NCERT Textbook - Primary Activities Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy

Created by: Mehtab Ahmed

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Primary Activities Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Unit-III
Chapter-5
Primary Activities
Human activities which generate income are
known as economic activities. Economic
activities are broadly grouped into primary,
secondary, tertiary and quaternary activities.
Primary activities are directly dependent on
environment as these refer to utilisation of
earth’s resources such as land, water,
vegetation, building materials and minerals. It,
thus includes, hunting and gathering, pastoral
activities, fishing, forestry, agriculture, and
mining and quarrying.
Why are the inhabitants of coastal and Why are the inhabitants of coastal and Why are the inhabitants of coastal and Why are the inhabitants of coastal and Why are the inhabitants of coastal and
plain regions engaged in fishing and plain regions engaged in fishing and plain regions engaged in fishing and plain regions engaged in fishing and plain regions engaged in fishing and
agriculture respectively? What are the agriculture respectively? What are the agriculture respectively? What are the agriculture respectively? What are the agriculture respectively? What are the
physical and social factors which affect the physical and social factors which affect the physical and social factors which affect the physical and social factors which affect the physical and social factors which affect the
type of primary activities in different type of primary activities in different type of primary activities in different type of primary activities in different type of primary activities in different
regions? regions? regions? regions? regions?
People engaged in primary activities are called red-
collar workers due to the outdoor nature of their work.
HUNTING AND G HUNTING AND G HUNTING AND G HUNTING AND G HUNTING AND GA A A A ATHERING THERING THERING THERING THERING
The earliest human beings depended on their
immediate environment for their sustenance.
They subsisted on: (a) animals which they
hunted; and (b) the edible plants which they
gathered from forests in the vicinity.
Primitive societies depended on wild
animals. People located in very cold and
extremely hot climates survived on hunting. The
people in the coastal areas still catch fish though
fishing has experienced modernisation due to
technological progress. Many species, now have
become extinct or endangered due to illegal
hunting (poaching). The early hunters used
primitive tools made of stones, twigs or arrows
so the number of animals killed was limited.
Why has hunting been banned in India?
Gathering and hunting are the oldest
economic activity known. These are carried out
at different levels with different orientations.
Gathering is practised in regions with
harsh climatic conditions.  It often involves
primitive societies, who extract, both plants and
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


Unit-III
Chapter-5
Primary Activities
Human activities which generate income are
known as economic activities. Economic
activities are broadly grouped into primary,
secondary, tertiary and quaternary activities.
Primary activities are directly dependent on
environment as these refer to utilisation of
earth’s resources such as land, water,
vegetation, building materials and minerals. It,
thus includes, hunting and gathering, pastoral
activities, fishing, forestry, agriculture, and
mining and quarrying.
Why are the inhabitants of coastal and Why are the inhabitants of coastal and Why are the inhabitants of coastal and Why are the inhabitants of coastal and Why are the inhabitants of coastal and
plain regions engaged in fishing and plain regions engaged in fishing and plain regions engaged in fishing and plain regions engaged in fishing and plain regions engaged in fishing and
agriculture respectively? What are the agriculture respectively? What are the agriculture respectively? What are the agriculture respectively? What are the agriculture respectively? What are the
physical and social factors which affect the physical and social factors which affect the physical and social factors which affect the physical and social factors which affect the physical and social factors which affect the
type of primary activities in different type of primary activities in different type of primary activities in different type of primary activities in different type of primary activities in different
regions? regions? regions? regions? regions?
People engaged in primary activities are called red-
collar workers due to the outdoor nature of their work.
HUNTING AND G HUNTING AND G HUNTING AND G HUNTING AND G HUNTING AND GA A A A ATHERING THERING THERING THERING THERING
The earliest human beings depended on their
immediate environment for their sustenance.
They subsisted on: (a) animals which they
hunted; and (b) the edible plants which they
gathered from forests in the vicinity.
