NCERT Textbook - Structural Change Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Sociology Class 12

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Structural Change Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Structural
Change
1
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Page 2


Structural
Change
1
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Social Change and Development in India
2
U      nderstanding the present usually involves some grasp of its past. This holds
true probably as much for an individual or social group as for an entire country
such as India. India has a long and rich history. While knowing about its past in
ancient and medieval times is very important, its colonial experience is particularly
significant for comprehending modern India. This is not just because many
modern ideas and institutions reached India through colonialism. It is  also
because such an exposure to modern ideas was contradictory or paradoxical.
For example Indians in the colonial period read about western liberalism and
freedom. Yet they lived under a western, colonial rule that denied Indians liberty
and freedom. It is contradictions of this kind that shaped many of the structural
and cultural changes that chapter 1 and 2 looks at.
As the next few chapters shall show, our social reform and nationalist
movement, our laws, our political life and our Constitution, our industry and
agriculture, our cities and our villages have been shaped by our paradoxical
experience with colonialism. This has had lasting implications for our specific
experience with modernity.  The following are just some of the many instances
we face in our daily life.
We have a parliamentary and a legal system, a police and educational system
built very much on the British model. We drive on the left side of the road like the
British. We have ‘bread-omlette’ and ‘cutlets’ as menu offered in many roadside
eateries and canteens. A very popular manufacturer of biscuits, is actually named
after Britain. Many school uniforms include neck-ties. We often admire the west
and as often resent it. These are just some of the many and complex ways that
British colonialism lives on in contemporary India.
Different dimensions of modernity
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Page 3


Structural
Change
1
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Social Change and Development in India
2
U      nderstanding the present usually involves some grasp of its past. This holds
true probably as much for an individual or social group as for an entire country
such as India. India has a long and rich history. While knowing about its past in
ancient and medieval times is very important, its colonial experience is particularly
significant for comprehending modern India. This is not just because many
modern ideas and institutions reached India through colonialism. It is  also
because such an exposure to modern ideas was contradictory or paradoxical.
For example Indians in the colonial period read about western liberalism and
freedom. Yet they lived under a western, colonial rule that denied Indians liberty
and freedom. It is contradictions of this kind that shaped many of the structural
and cultural changes that chapter 1 and 2 looks at.
As the next few chapters shall show, our social reform and nationalist
movement, our laws, our political life and our Constitution, our industry and
agriculture, our cities and our villages have been shaped by our paradoxical
experience with colonialism. This has had lasting implications for our specific
experience with modernity.  The following are just some of the many instances
we face in our daily life.
We have a parliamentary and a legal system, a police and educational system
built very much on the British model. We drive on the left side of the road like the
British. We have ‘bread-omlette’ and ‘cutlets’ as menu offered in many roadside
eateries and canteens. A very popular manufacturer of biscuits, is actually named
after Britain. Many school uniforms include neck-ties. We often admire the west
and as often resent it. These are just some of the many and complex ways that
British colonialism lives on in contemporary India.
Different dimensions of modernity
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Structural Change
3
Let us take the
example of the English
language to show how its
impact has been many
sided and paradoxical in
India. This is not a matter
about wrong spellings
alone. English is not only
widely used in India but
we now have an
impressive body of
literary writings by
Indians in English. This
knowledge of English has given
Indians an edge in the global market.
But English continues to be a mark
of privilege. Not knowing English is a
disadvantage that tells in the job
market. At the same time for those
who were traditionally deprived of
access to formal education such as
the Dalits, knowledge of English may
open doors of opportunities that were
formerly closed.
In this chapter we focus on
structural changes that colonialism
brought in.  We, therefore, need to shift
from this broad impressionistic view
to a clearer understanding of
colonialism as a structure and system.
Colonialism brought into being new
political, economic and social structural
changes. In this chapter we look at only
two of these structural changes namely
industrialisation and urbanisation. While
the focus is on specific colonial context we
also briefly touch on developments after
independence.
All these structural changes were
accompanied by cultural changes which,
we look at in the next chapter. However
any strict separation of the two is difficult.
As you will see the structural changes are
difficult to discuss without some mention
of the cultural changes too.
Ø Think of everyday objects, such as pieces of furniture
or kinds of food, or phrases in Indian languages that
may be traced to our past as a British colony.
Ø Identify a novel or short story or film or television serial
in any Indian language that recounts the times of
colonialism. Discuss its many dimensions.
Ø You must have seen a court scene in a film or television
serial. Did you notice the procedures? Most are borrowed
from the British system. Not too many years
ago Indian judges wore wigs when in court.
Find out where did this practice come from?
