NCERT Textbook - Tertiary And Quaternary Activities Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy

Created by: Mehtab Ahmed

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Tertiary And Quaternary Activities Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Unit-III
Chapter-7
Tertiary and
Quaternary Activities
When you fall ill you go to your family doctor
or you call a doctor. Sometimes your parents
take you to a hospital for treatment. While in
school, you are taught by your teachers. In the
event of any dispute, legal opinion is obtained
from a lawyer. Likewise, there are many
professionals who provide their services against
payment of their fee.  Thus, all types of services
are special skills provided in exchange of
payments. Health, education, law, governance
and recreation etc. require professional skills.
These services require other theoretical
knowledge and practical training. Tertiary
activities are related to the service sector.
Manpower is an important component of the
service sector as most of the tertiary activities
are performed by skilled labour, professionally
trained experts and consultants.
In the initial stages of economic
development, larger proportion of people
worked in the primary sector.  In a developed
economy, the majority of workers get
employment in tertiary activity and a moderate
proportion is employed in the secondary sector.
Tertiary activities include both production
and exchange. The production involves the
‘provision’ of services that are ‘consumed’. The
output is indirectly measured in terms of wages
and salaries. Exchange, involves trade,
transport and communication facilities that are
used to overcome distance. Tertiary activities,
therefore, involve the commercial output of
services rather than the production of tangible
goods. They are not directly involved in the
processing of physical raw materials. Common
examples are the work of a plumber, electrician,
technician, launderer, barber, shopkeeper,
driver, cashier, teacher, doctor, lawyer and
publisher etc. The main difference between
secondary activities and tertiary activities is that
the expertise provided by services relies more
heavily on specialised skills, experience and
knowledge of the workers rather than on the
production techniques, machinery and factory
processes.
TYPES OF TERTIARY ACTIVITIES
By now you know that you purchase your
books, stationery from traders shop, travel by
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


Unit-III
Chapter-7
Tertiary and
Quaternary Activities
When you fall ill you go to your family doctor
or you call a doctor. Sometimes your parents
take you to a hospital for treatment. While in
school, you are taught by your teachers. In the
event of any dispute, legal opinion is obtained
from a lawyer. Likewise, there are many
professionals who provide their services against
payment of their fee.  Thus, all types of services
are special skills provided in exchange of
payments. Health, education, law, governance
and recreation etc. require professional skills.
These services require other theoretical
knowledge and practical training. Tertiary
activities are related to the service sector.
Manpower is an important component of the
service sector as most of the tertiary activities
are performed by skilled labour, professionally
trained experts and consultants.
In the initial stages of economic
development, larger proportion of people
worked in the primary sector.  In a developed
economy, the majority of workers get
employment in tertiary activity and a moderate
proportion is employed in the secondary sector.
Tertiary activities include both production
and exchange. The production involves the
‘provision’ of services that are ‘consumed’. The
output is indirectly measured in terms of wages
and salaries. Exchange, involves trade,
transport and communication facilities that are
used to overcome distance. Tertiary activities,
therefore, involve the commercial output of
services rather than the production of tangible
goods. They are not directly involved in the
processing of physical raw materials. Common
examples are the work of a plumber, electrician,
technician, launderer, barber, shopkeeper,
driver, cashier, teacher, doctor, lawyer and
publisher etc. The main difference between
secondary activities and tertiary activities is that
the expertise provided by services relies more
heavily on specialised skills, experience and
knowledge of the workers rather than on the
production techniques, machinery and factory
processes.
TYPES OF TERTIARY ACTIVITIES
By now you know that you purchase your
books, stationery from traders shop, travel by
© NCERT
not to be republished
Fundamentals of Human Geography 56
Fig. 7.1: Service Sector
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