Primitive societies depended on wild
animals. People located in very cold and
extremely hot climates survived on hunting. The
people in the coastal areas still catch fish though
fishing has experienced modernisation due to
technological progress. Many species, now have
become extinct or endangered due to illegal
hunting (poaching). The early hunters used
primitive tools made of stones, twigs or arrows
so the number of animals killed was limited.
Why has hunting been banned in India?
Gathering and hunting are the oldest
economic activity known. These are carried out
at different levels with different orientations.
Gathering is practised in regions with
harsh climatic conditions.  It often involves
primitive societies, who extract, both plants and
© NCERT
not to be republished
Fundamentals of Human Geography 32
animals to satisfy their needs for food, shelter
and clothing.  This type of activity requires a
small amount of capital investment and
operates at very low level of technology. The
yield per person is very low and little or no
surplus is produced.
Fig. 5.1: Women Gathering Oranges in Mizoram
Fig. 5.2: Areas of Subsistence Gathering
Gathering is practised in: (i) high latitude
zones which include northern Canada, northern
Eurasia and southern Chile; (ii) Low latitude
zones such as the Amazon Basin, tropical
Africa, Northern fringe of Australia and the
interior parts of Southeast Asia (Fig. 5.2).
In modern times some gathering is market-
oriented and has become commercial. Gatherers
collect valuable plants such as leaves, barks of
trees and medicinal plants and after simple
processing sell the products in the market.  They
use various parts of the plants, for example,
the bark is used for quinine, tanin extract and
cork— leaves supply materials for beverages,
drugs, cosmetics, fibres, thatch and fabrics;
nuts for food and oils and tree trunk yield
rubber, balata, gums and resins.
The name of the part of the chewing gum after the flavour
is gone? It is called Chicle — it is made from the milky
juice of zapota tree.
Gathering has little chance of becoming
important at the global level. Products of such an
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


Unit-III
Chapter-5
Primary Activities
Human activities which generate income are
known as economic activities. Economic
activities are broadly grouped into primary,
secondary, tertiary and quaternary activities.
Primary activities are directly dependent on
environment as these refer to utilisation of
earth’s resources such as land, water,
vegetation, building materials and minerals. It,
thus includes, hunting and gathering, pastoral
activities, fishing, forestry, agriculture, and
mining and quarrying.
Why are the inhabitants of coastal and Why are the inhabitants of coastal and Why are the inhabitants of coastal and Why are the inhabitants of coastal and Why are the inhabitants of coastal and
plain regions engaged in fishing and plain regions engaged in fishing and plain regions engaged in fishing and plain regions engaged in fishing and plain regions engaged in fishing and
agriculture respectively? What are the agriculture respectively? What are the agriculture respectively? What are the agriculture respectively? What are the agriculture respectively? What are the
physical and social factors which affect the physical and social factors which affect the physical and social factors which affect the physical and social factors which affect the physical and social factors which affect the
type of primary activities in different type of primary activities in different type of primary activities in different type of primary activities in different type of primary activities in different
regions? regions? regions? regions? regions?
People engaged in primary activities are called red-
collar workers due to the outdoor nature of their work.
HUNTING AND G HUNTING AND G HUNTING AND G HUNTING AND G HUNTING AND GA A A A ATHERING THERING THERING THERING THERING
The earliest human beings depended on their
immediate environment for their sustenance.
They subsisted on: (a) animals which they
hunted; and (b) the edible plants which they
gathered from forests in the vicinity.
Primitive societies depended on wild
animals. People located in very cold and
extremely hot climates survived on hunting. The
people in the coastal areas still catch fish though
fishing has experienced modernisation due to
technological progress. Many species, now have
become extinct or endangered due to illegal
hunting (poaching). The early hunters used
primitive tools made of stones, twigs or arrows
so the number of animals killed was limited.
Why has hunting been banned in India?
Gathering and hunting are the oldest
economic activity known. These are carried out
at different levels with different orientations.