ACTIVITY 1.1
Virtually English
Housewives and college students who know English take up
plum assignments as online scorers in BPOs, writes K. Jeshi
It is a familiar classroom scene. The only unfamiliar thing is
the setting. Computer screens turn blackboards and
housewives take over as teachers to evaluate English essays
written by non-English speaking students in Asia. All, at the
click of the mouse. The encouraging comments given by the
evaluators here motivate students in Japan, Korea and China
to learn English.
Online education, the new wave in the BPO segment, is
bringing cheer to those who want to earn a fast buck. All you
need is a flair for English, creative skills, basic computer
knowledge, the drive to go that extra mile and willingness to
learn.
Source: The HINDU, Thursday, May 04, 2006
3
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Page 4


Structural
Change
1
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Social Change and Development in India
2
U      nderstanding the present usually involves some grasp of its past. This holds
true probably as much for an individual or social group as for an entire country
such as India. India has a long and rich history. While knowing about its past in
ancient and medieval times is very important, its colonial experience is particularly
significant for comprehending modern India. This is not just because many
modern ideas and institutions reached India through colonialism. It is  also
because such an exposure to modern ideas was contradictory or paradoxical.
For example Indians in the colonial period read about western liberalism and
freedom. Yet they lived under a western, colonial rule that denied Indians liberty
and freedom. It is contradictions of this kind that shaped many of the structural
and cultural changes that chapter 1 and 2 looks at.
As the next few chapters shall show, our social reform and nationalist
movement, our laws, our political life and our Constitution, our industry and
agriculture, our cities and our villages have been shaped by our paradoxical
experience with colonialism. This has had lasting implications for our specific
experience with modernity.  The following are just some of the many instances
we face in our daily life.
We have a parliamentary and a legal system, a police and educational system
built very much on the British model. We drive on the left side of the road like the
British. We have ‘bread-omlette’ and ‘cutlets’ as menu offered in many roadside
eateries and canteens. A very popular manufacturer of biscuits, is actually named
after Britain. Many school uniforms include neck-ties. We often admire the west
and as often resent it. These are just some of the many and complex ways that
British colonialism lives on in contemporary India.
Different dimensions of modernity
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Structural Change
3
Let us take the
example of the English
language to show how its
impact has been many
sided and paradoxical in
India. This is not a matter
about wrong spellings
alone. English is not only
widely used in India but
we now have an
impressive body of
literary writings by
Indians in English. This
knowledge of English has given
Indians an edge in the global market.
But English continues to be a mark
of privilege. Not knowing English is a
disadvantage that tells in the job
market. At the same time for those
who were traditionally deprived of
access to formal education such as
the Dalits, knowledge of English may
open doors of opportunities that were
formerly closed.
In this chapter we focus on
structural changes that colonialism
brought in.  We, therefore, need to shift
from this broad impressionistic view
to a clearer understanding of
colonialism as a structure and system.
Colonialism brought into being new
political, economic and social structural
changes. In this chapter we look at only
two of these structural changes namely
industrialisation and urbanisation. While
the focus is on specific colonial context we
also briefly touch on developments after
independence.
All these structural changes were
accompanied by cultural changes which,
we look at in the next chapter. However
any strict separation of the two is difficult.
As you will see the structural changes are
difficult to discuss without some mention
of the cultural changes too.
Ø Think of everyday objects, such as pieces of furniture
or kinds of food, or phrases in Indian languages that
may be traced to our past as a British colony.
Ø Identify a novel or short story or film or television serial
in any Indian language that recounts the times of
colonialism. Discuss its many dimensions.
Ø You must have seen a court scene in a film or television
serial. Did you notice the procedures? Most are borrowed
from the British system. Not too many years
ago Indian judges wore wigs when in court.
Find out where did this practice come from?
ACTIVITY 1.1
Virtually English
Housewives and college students who know English take up
plum assignments as online scorers in BPOs, writes K. Jeshi
It is a familiar classroom scene. The only unfamiliar thing is
the setting. Computer screens turn blackboards and
housewives take over as teachers to evaluate English essays
written by non-English speaking students in Asia. All, at the
click of the mouse. The encouraging comments given by the
evaluators here motivate students in Japan, Korea and China
to learn English.
Online education, the new wave in the BPO segment, is
bringing cheer to those who want to earn a fast buck. All you
need is a flair for English, creative skills, basic computer
knowledge, the drive to go that extra mile and willingness to
learn.
Source: The HINDU, Thursday, May 04, 2006
3
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Social Change and Development in India
4
1.1 UNDERSTANDING COLONIALISM
At one level, colonialism simply means
the establishment of rule by one
country over another. In the
modern period western
colonialism has had the
greatest impact.
