annum means that in a given
year, there was an increase of two persons for
every 100 persons in the base population.  This
is referred to as the annual growth rate.
India’s population has been steadily
increasing from 361 million in 1951 to 1210
million in 2011.
Table 6.1 : The Magnitude and Rate of India’s
Population Growth
Year Total Absolute Annual
Population Increase in Growth
(in million) the Decade Rate
(in million) ( % )
1951 361.0 42.43 1.25
1961 439.2 78.15 1.96
1971 548.2 108.92 2.20
1981 683.3 135.17 2.22
1991 846.4 163.09 2.16
2001 1028.7 182.32 1.97
2011 1210.6 181.46 1.64
Table 6.1 and Figures 6.4 (a) and 6.4 (b)
reveal that from 1951 to 1981, the annual
rate of population growth was steadily
increasing; which explains the rapid increase
in population from 361 million in 1951 to
683 million in 1981.
•  Table 6.1 reveals that despite the
decline in growth rates, the number of people being
added every decade is steadily increasing. Why?
Since 1981, however, the rate of growth
started declining gradually. During this period,
birth rates declined rapidly. Still 182 million
people were added to the total population in
the 1990s alone (an annual addition larger
than ever before).
It is essential to realise that India has a very
large population. When a low annual rate is
applied to a very large population, it yields a
large absolute increase. When more than a
billion people increase even at a lower rate, the
total number  being added becomes very large.
India’s annual increase in population is large
enough to neutralise efforts to conserve the
resource endowment and environment.
 The declining trend of the growth rate is
indeed a positive indicator of the efforts of birth
control. Despite that, the total additions to the
population base continue to grow, and India
Activity Activity Activity Activity Activity
Study the Figure 6.3 and compare it with
Figure 2.4 and Figure 4.7. Do you find any
corelation between these maps?
Note the States with population densities
below 250 persons per square km. Rugged
terrain and unfavourable climatic conditions
are primarily responsible for sparse population
in these areas.  Which states have density below
250 persons per square km?
Assam and most of the Peninsular states
have moderate population densities. Hilly,
dissected and rocky nature of the terrain,
moderate to low rainfall, shallow and less fertile
soils have influenced population densities in
these areas.
The Northern plains and Kerala in the south
have high to very high population densities
because of the flat plains with fertile soils and
abundant rainfall. Identify the three states of
the Northern Plains with high population
densities.
POPULATION GROWTH AND PROCESSES
OF POPULATION CHANGE
Population is a dynamic phenomenon. The
numbers, distribution and composition of the
population are constantly changing. This is the
influence of the interaction of the three processes,
namely — births, deaths and migrations.
Population Growth
Growth of population refers to the change in
the number of inhabitants of a country/territory
during a specific period of time, say during the
last 10 years.  Such a change can be expressed
in two ways: in terms of absolute numbers and
in terms of percentage change per year.
The absolute numbers added each year or
decade is the magnitude of increase. It is
obtained by simply subtracting the earlier
population (e.g. that of 2001) from the later
population (e.g. that of 2011).  It is referred to
as the absolute increase.
The rate or the pace of population increase
is the other important aspect.  It is studied in
per cent per annum, e.g. a rate of increase of
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 5