Gathering is practised in regions with
harsh climatic conditions.  It often involves
primitive societies, who extract, both plants and
© NCERT
not to be republished
Fundamentals of Human Geography 32
animals to satisfy their needs for food, shelter
and clothing.  This type of activity requires a
small amount of capital investment and
operates at very low level of technology. The
yield per person is very low and little or no
surplus is produced.
Fig. 5.1: Women Gathering Oranges in Mizoram
Fig. 5.2: Areas of Subsistence Gathering
Gathering is practised in: (i) high latitude
zones which include northern Canada, northern
Eurasia and southern Chile; (ii) Low latitude
zones such as the Amazon Basin, tropical
Africa, Northern fringe of Australia and the
interior parts of Southeast Asia (Fig. 5.2).
In modern times some gathering is market-
oriented and has become commercial. Gatherers
collect valuable plants such as leaves, barks of
trees and medicinal plants and after simple
processing sell the products in the market.  They
use various parts of the plants, for example,
the bark is used for quinine, tanin extract and
cork— leaves supply materials for beverages,
drugs, cosmetics, fibres, thatch and fabrics;
nuts for food and oils and tree trunk yield
rubber, balata, gums and resins.
The name of the part of the chewing gum after the flavour
is gone? It is called Chicle — it is made from the milky
juice of zapota tree.
Gathering has little chance of becoming
important at the global level. Products of such an
© NCERT
not to be republished
Primary Activities     33
activity cannot compete in the world market.
Moreover, synthetic products often of better
quality and at lower prices, have replaced many
items supplied by the gatherers in tropical forests.
PASTORALISM
At some stage in history, with the realisation
that hunting is an unsustainable activity,
human beings might have thought of
domestication of animals. People living in
different climatic conditions selected and
domesticated animals found in those regions.
Depending on the geographical factors, and
technological development, animal rearing
today is practised either at the subsistence or
at the commercial level.
Nomadic Herding
Nomadic herding or pastoral nomadism is a
primitive subsistence activity, in which the
herders rely on animals for food, clothing, shelter,
tools and transport.  They move from one place
to another along with their livestock, depending
on the amount and quality of pastures and
water.  Each nomadic community occupies a
well-identified territory as a matter of tradition.
Fig. 5.3: Nomads taking their sheep up to the
Mountains at the onset of summer
A wide variety of animals is kept in
different regions.  In tropical Africa, cattle are
the most important livestock, while in Sahara
and Asiatic deserts, sheep, goats and camel
are reared.  In the mountainous areas of Tibet
and Andes, yak and llamas and in the Arctic
and sub Arctic areas, reindeer are the most
important animals.
Pastoral nomadism is associated with
three important regions.  The core region
extends from the Atlantic shores of North Africa
eastwards across the Arabian peninsula into
Mongolia and Central China.  The second region
extends over the tundra region of Eurasia.  In
the southern hemisphere there are small areas
in South-west Africa and on the island of
Madagascar (Fig. 5.4)
Movement in search of pastures is
undertaken either over vast horizontal
distances or vertically from one elevation to
another in the mountainous regions.  The
process of migration from plain areas to
pastures on mountains during summers and
again from mountain pastures to plain areas
during winters is known as transhumance.  In
mountain regions, such as Himalayas, Gujjars,
Bakarwals, Gaddis and Bhotiyas migrate from
plains to the mountains in summers and to the
plains from the high altitude pastures in
winters. Similarly, in the tundra regions, the
nomadic herders move from south to north in
summers and from north to south in winters.
The number of pastoral nomads has been
decreasing and the areas operated by them
shrinking.  This is due to (a) imposition of
political boundaries; (b) new settlement plans
by different countries.
Commercial Livestock Rearing
Unlike nomadic herding, commercial livestock
rearing is more organised and capital intensive.
Commercial livestock ranching is essentially
associated with western cultures and is practised
on permanent ranches.  These ranches cover
large areas and are divided into a number of
parcels, which are fenced to regulate the grazing.
When the grass of one parcel is grazed, animals
are moved to another parcel.  The number of
animals in a pasture is kept according to the
carrying capacity of the pasture.
