NCERT Textbook - Secondary Activities Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Geography for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims

Created by: Mehtab Ahmed

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Secondary Activities Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Unit-III
Chapter-6
Secondary Activities
All economic activities namely primary,
secondary, tertiary and quaternary, revolve
around obtaining and utilising resources
necessary for survival.
Secondary activities add value to natural
resources by transforming raw materials into
valuable products. Cotton in the boll has limited
use but after it is transformed into yarn,
becomes more valuable and can be used for
making clothes. Iron ore, cannot be used;
directly from the mines, but after being
converted into steel it gets its value and can be
used for making many valuable machines,
tools, etc. The same is true of most of the
materials from the farm, forest, mine and  the
sea. Secondary activities, therefore, are
concerned with manufacturing, processing and
construction (infrastructure) industries.
MANUF MANUF MANUF MANUF MANUFA A A A ACTURING CTURING CTURING CTURING CTURING
Manufacturing involves a full array of
production from handicrafts to moulding iron
and steel and stamping out plastic toys  to
assembling delicate computer components or
space vehicles. In each of these processes, the
common characteristics are the application of
power, mass production of identical products
and specialised labour in factory settings for
the production of standardised commodities.
Manufacturing may be done with modern
power and machinery or it may still be very
primitive. Most of the Third World countries still
‘manufacture’ in the literal sense of the term. It
is difficult to present a full picture of all the
manufacturers in these countries. More
emphasis is given to the kind of ‘industrial’
activity which involves less complicated systems
of production.
Characteristics  of  Modern Large Scale
Manufacturing
Modern large scale manufacturing has the
following characteristics:
Specialisation of Skills/Methods of
Production
Under the ‘craft’ method factories produce only
a few pieces which are made-to-order.  So the
costs are high. On the other hand, mass
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


Unit-III
Chapter-6
Secondary Activities
All economic activities namely primary,
secondary, tertiary and quaternary, revolve
around obtaining and utilising resources
necessary for survival.
Secondary activities add value to natural
resources by transforming raw materials into
valuable products. Cotton in the boll has limited
use but after it is transformed into yarn,
becomes more valuable and can be used for
making clothes. Iron ore, cannot be used;
directly from the mines, but after being
converted into steel it gets its value and can be
used for making many valuable machines,
tools, etc. The same is true of most of the
materials from the farm, forest, mine and  the
sea. Secondary activities, therefore, are
concerned with manufacturing, processing and
construction (infrastructure) industries.
MANUF MANUF MANUF MANUF MANUFA A A A ACTURING CTURING CTURING CTURING CTURING
Manufacturing involves a full array of
production from handicrafts to moulding iron
and steel and stamping out plastic toys  to
assembling delicate computer components or
space vehicles. In each of these processes, the
common characteristics are the application of
power, mass production of identical products
and specialised labour in factory settings for
the production of standardised commodities.
Manufacturing may be done with modern
power and machinery or it may still be very
primitive. Most of the Third World countries still
‘manufacture’ in the literal sense of the term. It
is difficult to present a full picture of all the
manufacturers in these countries. More
emphasis is given to the kind of ‘industrial’
activity which involves less complicated systems
of production.
Characteristics  of  Modern Large Scale
Manufacturing
Modern large scale manufacturing has the
following characteristics:
Specialisation of Skills/Methods of
Production
Under the ‘craft’ method factories produce only
a few pieces which are made-to-order.  So the
costs are high. On the other hand, mass
© NCERT
not to be republished
Fundamentals of Human Geography 46
production involves production of large
quantities of standardised parts by each worker
performing only one task repeatedly.
‘Manufacturing’ Industry and
‘Manufacturing Industry’
Manufacturing literally means ‘to
make by hand’. However, now it
includes goods ‘made by machines’.
It is essentially a process which
involves transforming raw materials
into finished goods of higher value
for sale in local or distant markets.
Conceptually, an industry is a
geographically located manufacturing
unit maintaining books of accounts
and, records under a management
system. As the term industry is
comprehensive, it is also used as
synonymous with ‘manufacturing’
When one uses terms like ‘steel
industry’ and ‘chemical industry’ one
thinks of factories and processes.
But there are many secondary
activities which are not carried on in
factories such as what is now called
the ‘entertainment  industry’ and
Tourism industry, etc. So for clarity
the longer expression ‘manufacturing
industry’ is used.
Mechanisation
Mechanisation refers to using gadgets which
accomplish tasks. Automation (without aid of
human thinking during the manufacturing
process) is the advanced stage of mechanisation.
Automatic factories with feedback and closed-
loop computer control systems where machines
are developed to ‘think’, have sprung up all over
the world.
Technological Innovation
Technological innovations through research
and development strategy are an important
aspect of modern manufacturing for quality
control, eliminating waste and inefficiency, and
combating pollution.
Organisational Structure and Stratification
Modern manufacturing is characterised by:
(i) a complex machine technology
(ii) extreme specialisation and division of
labour for producing more goods with less
effort, and low costs
(iii) vast capital
(iv) large  organisations
(v) executive bureaucracy.
Uneven Geographic Distribution
Major concentrations of modern manufacturing
have flourished in a few number of places. These
cover less than 10 per cent of the world’s land
area. These nations have become the centres of
economic and political power. However, in terms
of the total area covered, manufacturing sites
are much less conspicuous and concentrated
on much smaller areas than that of agriculture
due to greater intensity of processes. For
example, 2.5 sq km of the American corn belt
usually includes about four large farms
employing about 10-20 workers supporting
50-100 persons. But this same area could
contain several large integrated factories and
employ thousands of workers.
Why do Large-scale Industries choose
different locations?
Industries maximise profits by reducing
costs. Therefore, industries should be located
at points where the production costs are
minimum. Some of the factors influencing
industrial locations are as under:
Access to Market
The existence of a market for manufactured
goods is the most important factor in the location
of industries. ‘Market’ means people who have a
demand for these goods and also have the
purchasing power (ability to purchase) to be able
to purchase from the sellers at a place. Remote
areas inhabited by a few people offer small
markets. The developed regions of Europe, North
America, Japan and Australia provide large
global markets as the purchasing power of the
people is very high. The densely populated
regions of South and South-east Asia also
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