48 CONTEMPORARY INDIA-I
POPULATION
C
an you imagine a world without human
beings? Who would have utilised
the resources and created social and
cultural environment? The people are
important to develop the economy and the
society. The people make and use resources
and are themselves resources with varying
quality.  Coal is but a piece of rock, until people
were able to invent technology to obtain it and
make it ‘resource’. Natural events, like a flood
or a Tsunami, becomes a ‘disaster’ only when
they affect a crowded village or a town.
Hence, population is the pivotal element in
social studies. It is the point of reference from
which all other elements are observed and from
which they derive significance and meaning.
‘Resources’, ‘calamities’ and ‘disasters’ are all
meaningful only in relation to human beings.
Their numbers, distribution, growth and
characteristics or qualities provide the basic
background for understanding and
appreciating all aspects of the environment.
Human beings are producers and
consumers of earth’s resources. Therefore, it
is important to know how many people are
there in a country, where do they live, how and
why their numbers are increasing and what
are their characteristics.  The census of India
provides us with information regarding the
population of our country.
POPULATION SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION
India’s Population Size and Distribution
by Numbers
India’s population as on March 2011 stood at
1,210.6 million, which account for 17.5 per
cent of the world’s population. These 1.21
billion people are unevenly distributed over our
country’s vast area of 3.28 million square km,
which accounts for 2.4 per cent of the world’s
area (Figure 6.1).
The 2011 Census data reveal that Uttar
Pradesh with a population size of 199 million
is the most populous state of India. Uttar
Pradesh accounts for about 16 per cent of the
country’s population.  On the other hand, the
Himalayan state of Sikkim has a population of
just about 0.6 million and Lakshadweep has
only 64,429 people.
Almost half of India’s population lives in
just five states. These are Uttar Pradesh,
Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra
Pradesh. Rajasthan, the biggest state in terms
of area, has only 5.5 per cent of the total
population of India (Figure 6.2)
  • What could be the reason
of uneven distribution of population in India?
Census
A census is an official enumeration of population done periodically. In India, the first census was held in the year
1872. The first complete census, however, was taken in the year 1881. Since then, censuses have been held
regularly every tenth year.
The Indian Census is the most comprehensive source of demographic, social and economic data. Have you
ever seen a census report? Check in your library if it has one.
6
Rationalised 2023-24
POPULATION 49
India’s Population Distribution by Density
Population density provides a better picture
of the uneven distribution. Population density
is calculated as the number of persons per unit
area. India is one of the most densely populated
countries of the world.
India, 17.5%
Rest of the world, 82.5%
Rest of the world, 97.6%
India, 2.4%
AREA
POPULATION
Fig 6.1 : India’s Share of World’s Area and Population
Fig. 6.2: Distribution of Population
Source: Census of India, 2011
Do You Know
Only Bangladesh and Japan have
higher average population densities
than India. Find out the population
densities of Bangladesh and Japan.
The population density of India in the year
2011 was 382 persons per sq km. Densities
vary from 1,102 persons per sq km in Bihar to
only 17 persons per sq km in Arunachal
Pradesh. A study of the Figure 6.3 shows the
pattern of uneven distribution of population
densities at the State level.
Rationalised 2023-24
50 CONTEMPORARY INDIA-I
Note: Telangana became the 29th State of India in June 2014.
* State of Jammu and Kashmir was bifurcated into two union territories namely Jammu and
Kashmir and Ladakh on 05.08.19.
Fig. 6.3: Density of Population (Census of India 2011)
Rationalised 2023-24
POPULATION 51
2 per cent per annum means that in a given
year, there was an increase of two persons for
every 100 persons in the base population.  This
is referred to as the annual growth rate.
India’s population has been steadily
increasing from 361 million in 1951 to 1210
million in 2011.
Table 6.1 : The Magnitude and Rate of India’s
Population Growth
Year Total Absolute Annual
Population Increase in Growth
(in million) the Decade Rate
(in million) ( % )
1951 361.0 42.43 1.25
1961 439.2 78.15 1.96
1971 548.2 108.92 2.20
1981 683.3 135.17 2.22
1991 846.4 163.09 2.16
2001 1028.7 182.32 1.97
2011 1210.6 181.46 1.64
Table 6.1 and Figures 6.4 (a) and 6.4 (b)
reveal that from 1951 to 1981, the annual
rate of population growth was steadily
increasing; which explains the rapid increase
in population from 361 million in 1951 to
683 million in 1981.
•  Table 6.1 reveals that despite the
decline in growth rates, the number of people being
added every decade is steadily increasing. Why?
Since 1981, however, the rate of growth
started declining gradually. During this period,
birth rates declined rapidly. Still 182 million
people were added to the total population in
the 1990s alone (an annual addition larger
than ever before).
It is essential to realise that India has a very
large population. When a low annual rate is
applied to a very large population, it yields a
large absolute increase. When more than a
billion people increase even at a lower rate, the
total number  being added becomes very large.
India’s annual increase in population is large
enough to neutralise efforts to conserve the
resource endowment and environment.
 The declining trend of the growth rate is
indeed a positive indicator of the efforts of birth
control. Despite that, the total additions to the
population base continue to grow, and India
Activity Activity Activity Activity Activity
Study the Figure 6.3 and compare it with
Figure 2.4 and Figure 4.7. Do you find any
corelation between these maps?
Note the States with population densities
below 250 persons per square km. Rugged
terrain and unfavourable climatic conditions
are primarily responsible for sparse population
in these areas.  Which states have density below
250 persons per square km?
Assam and most of the Peninsular states
have moderate population densities. Hilly,
dissected and rocky nature of the terrain,
moderate to low rainfall, shallow and less fertile
soils have influenced population densities in
these areas.
The Northern plains and Kerala in the south
have high to very high population densities
because of the flat plains with fertile soils and
abundant rainfall. Identify the three states of
the Northern Plains with high population
densities.
POPULATION GROWTH AND PROCESSES
OF POPULATION CHANGE
Population is a dynamic phenomenon. The
numbers, distribution and composition of the
population are constantly changing. This is the
influence of the interaction of the three processes,
namely — births, deaths and migrations.
Population Growth
Growth of population refers to the change in
the number of inhabitants of a country/territory
during a specific period of time, say during the
last 10 years.  Such a change can be expressed
in two ways: in terms of absolute numbers and
in terms of percentage change per year.
The absolute numbers added each year or
decade is the magnitude of increase. It is
obtained by simply subtracting the earlier
population (e.g. that of 2001) from the later
population (e.g. that of 2011).  It is referred to
as the absolute increase.
The rate or the pace of population increase
is the other important aspect.  It is studied in
per cent per annum, e.g. a rate of increase of
Rationalised 2023-24
52 CONTEMPORARY INDIA-I
may overtake China in 2045 to become the
most populous country in the world.
Processes of Population Change/Growth
There are three main processes of change of
population : birth rates, death rates and
migration.
 Fig. 6.4(b): India’s Population 1901-2011
Fig. 6.4(a): India’s  Population Growth Rates during 1951-2011
The natural increase of population is the
difference between birth rates and death rates.
Birth rate is the number of live births per
thousand persons in a year. It is a major
component of growth because in India, birth
rates have always been higher than death
rates.
Rationalised 2023-24
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FAQs on NCERT Textbook: Population - Geography for UPSC CSE