This is a specialised activity in which only
one type of animal is reared.  Important animals
include sheep, cattle, goats and horses.
Products such as meat, wool, hides and skin
are processed and packed scientifically and
exported to different world markets.
Rearing of animals in ranching is
organised on a scientific basis. The main
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


Unit-III
Chapter-5
Primary Activities
Human activities which generate income are
known as economic activities. Economic
activities are broadly grouped into primary,
secondary, tertiary and quaternary activities.
Primary activities are directly dependent on
environment as these refer to utilisation of
earth’s resources such as land, water,
vegetation, building materials and minerals. It,
thus includes, hunting and gathering, pastoral
activities, fishing, forestry, agriculture, and
mining and quarrying.
Why are the inhabitants of coastal and Why are the inhabitants of coastal and Why are the inhabitants of coastal and Why are the inhabitants of coastal and Why are the inhabitants of coastal and
plain regions engaged in fishing and plain regions engaged in fishing and plain regions engaged in fishing and plain regions engaged in fishing and plain regions engaged in fishing and
agriculture respectively? What are the agriculture respectively? What are the agriculture respectively? What are the agriculture respectively? What are the agriculture respectively? What are the
physical and social factors which affect the physical and social factors which affect the physical and social factors which affect the physical and social factors which affect the physical and social factors which affect the
type of primary activities in different type of primary activities in different type of primary activities in different type of primary activities in different type of primary activities in different
regions? regions? regions? regions? regions?
People engaged in primary activities are called red-
collar workers due to the outdoor nature of their work.
HUNTING AND G HUNTING AND G HUNTING AND G HUNTING AND G HUNTING AND GA A A A ATHERING THERING THERING THERING THERING
The earliest human beings depended on their
immediate environment for their sustenance.
They subsisted on: (a) animals which they
hunted; and (b) the edible plants which they
gathered from forests in the vicinity.
Primitive societies depended on wild
animals. People located in very cold and
extremely hot climates survived on hunting. The
people in the coastal areas still catch fish though
fishing has experienced modernisation due to
technological progress. Many species, now have
become extinct or endangered due to illegal
hunting (poaching). The early hunters used
primitive tools made of stones, twigs or arrows
so the number of animals killed was limited.
Why has hunting been banned in India?
Gathering and hunting are the oldest
economic activity known. These are carried out
at different levels with different orientations.
Gathering is practised in regions with
harsh climatic conditions.  It often involves
primitive societies, who extract, both plants and
© NCERT
not to be republished
Fundamentals of Human Geography 32
animals to satisfy their needs for food, shelter
and clothing.  This type of activity requires a
small amount of capital investment and
operates at very low level of technology. The
yield per person is very low and little or no
surplus is produced.
Fig. 5.1: Women Gathering Oranges in Mizoram
Fig. 5.2: Areas of Subsistence Gathering
Gathering is practised in: (i) high latitude
zones which include northern Canada, northern
Eurasia and southern Chile; (ii) Low latitude
zones such as the Amazon Basin, tropical
Africa, Northern fringe of Australia and the
interior parts of Southeast Asia (Fig. 5.2).
In modern times some gathering is market-
oriented and has become commercial. Gatherers
collect valuable plants such as leaves, barks of
trees and medicinal plants and after simple
processing sell the products in the market.  They
use various parts of the plants, for example,
the bark is used for quinine, tanin extract and
cork— leaves supply materials for beverages,
drugs, cosmetics, fibres, thatch and fabrics;
nuts for food and oils and tree trunk yield
rubber, balata, gums and resins.
The name of the part of the chewing gum after the flavour
is gone? It is called Chicle — it is made from the milky
juice of zapota tree.
Gathering has little chance of becoming
important at the global level. Products of such an
© NCERT
not to be republished
Primary Activities     33
activity cannot compete in the world market.
Moreover, synthetic products often of better
quality and at lower prices, have replaced many
items supplied by the gatherers in tropical forests.
