NCERT Textbook - Population Class 9 Notes | EduRev

Social Studies (SST) Class 9

Created by: C K Academy

Class 9 : NCERT Textbook - Population Class 9 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


POPULATION
C
an you imagine a world without human
beings? Who would have utilised
the resources and created social and
cultural environment? The people are
important to develop the economy and the
society. The people make and use resources
and are themselves resources with varying
quality.  Coal is but a piece of rock, until people
were able to invent technology to obtain it and
make it ‘resource’. Natural events, like a flood
or a Tsunami, becomes a ‘disaster’ only when
they affect a crowded village or a town.
Hence, population is the pivotal element in
social studies. It is the point of reference from
which all other elements are observed and from
which they derive significance and meaning.
‘Resources’, ‘calamities’ and ‘disasters’ are all
meaningful only in relation to human beings.
Their numbers, distribution, growth and
characteristics or qualities provide the basic
background for understanding and
appreciating all aspects of the environment.
Human beings are producers and
consumers of earth’s resources. Therefore, it
is important to know how many people are
there in a country, where do they live, how and
why their numbers are increasing and what
are their characteristics.  The census of India
provides us with information regarding the
population of our country.
We are primarily concerned with three
major questions about population:
(i) Population size and distribution: How
many people are there and where are they
located?
(ii) Population growth and processes of
population change: How has the
population grown and changed through
time?
(iii) Characteristics or qualities of the
population: What are their age, sex
composition, literacy levels, occupational
structure and health conditions?
POPULATION SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION
India’s Population Size and Distribution
by Numbers
India’s population as on March 2011 stood at
1,210.6 million, which account for 17.5 per cent
of the world’s population. These 1.21 billion
people are unevenly distributed over our
country’s vast area of 3.28 million square km,
which accounts for 2.4 per cent of the world’s
area (Figure 6.1).
The 2011 Census data reveal that Uttar
Pradesh with a population size of 199 million
is the most populous state of India. Uttar
Census
A census is an official enumeration of population done periodically. In India, the first census was held in the year
1872. The first complete census, however, was taken in the year 1881. Since then, censuses have been held
regularly every tenth year.
The Indian Census is the most comprehensive source of demographic, social and economic data. Have you
ever seen a census report? Check in your library if it has one.
6
2019-20
Page 2


POPULATION
C
an you imagine a world without human
beings? Who would have utilised
the resources and created social and
cultural environment? The people are
important to develop the economy and the
society. The people make and use resources
and are themselves resources with varying
quality.  Coal is but a piece of rock, until people
were able to invent technology to obtain it and
make it ‘resource’. Natural events, like a flood
or a Tsunami, becomes a ‘disaster’ only when
they affect a crowded village or a town.
Hence, population is the pivotal element in
social studies. It is the point of reference from
which all other elements are observed and from
which they derive significance and meaning.
‘Resources’, ‘calamities’ and ‘disasters’ are all
meaningful only in relation to human beings.
Their numbers, distribution, growth and
characteristics or qualities provide the basic
background for understanding and
appreciating all aspects of the environment.
Human beings are producers and
consumers of earth’s resources. Therefore, it
is important to know how many people are
there in a country, where do they live, how and
why their numbers are increasing and what
are their characteristics.  The census of India
provides us with information regarding the
population of our country.
We are primarily concerned with three
major questions about population:
(i) Population size and distribution: How
many people are there and where are they
located?
(ii) Population growth and processes of
population change: How has the
population grown and changed through
time?
(iii) Characteristics or qualities of the
population: What are their age, sex
composition, literacy levels, occupational
structure and health conditions?
POPULATION SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION
India’s Population Size and Distribution
by Numbers
India’s population as on March 2011 stood at
1,210.6 million, which account for 17.5 per cent
of the world’s population. These 1.21 billion
people are unevenly distributed over our
country’s vast area of 3.28 million square km,
which accounts for 2.4 per cent of the world’s
area (Figure 6.1).
The 2011 Census data reveal that Uttar
Pradesh with a population size of 199 million
is the most populous state of India. Uttar
Census
A census is an official enumeration of population done periodically. In India, the first census was held in the year
1872. The first complete census, however, was taken in the year 1881. Since then, censuses have been held
regularly every tenth year.