1. What is population?
Ans. Population refers to the total number of individuals living in a particular area or region. It includes both human beings and other living organisms present in that area.
2. Why is it important to study population?
Ans. Studying population is important for several reasons. It helps in understanding the social, economic, and environmental dynamics of a region. It aids in making policies related to healthcare, education, and infrastructure development. Population studies also help in predicting future trends and planning for sustainable development.
3. What are the factors that affect population growth?
Ans. Several factors influence population growth. These include birth rate, death rate, migration, and fertility rate. High birth rates and low death rates contribute to population growth, while low birth rates and high death rates lead to a decline in population. Migration, both immigration and emigration, also impact population growth.
4. What are the different methods used to measure population?
Ans. There are two main methods used to measure population: census and sample surveys. A census is a complete count of the population within a given area, while sample surveys collect data from a representative sample of the population and then extrapolate the findings to estimate the total population.
5. How does population growth impact the environment?
Ans. Population growth can have significant impacts on the environment. It leads to increased demand for resources such as land, water, and energy, resulting in deforestation, water scarcity, and pollution. It also puts pressure on ecosystems and biodiversity. Managing population growth is crucial for sustainable development and preserving the environment.
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practice quizzes

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Important questions

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Summary

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NCERT Textbook: Population | Geography for UPSC CSE

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Viva Questions

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