PASTORALISM
At some stage in history, with the realisation
that hunting is an unsustainable activity,
human beings might have thought of
domestication of animals. People living in
different climatic conditions selected and
domesticated animals found in those regions.
Depending on the geographical factors, and
technological development, animal rearing
today is practised either at the subsistence or
at the commercial level.
Nomadic Herding
Nomadic herding or pastoral nomadism is a
primitive subsistence activity, in which the
herders rely on animals for food, clothing, shelter,
tools and transport.  They move from one place
to another along with their livestock, depending
on the amount and quality of pastures and
water.  Each nomadic community occupies a
well-identified territory as a matter of tradition.
Fig. 5.3: Nomads taking their sheep up to the
Mountains at the onset of summer
A wide variety of animals is kept in
different regions.  In tropical Africa, cattle are
the most important livestock, while in Sahara
and Asiatic deserts, sheep, goats and camel
are reared.  In the mountainous areas of Tibet
and Andes, yak and llamas and in the Arctic
and sub Arctic areas, reindeer are the most
important animals.
Pastoral nomadism is associated with
three important regions.  The core region
extends from the Atlantic shores of North Africa
eastwards across the Arabian peninsula into
Mongolia and Central China.  The second region
extends over the tundra region of Eurasia.  In
the southern hemisphere there are small areas
in South-west Africa and on the island of
Madagascar (Fig. 5.4)
Movement in search of pastures is
undertaken either over vast horizontal
distances or vertically from one elevation to
another in the mountainous regions.  The
process of migration from plain areas to
pastures on mountains during summers and
again from mountain pastures to plain areas
during winters is known as transhumance.  In
mountain regions, such as Himalayas, Gujjars,
Bakarwals, Gaddis and Bhotiyas migrate from
plains to the mountains in summers and to the
plains from the high altitude pastures in
winters. Similarly, in the tundra regions, the
nomadic herders move from south to north in
summers and from north to south in winters.
The number of pastoral nomads has been
decreasing and the areas operated by them
shrinking.  This is due to (a) imposition of
political boundaries; (b) new settlement plans
by different countries.
Commercial Livestock Rearing
Unlike nomadic herding, commercial livestock
rearing is more organised and capital intensive.
Commercial livestock ranching is essentially
associated with western cultures and is practised
on permanent ranches.  These ranches cover
large areas and are divided into a number of
parcels, which are fenced to regulate the grazing.
When the grass of one parcel is grazed, animals
are moved to another parcel.  The number of
animals in a pasture is kept according to the
carrying capacity of the pasture.
This is a specialised activity in which only
one type of animal is reared.  Important animals
include sheep, cattle, goats and horses.
Products such as meat, wool, hides and skin
are processed and packed scientifically and
exported to different world markets.
Rearing of animals in ranching is
organised on a scientific basis. The main
© NCERT
not to be republished
Fundamentals of Human Geography 34
Fig. 5.4: Areas of Nomadic Herding
emphasis is on breeding, genetic improvement,
disease control and health care of the animals.
New Zealand, Australia, Argentina,
Uruguay and United States of America are
important countries where commercial livestock
rearing is practised (Fig. 5.6).
Fig. 5.5: Commercial Livestock Rearing
Reindeer rearing in the northern regions of Alaska where
most of the Eskimos own about two-third of the stock.
AGRICUL AGRICUL AGRICUL AGRICUL AGRICUL TURE TURE TURE TURE TURE
Agriculture is practised under multiple
combinations of physical and socio-economic
conditions, which gives rise to different types of
agricultural systems.
Based on methods of farming, different
types of crops are grown and livestock raised.
The following are the main agricultural systems.
Subsistence Agriculture
Subsistence agriculture is one in which the
farming areas consume all, or nearly so, of the
products locally grown. It can be grouped in
two categories — Primitive Subsistence
Agriculture and Intensive Subsistence
Agriculture.
Primitive Subsistence Agriculture
Primitive subsistence agriculture or shifting
cultivation is widely practised by many tribes
in the tropics, especially in Africa, south and
central America and south east Asia (Fig. 5.7).