The Indian Census is the most comprehensive source of demographic, social and economic data. Have you
ever seen a census report? Check in your library if it has one.
6
2019-20
54 CONTEMPORARY INDIA-I
Pradesh accounts for about 16 per cent of the
country’s population.  On the other hand, the
Himalayan state of Sikkim has a population of
just about 0.6 million and Lakshadweep has
only 64,429 people.
Almost half of India’s population lives in
just five states. These are Uttar Pradesh,
Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra
Pradesh. Rajasthan, the biggest state in terms
of area, has only 5.5 per cent of the total
population of India (Figure 6.2)
India, 17.5%
Rest of the world, 82.5%
Rest of the world, 97.6%
India, 2.4%
AREA
POPULATION
Fig 6.1 : India’s Share of World’s Area and Population
Fig. 6.2: Distribution of Population
Source: Census of India, 2011
  • What could be the reason
of uneven distribution of population in India?
India’s Population Distribution by Density
Population density provides a better picture
of the uneven distribution. Population density
2019-20
Page 3


POPULATION
C
an you imagine a world without human
beings? Who would have utilised
the resources and created social and
cultural environment? The people are
important to develop the economy and the
society. The people make and use resources
and are themselves resources with varying
quality.  Coal is but a piece of rock, until people
were able to invent technology to obtain it and
make it ‘resource’. Natural events, like a flood
or a Tsunami, becomes a ‘disaster’ only when
they affect a crowded village or a town.
Hence, population is the pivotal element in
social studies. It is the point of reference from
which all other elements are observed and from
which they derive significance and meaning.
‘Resources’, ‘calamities’ and ‘disasters’ are all
meaningful only in relation to human beings.
Their numbers, distribution, growth and
characteristics or qualities provide the basic
background for understanding and
appreciating all aspects of the environment.
Human beings are producers and
consumers of earth’s resources. Therefore, it
is important to know how many people are
there in a country, where do they live, how and
why their numbers are increasing and what
are their characteristics.  The census of India
provides us with information regarding the
population of our country.
We are primarily concerned with three
major questions about population:
(i) Population size and distribution: How
many people are there and where are they
located?
(ii) Population growth and processes of
population change: How has the
population grown and changed through
time?
(iii) Characteristics or qualities of the
population: What are their age, sex
composition, literacy levels, occupational
structure and health conditions?
POPULATION SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION
India’s Population Size and Distribution
by Numbers
India’s population as on March 2011 stood at
1,210.6 million, which account for 17.5 per cent
of the world’s population. These 1.21 billion
people are unevenly distributed over our
country’s vast area of 3.28 million square km,
which accounts for 2.4 per cent of the world’s
area (Figure 6.1).
The 2011 Census data reveal that Uttar
Pradesh with a population size of 199 million
is the most populous state of India. Uttar
Census
A census is an official enumeration of population done periodically. In India, the first census was held in the year
1872. The first complete census, however, was taken in the year 1881. Since then, censuses have been held
regularly every tenth year.
The Indian Census is the most comprehensive source of demographic, social and economic data. Have you
ever seen a census report? Check in your library if it has one.
6
2019-20
54 CONTEMPORARY INDIA-I
Pradesh accounts for about 16 per cent of the
country’s population.  On the other hand, the
Himalayan state of Sikkim has a population of
just about 0.6 million and Lakshadweep has
only 64,429 people.
Almost half of India’s population lives in
just five states. These are Uttar Pradesh,
Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra
Pradesh. Rajasthan, the biggest state in terms
of area, has only 5.5 per cent of the total
population of India (Figure 6.2)
India, 17.5%
Rest of the world, 82.5%
Rest of the world, 97.6%
India, 2.4%
AREA
POPULATION
Fig 6.1 : India’s Share of World’s Area and Population
Fig. 6.2: Distribution of Population
Source: Census of India, 2011
  • What could be the reason
of uneven distribution of population in India?
India’s Population Distribution by Density
Population density provides a better picture
of the uneven distribution. Population density
2019-20
POPULATION 55
Note: Telangana became the 29th State of India in June 2014.
Fig. 6.3: Density of Population 2011
2019-20
Page 4


POPULATION
C
an you imagine a world without human
beings? Who would have utilised
the resources and created social and
cultural environment? The people are
important to develop the economy and the
society. The people make and use resources
and are themselves resources with varying
quality.  Coal is but a piece of rock, until people
were able to invent technology to obtain it and
make it ‘resource’. Natural events, like a flood
or a Tsunami, becomes a ‘disaster’ only when
they affect a crowded village or a town.