India’s past has
been marked by the
entry of numerous
groups of people
at different times
who have estab-
lished their rule
over different
parts of what
constitutes modern
India today. The
impact of colonial rule
is distinguishable from
all other earlier rules
because the changes it
brought in were far-reaching and
deep. History is full of examples of the
annexation of foreign territory and the domination
of weaker by stronger powers. Nevertheless, there is a vital difference between
the empire building of pre-capitalist times and that of capitalist times. Apart
from outright pillage, the pre-capitalist conquerors benefited from their
domination by exacting a continuous flow of tribute. On the whole they did not
interfere with the economic base. They simply took the tribute that was skimmed
off the economic surplus that was produced traditionally in the subjugated areas.
(Alavi and Shanin, 1982)
In contrast British colonialism which was based on a capitalist system directly
interfered to ensure greatest profit and benefit to British capitalism. Every policy
was geared towards the strengthening and expansion of British capitalism. For
instance it changed the very laws of the land. It changed not just land ownership
laws but decided even what crops ought to be grown and what ought not to be.
It meddled with the manufacturing sector. It altered the way production and
distribution of goods took place. It entered into the forests. It cleared trees and
started tea plantations. It brought in Forest Acts that changed the lives of
pastoralists. They were prevented from entering many forests that had earlier
provided valuable forage for their cattle. The box carries a brief account of the
impact of colonial forest policy in North-East India.
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Page 5


Structural
Change
1
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Social Change and Development in India
2
U      nderstanding the present usually involves some grasp of its past. This holds
true probably as much for an individual or social group as for an entire country
such as India. India has a long and rich history. While knowing about its past in
ancient and medieval times is very important, its colonial experience is particularly
significant for comprehending modern India. This is not just because many
modern ideas and institutions reached India through colonialism. It is  also
because such an exposure to modern ideas was contradictory or paradoxical.
For example Indians in the colonial period read about western liberalism and
freedom. Yet they lived under a western, colonial rule that denied Indians liberty
and freedom. It is contradictions of this kind that shaped many of the structural
and cultural changes that chapter 1 and 2 looks at.
As the next few chapters shall show, our social reform and nationalist
movement, our laws, our political life and our Constitution, our industry and
agriculture, our cities and our villages have been shaped by our paradoxical
experience with colonialism. This has had lasting implications for our specific
experience with modernity.  The following are just some of the many instances
we face in our daily life.
We have a parliamentary and a legal system, a police and educational system
built very much on the British model. We drive on the left side of the road like the
British. We have ‘bread-omlette’ and ‘cutlets’ as menu offered in many roadside
eateries and canteens. A very popular manufacturer of biscuits, is actually named
after Britain. Many school uniforms include neck-ties. We often admire the west
and as often resent it. These are just some of the many and complex ways that
British colonialism lives on in contemporary India.
Different dimensions of modernity
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Structural Change
3
Let us take the
example of the English
language to show how its
impact has been many
sided and paradoxical in
India. This is not a matter
about wrong spellings
alone. English is not only
widely used in India but
we now have an
impressive body of
literary writings by
Indians in English. This
knowledge of English has given
Indians an edge in the global market.
But English continues to be a mark
of privilege. Not knowing English is a
disadvantage that tells in the job
market. At the same time for those
who were traditionally deprived of
access to formal education such as
the Dalits, knowledge of English may
open doors of opportunities that were
formerly closed.
In this chapter we focus on
structural changes that colonialism
brought in.  We, therefore, need to shift
from this broad impressionistic view
to a clearer understanding of
colonialism as a structure and system.
Colonialism brought into being new
political, economic and social structural
changes. In this chapter we look at only
two of these structural changes namely
industrialisation and urbanisation. While
the focus is on specific colonial context we
also briefly touch on developments after
independence.
All these structural changes were
accompanied by cultural changes which,
we look at in the next chapter. However
any strict separation of the two is difficult.
As you will see the structural changes are
difficult to discuss without some mention
of the cultural changes too.
Ø Think of everyday objects, such as pieces of furniture
or kinds of food, or phrases in Indian languages that
may be traced to our past as a British colony.
Ø Identify a novel or short story or film or television serial
in any Indian language that recounts the times of
colonialism. Discuss its many dimensions.
Ø You must have seen a court scene in a film or television
serial. Did you notice the procedures? Most are borrowed
from the British system. Not too many years
ago Indian judges wore wigs when in court.
Find out where did this practice come from?