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


Unit-III
Chapter-5
Primary Activities
Human activities which generate income are
known as economic activities. Economic
activities are broadly grouped into primary,
secondary, tertiary and quaternary activities.
Primary activities are directly dependent on
environment as these refer to utilisation of
earth’s resources such as land, water,
vegetation, building materials and minerals. It,
thus includes, hunting and gathering, pastoral
activities, fishing, forestry, agriculture, and
mining and quarrying.
Why are the inhabitants of coastal and Why are the inhabitants of coastal and Why are the inhabitants of coastal and Why are the inhabitants of coastal and Why are the inhabitants of coastal and
plain regions engaged in fishing and plain regions engaged in fishing and plain regions engaged in fishing and plain regions engaged in fishing and plain regions engaged in fishing and
agriculture respectively? What are the agriculture respectively? What are the agriculture respectively? What are the agriculture respectively? What are the agriculture respectively? What are the
physical and social factors which affect the physical and social factors which affect the physical and social factors which affect the physical and social factors which affect the physical and social factors which affect the
type of primary activities in different type of primary activities in different type of primary activities in different type of primary activities in different type of primary activities in different
regions? regions? regions? regions? regions?
People engaged in primary activities are called red-
collar workers due to the outdoor nature of their work.
HUNTING AND G HUNTING AND G HUNTING AND G HUNTING AND G HUNTING AND GA A A A ATHERING THERING THERING THERING THERING
The earliest human beings depended on their
immediate environment for their sustenance.
They subsisted on: (a) animals which they
hunted; and (b) the edible plants which they
gathered from forests in the vicinity.
Primitive societies depended on wild
animals. People located in very cold and
extremely hot climates survived on hunting. The
people in the coastal areas still catch fish though
fishing has experienced modernisation due to
technological progress. Many species, now have
become extinct or endangered due to illegal
hunting (poaching). The early hunters used
primitive tools made of stones, twigs or arrows
so the number of animals killed was limited.
Why has hunting been banned in India?
Gathering and hunting are the oldest
economic activity known. These are carried out
at different levels with different orientations.
Gathering is practised in regions with
harsh climatic conditions.  It often involves
primitive societies, who extract, both plants and
© NCERT
not to be republished
Fundamentals of Human Geography 32
animals to satisfy their needs for food, shelter
and clothing.  This type of activity requires a
small amount of capital investment and
operates at very low level of technology. The
yield per person is very low and little or no
surplus is produced.
Fig. 5.1: Women Gathering Oranges in Mizoram
Fig. 5.2: Areas of Subsistence Gathering
Gathering is practised in: (i) high latitude
zones which include northern Canada, northern
Eurasia and southern Chile; (ii) Low latitude
zones such as the Amazon Basin, tropical
Africa, Northern fringe of Australia and the
interior parts of Southeast Asia (Fig. 5.2).
In modern times some gathering is market-
oriented and has become commercial. Gatherers
collect valuable plants such as leaves, barks of
trees and medicinal plants and after simple
processing sell the products in the market.  They
use various parts of the plants, for example,
the bark is used for quinine, tanin extract and
cork— leaves supply materials for beverages,
drugs, cosmetics, fibres, thatch and fabrics;
nuts for food and oils and tree trunk yield
rubber, balata, gums and resins.
The name of the part of the chewing gum after the flavour
is gone? It is called Chicle — it is made from the milky
juice of zapota tree.
Gathering has little chance of becoming
important at the global level. Products of such an
© NCERT
not to be republished
Primary Activities     33
activity cannot compete in the world market.
Moreover, synthetic products often of better
quality and at lower prices, have replaced many
items supplied by the gatherers in tropical forests.
PASTORALISM
At some stage in history, with the realisation
that hunting is an unsustainable activity,
human beings might have thought of
domestication of animals. People living in
different climatic conditions selected and
domesticated animals found in those regions.
Depending on the geographical factors, and
technological development, animal rearing
today is practised either at the subsistence or
at the commercial level.