Hence, population is the pivotal element in
social studies. It is the point of reference from
which all other elements are observed and from
which they derive significance and meaning.
‘Resources’, ‘calamities’ and ‘disasters’ are all
meaningful only in relation to human beings.
Their numbers, distribution, growth and
characteristics or qualities provide the basic
background for understanding and
appreciating all aspects of the environment.
Human beings are producers and
consumers of earth’s resources. Therefore, it
is important to know how many people are
there in a country, where do they live, how and
why their numbers are increasing and what
are their characteristics.  The census of India
provides us with information regarding the
population of our country.
We are primarily concerned with three
major questions about population:
(i) Population size and distribution: How
many people are there and where are they
located?
(ii) Population growth and processes of
population change: How has the
population grown and changed through
time?
(iii) Characteristics or qualities of the
population: What are their age, sex
composition, literacy levels, occupational
structure and health conditions?
POPULATION SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION
India’s Population Size and Distribution
by Numbers
India’s population as on March 2011 stood at
1,210.6 million, which account for 17.5 per cent
of the world’s population. These 1.21 billion
people are unevenly distributed over our
country’s vast area of 3.28 million square km,
which accounts for 2.4 per cent of the world’s
area (Figure 6.1).
The 2011 Census data reveal that Uttar
Pradesh with a population size of 199 million
is the most populous state of India. Uttar
Census
A census is an official enumeration of population done periodically. In India, the first census was held in the year
1872. The first complete census, however, was taken in the year 1881. Since then, censuses have been held
regularly every tenth year.
The Indian Census is the most comprehensive source of demographic, social and economic data. Have you
ever seen a census report? Check in your library if it has one.
6
2019-20
54 CONTEMPORARY INDIA-I
Pradesh accounts for about 16 per cent of the
country’s population.  On the other hand, the
Himalayan state of Sikkim has a population of
just about 0.6 million and Lakshadweep has
only 64,429 people.
Almost half of India’s population lives in
just five states. These are Uttar Pradesh,
Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra
Pradesh. Rajasthan, the biggest state in terms
of area, has only 5.5 per cent of the total
population of India (Figure 6.2)
India, 17.5%
Rest of the world, 82.5%
Rest of the world, 97.6%
India, 2.4%
AREA
POPULATION
Fig 6.1 : India’s Share of World’s Area and Population
Fig. 6.2: Distribution of Population
Source: Census of India, 2011
  • What could be the reason
of uneven distribution of population in India?
India’s Population Distribution by Density
Population density provides a better picture
of the uneven distribution. Population density
2019-20
POPULATION 55
Note: Telangana became the 29th State of India in June 2014.
Fig. 6.3: Density of Population 2011
2019-20
56 CONTEMPORARY INDIA-I
Population Growth
Growth of population refers to the change in
the number of inhabitants of a country/territory
during a specific period of time, say during the
last 10 years.  Such a change can be expressed
in two ways: in terms of absolute numbers and
in terms of percentage change per year.
The absolute numbers added each year or
decade is the magnitude of increase. It is
obtained by simply subtracting the earlier
population (e.g. that of 2001) from the later
population (e.g. that of 2011).  It is referred to
as the absolute increase.
The rate or the pace of population increase
is the other important aspect.  It is studied in
per cent per annum, e.g. a rate of increase of
2 per cent per annum means that in a given
year, there was an increase of two persons for
every 100 persons in the base population.  This
is referred to as the annual growth rate.
India’s population has been steadily
increasing from 361 million in 1951 to 1210
million in 2011.
Table 6.1 : The Magnitude and Rate of India’s
Population Growth
Year Total Absolute Annual
Population Increase in Growth
(in million) the Decade Rate
(in million) ( % )
1951 361.0 42.43 1.25
1961 439.2 78.15 1.96
1971 548.2 108.92 2.20
1981 683.3 135.17 2.22
1991 846.4 163.09 2.16
2001 1028.7 182.32 1.97
2011 1210.6 181.46 1.64
Table 6.1 and Figures 6.4 (a) and 6.4 (b)
reveal that from 1951 to 1981, the annual
rate of population growth was steadily
increasing; which explains the rapid increase
in population from 361 million in 1951 to
683 million in 1981.