ACTIVITY 1.1
Virtually English
Housewives and college students who know English take up
plum assignments as online scorers in BPOs, writes K. Jeshi
It is a familiar classroom scene. The only unfamiliar thing is
the setting. Computer screens turn blackboards and
housewives take over as teachers to evaluate English essays
written by non-English speaking students in Asia. All, at the
click of the mouse. The encouraging comments given by the
evaluators here motivate students in Japan, Korea and China
to learn English.
Online education, the new wave in the BPO segment, is
bringing cheer to those who want to earn a fast buck. All you
need is a flair for English, creative skills, basic computer
knowledge, the drive to go that extra mile and willingness to
learn.
Source: The HINDU, Thursday, May 04, 2006
3
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Social Change and Development in India
4
1.1 UNDERSTANDING COLONIALISM
At one level, colonialism simply means
the establishment of rule by one
country over another. In the
modern period western
colonialism has had the
greatest impact.
India’s past has
been marked by the
entry of numerous
groups of people
at different times
who have estab-
lished their rule
over different
parts of what
constitutes modern
India today. The
impact of colonial rule
is distinguishable from
all other earlier rules
because the changes it
brought in were far-reaching and
deep. History is full of examples of the
annexation of foreign territory and the domination
of weaker by stronger powers. Nevertheless, there is a vital difference between
the empire building of pre-capitalist times and that of capitalist times. Apart
from outright pillage, the pre-capitalist conquerors benefited from their
domination by exacting a continuous flow of tribute. On the whole they did not
interfere with the economic base. They simply took the tribute that was skimmed
off the economic surplus that was produced traditionally in the subjugated areas.
(Alavi and Shanin, 1982)
In contrast British colonialism which was based on a capitalist system directly
interfered to ensure greatest profit and benefit to British capitalism. Every policy
was geared towards the strengthening and expansion of British capitalism. For
instance it changed the very laws of the land. It changed not just land ownership
laws but decided even what crops ought to be grown and what ought not to be.
It meddled with the manufacturing sector. It altered the way production and
distribution of goods took place. It entered into the forests. It cleared trees and
started tea plantations. It brought in Forest Acts that changed the lives of
pastoralists. They were prevented from entering many forests that had earlier
provided valuable forage for their cattle. The box carries a brief account of the
impact of colonial forest policy in North-East India.
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Structural Change
5
Colonialism also led to considerable movement of people. It led to movement
of people from one part to another within India. For instance people from present
day Jharkhand moved to Assam to work on the tea plantations. A newly emerging
middle class particularly from the British Presidency regions of Bengal and
Madras moved as government employees and professionals like doctors and
lawyers moved to different parts of the country. People were carted in ships from
India to work on other colonised lands in distant Asia, Africa and Americas.
Many died on their way. Most could never return. Today many of their descendents
are known as people of Indian origin.
To facilitate the smooth functioning of its
rule, colonialism introduced a wide array of
changes in every sphere, be it legal or cultural
or architectural. Colonialism was a story
apart in the very scale and intensity of the
changes that it brought about. Some of these
changes were deliberate while some took
place in an unintended fashion. For example
we saw how western education was
introduced to create Indians who would
manage British colonialism. Instead it led to
the growth of a nationalist and anti-colonial
consciousness.
This magnitude and depth of the structural changes that colonialism
unleashed can be better grasped if we try and understand some basic features
BOX 1.1 Forest Policy in the Colonial Period in North-East India
… The advent of the railways in Bengal …marked an important turning point, which saw the
conversion of its forest policy in Assam (Assam was then part of the Bengal province) from one of
laissez faire into one of active intervention. …The demand for railway sleepers transformed the forests in
Assam (this included all the present-day seven sister states) from an unproductive wilderness into a lucrative
source of revenue for the colonial administration.
Between 1861 and 1878, an area of approximately
269 square miles had been constituted as reserved
forests. By 1894, the area had gone up to 3,683 square
miles. And, by the end of the nineteenth century, the
area of forests under the department was 20,061
square miles (constituting 42.2 per cent of the total
area of the province), of which 3,609 square miles
comprised reserved forests…   Significantly, large
areas of these forests are located in the hill areas
occupied by tribal communities who for centuries depended upon and lived in close harmony with nature.
(Nongbri, 2003)
After 1834 till 1920, ships left from the
ports of India on a regualr basis carrying
people of various religions, gender,
classes and castes destined to work for a minimum
of five years on one of the plantations in Mauritius.
For many decades the recruiting ground was
centred in Bihar, in particular, in districts such as
Patna, Gaya, Arrah, Saran, Tirhoot, Champaran,
Monghyr, Bhagalpur and Purnea. (Pineo 1984)
BOX 1.2
Train passing through India’s first cr eak bridge
near Thane - 1854
2015-16(21/01/2015)
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