Nomadic Herding
Nomadic herding or pastoral nomadism is a
primitive subsistence activity, in which the
herders rely on animals for food, clothing, shelter,
tools and transport.  They move from one place
to another along with their livestock, depending
on the amount and quality of pastures and
water.  Each nomadic community occupies a
well-identified territory as a matter of tradition.
Fig. 5.3: Nomads taking their sheep up to the
Mountains at the onset of summer
A wide variety of animals is kept in
different regions.  In tropical Africa, cattle are
the most important livestock, while in Sahara
and Asiatic deserts, sheep, goats and camel
are reared.  In the mountainous areas of Tibet
and Andes, yak and llamas and in the Arctic
and sub Arctic areas, reindeer are the most
important animals.
Pastoral nomadism is associated with
three important regions.  The core region
extends from the Atlantic shores of North Africa
eastwards across the Arabian peninsula into
Mongolia and Central China.  The second region
extends over the tundra region of Eurasia.  In
the southern hemisphere there are small areas
in South-west Africa and on the island of
Madagascar (Fig. 5.4)
Movement in search of pastures is
undertaken either over vast horizontal
distances or vertically from one elevation to
another in the mountainous regions.  The
process of migration from plain areas to
pastures on mountains during summers and
again from mountain pastures to plain areas
during winters is known as transhumance.  In
mountain regions, such as Himalayas, Gujjars,
Bakarwals, Gaddis and Bhotiyas migrate from
plains to the mountains in summers and to the
plains from the high altitude pastures in
winters. Similarly, in the tundra regions, the
nomadic herders move from south to north in
summers and from north to south in winters.
The number of pastoral nomads has been
decreasing and the areas operated by them
shrinking.  This is due to (a) imposition of
political boundaries; (b) new settlement plans
by different countries.
Commercial Livestock Rearing
Unlike nomadic herding, commercial livestock
rearing is more organised and capital intensive.
Commercial livestock ranching is essentially
associated with western cultures and is practised
on permanent ranches.  These ranches cover
large areas and are divided into a number of
parcels, which are fenced to regulate the grazing.
When the grass of one parcel is grazed, animals
are moved to another parcel.  The number of
animals in a pasture is kept according to the
carrying capacity of the pasture.
This is a specialised activity in which only
one type of animal is reared.  Important animals
include sheep, cattle, goats and horses.
Products such as meat, wool, hides and skin
are processed and packed scientifically and
exported to different world markets.
Rearing of animals in ranching is
organised on a scientific basis. The main
© NCERT
not to be republished
Fundamentals of Human Geography 34
Fig. 5.4: Areas of Nomadic Herding
emphasis is on breeding, genetic improvement,
disease control and health care of the animals.
New Zealand, Australia, Argentina,
Uruguay and United States of America are
important countries where commercial livestock
rearing is practised (Fig. 5.6).
Fig. 5.5: Commercial Livestock Rearing
Reindeer rearing in the northern regions of Alaska where
most of the Eskimos own about two-third of the stock.
AGRICUL AGRICUL AGRICUL AGRICUL AGRICUL TURE TURE TURE TURE TURE
Agriculture is practised under multiple
combinations of physical and socio-economic
conditions, which gives rise to different types of
agricultural systems.
Based on methods of farming, different
types of crops are grown and livestock raised.
The following are the main agricultural systems.
Subsistence Agriculture
Subsistence agriculture is one in which the
farming areas consume all, or nearly so, of the
products locally grown. It can be grouped in
two categories — Primitive Subsistence
Agriculture and Intensive Subsistence
Agriculture.
Primitive Subsistence Agriculture
Primitive subsistence agriculture or shifting
cultivation is widely practised by many tribes
in the tropics, especially in Africa, south and
central America and south east Asia (Fig. 5.7).
© NCERT
not to be republished
Primary Activities     35
Fig. 5.6: Areas of Commercial Livestock Rearing
Fig. 5.7: Areas of Primitive Subsistence Agriculture
© NCERT
not to be republished
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