•  Table 6.1 reveals that despite the
decline in growth rates, the number of people being
added every decade is steadily increasing. Why?
Since 1981, however, the rate of growth
started declining gradually. During this period,
birth rates declined rapidly. Still 182 million
is calculated as the number of persons per
unit area. India is one of the most densely
populated countries of the world.
Do You Know
Only Bangladesh and Japan have
higher average population densities
than India. Find out the population
densities of Bangladesh and Japan.
The population density of India in the year
2011 was 382 persons per sq km. Densities
vary from 1,102 persons per sq km in Bihar to
only 17 persons per sq km in Arunachal
Pradesh. A study of the Figure 6.3 shows the
pattern of uneven distribution of population
densities at the State level.
Activity
Study the Figure 6.3 and compare it with
Figure 2.4 and Figure 4.7. Do you find any
corelation between these maps?
Note the States with population densities
below 250 persons per square km. Rugged
terrain and unfavourable climatic conditions
are primarily responsible for sparse population
in these areas.  Which states have density below
250 persons per square km?
Assam and most of the Peninsular states
have moderate population densities. Hilly,
dissected and rocky nature of the terrain,
moderate to low rainfall, shallow and less fertile
soils have influenced population densities in
these areas.
The Northern plains and Kerala in the south
have high to very high population densities
because of the flat plains with fertile soils and
abundant rainfall. Identify the three states of
the Northern Plains with high population
densities.
POPULATION GROWTH AND PROCESSES
OF POPULATION CHANGE
Population is a dynamic phenomenon. The
numbers, distribution and composition of the
population are constantly changing. This is the
influence of the interaction of the three processes,
namely — births, deaths and migrations.
2019-20
Page 5


POPULATION
C
an you imagine a world without human
beings? Who would have utilised
the resources and created social and
cultural environment? The people are
important to develop the economy and the
society. The people make and use resources
and are themselves resources with varying
quality.  Coal is but a piece of rock, until people
were able to invent technology to obtain it and
make it ‘resource’. Natural events, like a flood
or a Tsunami, becomes a ‘disaster’ only when
they affect a crowded village or a town.
Hence, population is the pivotal element in
social studies. It is the point of reference from
which all other elements are observed and from
which they derive significance and meaning.
‘Resources’, ‘calamities’ and ‘disasters’ are all
meaningful only in relation to human beings.
Their numbers, distribution, growth and
characteristics or qualities provide the basic
background for understanding and
appreciating all aspects of the environment.
Human beings are producers and
consumers of earth’s resources. Therefore, it
is important to know how many people are
there in a country, where do they live, how and
why their numbers are increasing and what
are their characteristics.  The census of India
provides us with information regarding the
population of our country.
We are primarily concerned with three
major questions about population:
(i) Population size and distribution: How
many people are there and where are they
located?
(ii) Population growth and processes of
population change: How has the
population grown and changed through
time?
(iii) Characteristics or qualities of the
population: What are their age, sex
composition, literacy levels, occupational
structure and health conditions?
POPULATION SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION
India’s Population Size and Distribution
by Numbers
India’s population as on March 2011 stood at
1,210.6 million, which account for 17.5 per cent
of the world’s population. These 1.21 billion
people are unevenly distributed over our
country’s vast area of 3.28 million square km,
which accounts for 2.4 per cent of the world’s
area (Figure 6.1).
The 2011 Census data reveal that Uttar
Pradesh with a population size of 199 million
is the most populous state of India. Uttar
Census
A census is an official enumeration of population done periodically. In India, the first census was held in the year
1872. The first complete census, however, was taken in the year 1881. Since then, censuses have been held
regularly every tenth year.
The Indian Census is the most comprehensive source of demographic, social and economic data. Have you
ever seen a census report? Check in your library if it has one.
6
2019-20
54 CONTEMPORARY INDIA-I
Pradesh accounts for about 16 per cent of the
country’s population.  On the other hand, the
Himalayan state of Sikkim has a population of
just about 0.6 million and Lakshadweep has
only 64,429 people.