Unit-III
Chapter-6
Secondary Activities
All economic activities namely primary,
secondary, tertiary and quaternary, revolve
around obtaining and utilising resources
necessary for survival.
Secondary activities add value to natural
resources by transforming raw materials into
valuable products. Cotton in the boll has limited
use but after it is transformed into yarn,
becomes more valuable and can be used for
making clothes. Iron ore, cannot be used;
directly from the mines, but after being
converted into steel it gets its value and can be
used for making many valuable machines,
tools, etc. The same is true of most of the
materials from the farm, forest, mine and  the
sea. Secondary activities, therefore, are
concerned with manufacturing, processing and
construction (infrastructure) industries.
MANUF MANUF MANUF MANUF MANUFA A A A ACTURING CTURING CTURING CTURING CTURING
Manufacturing involves a full array of
production from handicrafts to moulding iron
and steel and stamping out plastic toys  to
assembling delicate computer components or
space vehicles. In each of these processes, the
common characteristics are the application of
power, mass production of identical products
and specialised labour in factory settings for
the production of standardised commodities.
Manufacturing may be done with modern
power and machinery or it may still be very
primitive. Most of the Third World countries still
‘manufacture’ in the literal sense of the term. It
is difficult to present a full picture of all the
manufacturers in these countries. More
emphasis is given to the kind of ‘industrial’
activity which involves less complicated systems
of production.
Characteristics  of  Modern Large Scale
Manufacturing
Modern large scale manufacturing has the
following characteristics:
Specialisation of Skills/Methods of
Production
Under the ‘craft’ method factories produce only
a few pieces which are made-to-order.  So the
costs are high. On the other hand, mass
© NCERT
not to be republished
Fundamentals of Human Geography 46
production involves production of large
quantities of standardised parts by each worker
performing only one task repeatedly.
‘Manufacturing’ Industry and
‘Manufacturing Industry’
Manufacturing literally means ‘to
make by hand’. However, now it
includes goods ‘made by machines’.
It is essentially a process which
involves transforming raw materials
into finished goods of higher value
for sale in local or distant markets.
Conceptually, an industry is a
geographically located manufacturing
unit maintaining books of accounts
and, records under a management
system. As the term industry is
comprehensive, it is also used as
synonymous with ‘manufacturing’
When one uses terms like ‘steel
industry’ and ‘chemical industry’ one
thinks of factories and processes.
But there are many secondary
activities which are not carried on in
factories such as what is now called
the ‘entertainment  industry’ and
Tourism industry, etc. So for clarity
the longer expression ‘manufacturing
industry’ is used.
Mechanisation
Mechanisation refers to using gadgets which
accomplish tasks. Automation (without aid of
human thinking during the manufacturing
process) is the advanced stage of mechanisation.
Automatic factories with feedback and closed-
loop computer control systems where machines
are developed to ‘think’, have sprung up all over
the world.
Technological Innovation
Technological innovations through research
and development strategy are an important
aspect of modern manufacturing for quality
control, eliminating waste and inefficiency, and
combating pollution.
Organisational Structure and Stratification
Modern manufacturing is characterised by:
(i) a complex machine technology
(ii) extreme specialisation and division of
labour for producing more goods with less
effort, and low costs
(iii) vast capital
(iv) large  organisations
(v) executive bureaucracy.
Uneven Geographic Distribution
Major concentrations of modern manufacturing
have flourished in a few number of places. These
cover less than 10 per cent of the world’s land
area. These nations have become the centres of
economic and political power. However, in terms
of the total area covered, manufacturing sites
are much less conspicuous and concentrated
on much smaller areas than that of agriculture
due to greater intensity of processes. For
example, 2.5 sq km of the American corn belt
usually includes about four large farms
employing about 10-20 workers supporting
50-100 persons. But this same area could
contain several large integrated factories and
employ thousands of workers.
Why do Large-scale Industries choose
different locations?
Industries maximise profits by reducing
costs. Therefore, industries should be located
at points where the production costs are
minimum. Some of the factors influencing
industrial locations are as under:
Access to Market
The existence of a market for manufactured
goods is the most important factor in the location
of industries. ‘Market’ means people who have a
demand for these goods and also have the
purchasing power (ability to purchase) to be able
to purchase from the sellers at a place. Remote
areas inhabited by a few people offer small
markets. The developed regions of Europe, North
America, Japan and Australia provide large
global markets as the purchasing power of the
people is very high. The densely populated
regions of South and South-east Asia also
© NCERT
not to be republished
Secondary Activities     47
provide large markets. Some industries, such
as aircraft manufacturing, have a global market.
The arms industry also has global markets.
Access to Raw Material
Raw material used by industries should be
cheap and easy to transport. Industries based
on cheap, bulky and weight-losing material
(ores) are located close to the sources of raw
material such as steel, sugar, and cement
industries. Perishability is a vital factor for the
industry to be located closer to the source of
the raw material. Agro-processing and dairy
products are processed close to the sources of
farm produce or milk supply respectively.
Access  to Labour Supply
Labour supply is an important factor in the
location of industries. Some types of
manufacturing still require skilled labour.
Increasing mechanisation, automation and
flexibility of industrial processes have reduced
the dependence of industry upon the labours.
Access  to  Sources of Energy
Industries which use more power are located
close to the source of the energy supply such
as the aluminium industry.
Earlier coal was the main source of energy,
today hydroelectricity and petroleum are also
important sources of energy for many
industries.
Access to Transportation and
Communication Facilities
Speedy and efficient transport facilities to carry
raw materials to the factory and to move finished
goods to the market are essential for the
development of industries. The cost of transport
plays an important role in the location of
industrial units. Western Europe and eastern
North America have a highly developed transport
system which has always induced the
concentration of industries in these areas. Modern
industry is inseparably tied to transportation
systems. Improvements in transportation led to
integrated economic development and regional
specialisation of manufacturing.
Communication is also an important need
for industries for the exchange and
management of information.
Government Policy
Governments adopt ‘regional policies’ to
promote ‘balanced’ economic development and
hence set up industries in particular areas.
Access to Agglomeration  Economies/
Links between Industries
Many industries benefit from nearness to a
leader-industry and other industries. These
benefits are termed as agglomeration
economies. Savings are derived from the
linkages which exist between different
industries.
These factors operate together to determine
industrial location.
Foot Loose Industries
Foot loose industries can be located
in a wide variety of places. They are
not dependent on any specific raw
material, weight losing or otherwise.
They largely depend on component
parts which can be obtained
anywhere. They produce in small
quantity and also employ a small
labour force. These are generally not
polluting industries. The important
factor in their location is accessibility
by road network.
Classification of Manufacturing Industries
Manufacturing industries are classified on the
basis of their size, inputs/raw materials,
output/products and ownership (Fig. 6.1).
Industries based on Size
The amount of capital invested, number of
workers employed and volume of production
determine the size of industry. Accordingly,
industries may be classified into household or
cottage, small-scale and large-scale.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