Almost half of India’s population lives in
just five states. These are Uttar Pradesh,
Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra
Pradesh. Rajasthan, the biggest state in terms
of area, has only 5.5 per cent of the total
population of India (Figure 6.2)
India, 17.5%
Rest of the world, 82.5%
Rest of the world, 97.6%
India, 2.4%
AREA
POPULATION
Fig 6.1 : India’s Share of World’s Area and Population
Fig. 6.2: Distribution of Population
Source: Census of India, 2011
  • What could be the reason
of uneven distribution of population in India?
India’s Population Distribution by Density
Population density provides a better picture
of the uneven distribution. Population density
2019-20
POPULATION 55
Note: Telangana became the 29th State of India in June 2014.
Fig. 6.3: Density of Population 2011
2019-20
56 CONTEMPORARY INDIA-I
Population Growth
Growth of population refers to the change in
the number of inhabitants of a country/territory
during a specific period of time, say during the
last 10 years.  Such a change can be expressed
in two ways: in terms of absolute numbers and
in terms of percentage change per year.
The absolute numbers added each year or
decade is the magnitude of increase. It is
obtained by simply subtracting the earlier
population (e.g. that of 2001) from the later
population (e.g. that of 2011).  It is referred to
as the absolute increase.
The rate or the pace of population increase
is the other important aspect.  It is studied in
per cent per annum, e.g. a rate of increase of
2 per cent per annum means that in a given
year, there was an increase of two persons for
every 100 persons in the base population.  This
is referred to as the annual growth rate.
India’s population has been steadily
increasing from 361 million in 1951 to 1210
million in 2011.
Table 6.1 : The Magnitude and Rate of India’s
Population Growth
Year Total Absolute Annual
Population Increase in Growth
(in million) the Decade Rate
(in million) ( % )
1951 361.0 42.43 1.25
1961 439.2 78.15 1.96
1971 548.2 108.92 2.20
1981 683.3 135.17 2.22
1991 846.4 163.09 2.16
2001 1028.7 182.32 1.97
2011 1210.6 181.46 1.64
Table 6.1 and Figures 6.4 (a) and 6.4 (b)
reveal that from 1951 to 1981, the annual
rate of population growth was steadily
increasing; which explains the rapid increase
in population from 361 million in 1951 to
683 million in 1981.
•  Table 6.1 reveals that despite the
decline in growth rates, the number of people being
added every decade is steadily increasing. Why?
Since 1981, however, the rate of growth
started declining gradually. During this period,
birth rates declined rapidly. Still 182 million
is calculated as the number of persons per
unit area. India is one of the most densely
populated countries of the world.
Do You Know
Only Bangladesh and Japan have
higher average population densities
than India. Find out the population
densities of Bangladesh and Japan.
The population density of India in the year
2011 was 382 persons per sq km. Densities
vary from 1,102 persons per sq km in Bihar to
only 17 persons per sq km in Arunachal
Pradesh. A study of the Figure 6.3 shows the
pattern of uneven distribution of population
densities at the State level.
Activity
Study the Figure 6.3 and compare it with
Figure 2.4 and Figure 4.7. Do you find any
corelation between these maps?
Note the States with population densities
below 250 persons per square km. Rugged
terrain and unfavourable climatic conditions
are primarily responsible for sparse population
in these areas.  Which states have density below
250 persons per square km?
Assam and most of the Peninsular states
have moderate population densities. Hilly,
dissected and rocky nature of the terrain,
moderate to low rainfall, shallow and less fertile
soils have influenced population densities in
these areas.
The Northern plains and Kerala in the south
have high to very high population densities
because of the flat plains with fertile soils and
abundant rainfall. Identify the three states of
the Northern Plains with high population
densities.
POPULATION GROWTH AND PROCESSES
OF POPULATION CHANGE
Population is a dynamic phenomenon. The
numbers, distribution and composition of the
population are constantly changing. This is the
influence of the interaction of the three processes,
namely — births, deaths and migrations.
2019-20
POPULATION 57
people were added to the total population in
the 1990s alone (an annual addition larger
than ever before).
It is essential to realise that India has a very
large population. When a low annual rate is
applied to a very large population, it yields a
 Fig. 6.4(b): India’s Population 1901-2011
Fig. 6.4(a): India’s  Population Growth Rates during 1951-2011
large absolute increase. When more than a
billion people increase even at a lower rate, the
total number  being added becomes very large.
India’s annual increase in population is large
enough to neutralise efforts to conserve the
resource endowment and environment.
2019-20
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