Unit-III
Chapter-6
Secondary Activities
All economic activities namely primary,
secondary, tertiary and quaternary, revolve
around obtaining and utilising resources
necessary for survival.
Secondary activities add value to natural
resources by transforming raw materials into
valuable products. Cotton in the boll has limited
use but after it is transformed into yarn,
becomes more valuable and can be used for
making clothes. Iron ore, cannot be used;
directly from the mines, but after being
converted into steel it gets its value and can be
used for making many valuable machines,
tools, etc. The same is true of most of the
materials from the farm, forest, mine and  the
sea. Secondary activities, therefore, are
concerned with manufacturing, processing and
construction (infrastructure) industries.
MANUF MANUF MANUF MANUF MANUFA A A A ACTURING CTURING CTURING CTURING CTURING
Manufacturing involves a full array of
production from handicrafts to moulding iron
and steel and stamping out plastic toys  to
assembling delicate computer components or
space vehicles. In each of these processes, the
common characteristics are the application of
power, mass production of identical products
and specialised labour in factory settings for
the production of standardised commodities.
Manufacturing may be done with modern
power and machinery or it may still be very
primitive. Most of the Third World countries still
‘manufacture’ in the literal sense of the term. It
is difficult to present a full picture of all the
manufacturers in these countries. More
emphasis is given to the kind of ‘industrial’
activity which involves less complicated systems
of production.
Characteristics  of  Modern Large Scale
Manufacturing
Modern large scale manufacturing has the
following characteristics:
Specialisation of Skills/Methods of
Production
Under the ‘craft’ method factories produce only
a few pieces which are made-to-order.  So the
costs are high. On the other hand, mass
© NCERT
not to be republished
Fundamentals of Human Geography 46
production involves production of large
quantities of standardised parts by each worker
performing only one task repeatedly.
‘Manufacturing’ Industry and
‘Manufacturing Industry’
Manufacturing literally means ‘to
make by hand’. However, now it
includes goods ‘made by machines’.
It is essentially a process which
involves transforming raw materials
into finished goods of higher value
for sale in local or distant markets.
Conceptually, an industry is a
geographically located manufacturing
unit maintaining books of accounts
and, records under a management
system. As the term industry is
comprehensive, it is also used as
synonymous with ‘manufacturing’
When one uses terms like ‘steel
industry’ and ‘chemical industry’ one
thinks of factories and processes.
But there are many secondary
activities which are not carried on in
factories such as what is now called
the ‘entertainment  industry’ and
Tourism industry, etc. So for clarity
the longer expression ‘manufacturing
industry’ is used.
Mechanisation
Mechanisation refers to using gadgets which
accomplish tasks. Automation (without aid of
human thinking during the manufacturing
process) is the advanced stage of mechanisation.
Automatic factories with feedback and closed-
loop computer control systems where machines
are developed to ‘think’, have sprung up all over
the world.
Technological Innovation
Technological innovations through research
and development strategy are an important
aspect of modern manufacturing for quality
control, eliminating waste and inefficiency, and
combating pollution.
Organisational Structure and Stratification
Modern manufacturing is characterised by:
(i) a complex machine technology
(ii) extreme specialisation and division of
labour for producing more goods with less
effort, and low costs
(iii) vast capital
(iv) large  organisations
(v) executive bureaucracy.
Uneven Geographic Distribution
Major concentrations of modern manufacturing
have flourished in a few number of places. These
cover less than 10 per cent of the world’s land
area. These nations have become the centres of
economic and political power. However, in terms
of the total area covered, manufacturing sites
are much less conspicuous and concentrated
on much smaller areas than that of agriculture
due to greater intensity of processes. For
example, 2.5 sq km of the American corn belt
usually includes about four large farms
employing about 10-20 workers supporting
50-100 persons. But this same area could
contain several large integrated factories and
employ thousands of workers.
Why do Large-scale Industries choose
different locations?
Industries maximise profits by reducing
costs. Therefore, industries should be located
at points where the production costs are
minimum. Some of the factors influencing
industrial locations are as under:
Access to Market
The existence of a market for manufactured
goods is the most important factor in the location
of industries. ‘Market’ means people who have a
demand for these goods and also have the
purchasing power (ability to purchase) to be able
to purchase from the sellers at a place. Remote
areas inhabited by a few people offer small
markets. The developed regions of Europe, North
America, Japan and Australia provide large
global markets as the purchasing power of the
people is very high. The densely populated
regions of South and South-east Asia also
© NCERT
not to be republished
Secondary Activities     47
provide large markets. Some industries, such
as aircraft manufacturing, have a global market.
The arms industry also has global markets.
Access to Raw Material
Raw material used by industries should be
cheap and easy to transport. Industries based
on cheap, bulky and weight-losing material
(ores) are located close to the sources of raw
material such as steel, sugar, and cement
industries. Perishability is a vital factor for the
industry to be located closer to the source of
the raw material. Agro-processing and dairy
products are processed close to the sources of
farm produce or milk supply respectively.
Access  to Labour Supply
Labour supply is an important factor in the
location of industries. Some types of
manufacturing still require skilled labour.
Increasing mechanisation, automation and
flexibility of industrial processes have reduced
the dependence of industry upon the labours.
Access  to  Sources of Energy
Industries which use more power are located
close to the source of the energy supply such
as the aluminium industry.
Earlier coal was the main source of energy,
today hydroelectricity and petroleum are also
important sources of energy for many
industries.
Access to Transportation and
Communication Facilities
Speedy and efficient transport facilities to carry
raw materials to the factory and to move finished
goods to the market are essential for the
development of industries. The cost of transport
plays an important role in the location of
industrial units. Western Europe and eastern
North America have a highly developed transport
system which has always induced the
concentration of industries in these areas. Modern
industry is inseparably tied to transportation
systems. Improvements in transportation led to
integrated economic development and regional
specialisation of manufacturing.
Communication is also an important need
for industries for the exchange and
management of information.
Government Policy
Governments adopt ‘regional policies’ to
promote ‘balanced’ economic development and
hence set up industries in particular areas.
Access to Agglomeration  Economies/
Links between Industries
Many industries benefit from nearness to a
leader-industry and other industries. These
benefits are termed as agglomeration
economies. Savings are derived from the
linkages which exist between different
industries.
These factors operate together to determine
industrial location.
Foot Loose Industries
Foot loose industries can be located
in a wide variety of places. They are
not dependent on any specific raw
material, weight losing or otherwise.
They largely depend on component
parts which can be obtained
anywhere. They produce in small
quantity and also employ a small
labour force. These are generally not
polluting industries. The important
factor in their location is accessibility
by road network.
Classification of Manufacturing Industries
Manufacturing industries are classified on the
basis of their size, inputs/raw materials,
output/products and ownership (Fig. 6.1).
Industries based on Size
The amount of capital invested, number of
workers employed and volume of production
determine the size of industry. Accordingly,
industries may be classified into household or
cottage, small-scale and large-scale.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Fundamentals of Human Geography 48
Fig. 6.1 : Classification of Industries
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


Unit-III
Chapter-6
Secondary Activities
All economic activities namely primary,
secondary, tertiary and quaternary, revolve
around obtaining and utilising resources
necessary for survival.
Secondary activities add value to natural
resources by transforming raw materials into
valuable products. Cotton in the boll has limited
use but after it is transformed into yarn,
becomes more valuable and can be used for
making clothes. Iron ore, cannot be used;
directly from the mines, but after being
converted into steel it gets its value and can be
used for making many valuable machines,
tools, etc. The same is true of most of the
materials from the farm, forest, mine and  the
sea. Secondary activities, therefore, are
concerned with manufacturing, processing and
construction (infrastructure) industries.
MANUF MANUF MANUF MANUF MANUFA A A A ACTURING CTURING CTURING CTURING CTURING
Manufacturing involves a full array of
production from handicrafts to moulding iron
and steel and stamping out plastic toys  to
assembling delicate computer components or
space vehicles. In each of these processes, the
common characteristics are the application of
power, mass production of identical products
and specialised labour in factory settings for
the production of standardised commodities.
Manufacturing may be done with modern
power and machinery or it may still be very
primitive. Most of the Third World countries still
‘manufacture’ in the literal sense of the term. It
is difficult to present a full picture of all the
manufacturers in these countries. More
emphasis is given to the kind of ‘industrial’
activity which involves less complicated systems
of production.
Characteristics  of  Modern Large Scale
Manufacturing
Modern large scale manufacturing has the
following characteristics:
Specialisation of Skills/Methods of
Production
Under the ‘craft’ method factories produce only
a few pieces which are made-to-order.  So the
costs are high. On the other hand, mass
© NCERT
not to be republished
Fundamentals of Human Geography 46
production involves production of large
quantities of standardised parts by each worker
performing only one task repeatedly.
‘Manufacturing’ Industry and
‘Manufacturing Industry’
Manufacturing literally means ‘to
make by hand’. However, now it
includes goods ‘made by machines’.
It is essentially a process which
involves transforming raw materials
into finished goods of higher value
for sale in local or distant markets.
Conceptually, an industry is a
geographically located manufacturing
unit maintaining books of accounts
and, records under a management
system. As the term industry is
comprehensive, it is also used as
synonymous with ‘manufacturing’
When one uses terms like ‘steel
industry’ and ‘chemical industry’ one
thinks of factories and processes.
But there are many secondary
activities which are not carried on in
factories such as what is now called
the ‘entertainment  industry’ and
Tourism industry, etc. So for clarity
the longer expression ‘manufacturing
industry’ is used.
Mechanisation
Mechanisation refers to using gadgets which
accomplish tasks. Automation (without aid of
human thinking during the manufacturing
process) is the advanced stage of mechanisation.
Automatic factories with feedback and closed-
loop computer control systems where machines
are developed to ‘think’, have sprung up all over
the world.
Technological Innovation
Technological innovations through research
and development strategy are an important
aspect of modern manufacturing for quality
control, eliminating waste and inefficiency, and
combating pollution.
Organisational Structure and Stratification
Modern manufacturing is characterised by:
(i) a complex machine technology
(ii) extreme specialisation and division of
labour for producing more goods with less
effort, and low costs
(iii) vast capital
(iv) large  organisations
(v) executive bureaucracy.
Uneven Geographic Distribution
Major concentrations of modern manufacturing
have flourished in a few number of places. These
cover less than 10 per cent of the world’s land
area. These nations have become the centres of
economic and political power. However, in terms
of the total area covered, manufacturing sites
are much less conspicuous and concentrated
on much smaller areas than that of agriculture
due to greater intensity of processes. For
example, 2.5 sq km of the American corn belt
usually includes about four large farms
employing about 10-20 workers supporting
50-100 persons. But this same area could
contain several large integrated factories and
employ thousands of workers.
Why do Large-scale Industries choose
different locations?
Industries maximise profits by reducing
costs. Therefore, industries should be located
at points where the production costs are
minimum. Some of the factors influencing
industrial locations are as under:
Access to Market
The existence of a market for manufactured
goods is the most important factor in the location
of industries. ‘Market’ means people who have a
demand for these goods and also have the
purchasing power (ability to purchase) to be able
to purchase from the sellers at a place. Remote
areas inhabited by a few people offer small
markets. The developed regions of Europe, North
America, Japan and Australia provide large
global markets as the purchasing power of the
people is very high. The densely populated
regions of South and South-east Asia also
© NCERT
not to be republished
Secondary Activities     47
provide large markets. Some industries, such
as aircraft manufacturing, have a global market.
The arms industry also has global markets.
Access to Raw Material
Raw material used by industries should be
cheap and easy to transport. Industries based
on cheap, bulky and weight-losing material
(ores) are located close to the sources of raw
material such as steel, sugar, and cement
industries. Perishability is a vital factor for the
industry to be located closer to the source of
the raw material. Agro-processing and dairy
products are processed close to the sources of
farm produce or milk supply respectively.
Access  to Labour Supply
Labour supply is an important factor in the
location of industries. Some types of
manufacturing still require skilled labour.
Increasing mechanisation, automation and
flexibility of industrial processes have reduced
the dependence of industry upon the labours.
Access  to  Sources of Energy
Industries which use more power are located
close to the source of the energy supply such
as the aluminium industry.
Earlier coal was the main source of energy,
today hydroelectricity and petroleum are also
important sources of energy for many
industries.
Access to Transportation and
Communication Facilities
Speedy and efficient transport facilities to carry
raw materials to the factory and to move finished
goods to the market are essential for the
development of industries. The cost of transport
plays an important role in the location of
industrial units. Western Europe and eastern
North America have a highly developed transport
system which has always induced the
concentration of industries in these areas. Modern
industry is inseparably tied to transportation
systems. Improvements in transportation led to
integrated economic development and regional
specialisation of manufacturing.
Communication is also an important need
for industries for the exchange and
management of information.
Government Policy
Governments adopt ‘regional policies’ to
promote ‘balanced’ economic development and
hence set up industries in particular areas.
Access to Agglomeration  Economies/
Links between Industries
Many industries benefit from nearness to a
leader-industry and other industries. These
benefits are termed as agglomeration
economies. Savings are derived from the
linkages which exist between different
industries.
These factors operate together to determine
industrial location.
Foot Loose Industries
Foot loose industries can be located
in a wide variety of places. They are
not dependent on any specific raw
material, weight losing or otherwise.
They largely depend on component
parts which can be obtained
anywhere. They produce in small
quantity and also employ a small
labour force. These are generally not
polluting industries. The important
factor in their location is accessibility
by road network.
Classification of Manufacturing Industries
Manufacturing industries are classified on the
basis of their size, inputs/raw materials,
output/products and ownership (Fig. 6.1).
Industries based on Size
The amount of capital invested, number of
workers employed and volume of production
determine the size of industry. Accordingly,
industries may be classified into household or
cottage, small-scale and large-scale.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Fundamentals of Human Geography 48
Fig. 6.1 : Classification of Industries
© NCERT
not to be republished
Secondary Activities     49
HOUSEHOLD INDUSTRIES OR HOUSEHOLD INDUSTRIES OR HOUSEHOLD INDUSTRIES OR HOUSEHOLD INDUSTRIES OR HOUSEHOLD INDUSTRIES OR
CO CO CO CO COTT TT TT TT TTA A A A AGE MANUF GE MANUF GE MANUF GE MANUF GE MANUFA A A A ACTURING CTURING CTURING CTURING CTURING
It is the smallest manufacturing unit. The
artisans use local raw materials and simple
tools to produce everyday goods in their homes
with the help of their family members or part-
time labour. Finished products may be for
consumption in the same household or,  for sale
in local (village) markets, or, for barter. Capital
and transportation do not wield much influence
as this type of manufacturing has low
commercial significance and most of the tools
are devised locally.
Some common everyday products
produced in this sector of manufacturing
include foodstuffs, fabrics, mats, containers,
tools, furniture, shoes, and figurines from wood
lot and forest, shoes, thongs and other articles from
leather; pottery and bricks from clays and stones.
Goldsmiths make jewellery of gold, silver and
bronze. Some artefacts and crafts are made out of
bamboo, wood obtained locally from the forests.
Small Scale Manufacturing
Small scale manufacturing is distinguished
from household industries by its production
techniques and place of manufacture (a
workshop outside the home/cottage of the
producer). This type of manufacturing uses
local raw material, simple power-driven
machines and semi-skilled labour.  It provides
employment and raises local purchasing power.
Therefore, countries like India, China, Indonesia
and Brazil, etc. have developed labour-intensive
small scale manufacturing in order to provide
employment to their population.
Fig. 6.2 (a) : A man making pots in his courtyard-
example of household industry in Nagaland
Fig. 6.2 (b) : A man weaving a bamboo basket by the
roadside in Arunachal Pradesh
Fig. 6.3: Products of cottage industry on sale
in Assam
Large Scale Manufacturing
Large scale manufacturing involves a large
market, various raw materials, enormous
energy, specialised workers, advanced
technology, assembly-line mass production and
large capital. This kind of manufacturing
developed in the last 200 years, in the United
Kingdom, north-eastern U.S.A. and Europe. Now
it has diffused to almost all over the world.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Read More

Complete Syllabus of Humanities/Arts

Dynamic Test

Content Category

Related Searches

NCERT Textbook - Secondary Activities Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

,

MCQs

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

video lectures

,

Important questions

,

Objective type Questions

,

Free

,

NCERT Textbook - Secondary Activities Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

,

study material

,

Exam

,

NCERT Textbook - Secondary Activities Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

,

Summary

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

past year papers

,

mock tests for examination

,

Viva Questions

,

Semester Notes

,

Sample Paper

,

Extra Questions

,

pdf

,

ppt

,

practice quizzes

;