Unit-III
Chapter-7
Tertiary and
Quaternary Activities
When you fall ill you go to your family doctor
or you call a doctor. Sometimes your parents
take you to a hospital for treatment. While in
school, you are taught by your teachers. In the
event of any dispute, legal opinion is obtained
from a lawyer. Likewise, there are many
professionals who provide their services against
payment of their fee.  Thus, all types of services
are special skills provided in exchange of
payments. Health, education, law, governance
and recreation etc. require professional skills.
These services require other theoretical
knowledge and practical training. Tertiary
activities are related to the service sector.
Manpower is an important component of the
service sector as most of the tertiary activities
are performed by skilled labour, professionally
trained experts and consultants.
In the initial stages of economic
development, larger proportion of people
worked in the primary sector.  In a developed
economy, the majority of workers get
employment in tertiary activity and a moderate
proportion is employed in the secondary sector.
Tertiary activities include both production
and exchange. The production involves the
‘provision’ of services that are ‘consumed’. The
output is indirectly measured in terms of wages
and salaries. Exchange, involves trade,
transport and communication facilities that are
used to overcome distance. Tertiary activities,
therefore, involve the commercial output of
services rather than the production of tangible
goods. They are not directly involved in the
processing of physical raw materials. Common
examples are the work of a plumber, electrician,
technician, launderer, barber, shopkeeper,
driver, cashier, teacher, doctor, lawyer and
publisher etc. The main difference between
secondary activities and tertiary activities is that
the expertise provided by services relies more
heavily on specialised skills, experience and
knowledge of the workers rather than on the
production techniques, machinery and factory
processes.
TYPES OF TERTIARY ACTIVITIES
By now you know that you purchase your
books, stationery from traders shop, travel by
© NCERT
not to be republished
Fundamentals of Human Geography 56
Fig. 7.1: Service Sector
© NCERT
not to be republished
Tertiary and Quaternary Activities     57
bus or rail, send letters, talk on telephone and
obtain services of teachers for studies and
doctors at the time of illness.
Thus, trade, transport, communication
and services are some of the tertiary activities
discussed in this section. The chart provides
the basis for classifying the tertiary activities.
Trade and commerce
Trade is essentially buying and selling of items
produced elsewhere. All the services in retail
and wholesale trading or commerce are
specifically intended for profit.  The towns and
cities where all these works  take place are
known us trading centres.
The rise of trading from barter at the local
level to money-exchange of international scale
has produced many centres and institutions
such as trading centres or collection and
distribution points.
Trading centres may be divided into rural
and urban marketing centres.
Rural marketing centres cater to nearby
settlements.  These are quasi-urban centres.
They serve as trading centres of the most
rudimentary type. Here personal and
professional services are not well-developed.
These form local collecting and distributing
centres.  Most of these have mandis (wholesale
markets) and also retailing areas. They are not
urban centres per se but are significant centres
for making available goods and services which
are most frequently demanded by rural folk.
Fig. 7.2: A Wholesale Vegetable Market
Periodic markets in rural areas are found
where there are no regular markets and local
periodic markets are organised at different
temporal intervals. These may be weekly, bi-
weekly markets from where people from the
surrounding areas meet their temporally
accumulated demand. These markets are
held on specified dates and move from one
place to another. The shopkeepers thus,
remain busy on all the days while a large area
is served by them.
Urban marketing centres have more widely
specialised urban services. They provide
ordinary goods and services as well as many of
the specialised goods and services required by
people. Urban centres, therefore, offer
manufactured goods as well as many
specialised markets develop, e.g. markets for
labour, housing, semi or finished products.
Services of educational institutions and
professionals such as teachers, lawyers,
consultants, physicians, dentists and veterinary
doctors are available.
Fig. 7.3: Packed Food Market in U.S.A.
Retail Trading
This is the business activity concerned with the
sale of goods directly to the consumers. Most
of the retail trading takes place in fixed
establishments or stores solely devoted to
selling. Street peddling, handcarts, trucks,
door-to-door, mail-order, telephone, automatic
vending machines and internet are examples
of non-store retail trading.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


Unit-III
Chapter-7
Tertiary and
Quaternary Activities
When you fall ill you go to your family doctor
or you call a doctor. Sometimes your parents
take you to a hospital for treatment. While in
school, you are taught by your teachers. In the
event of any dispute, legal opinion is obtained
from a lawyer. Likewise, there are many
professionals who provide their services against
payment of their fee.  Thus, all types of services
are special skills provided in exchange of
payments. Health, education, law, governance
and recreation etc. require professional skills.
These services require other theoretical
knowledge and practical training. Tertiary
activities are related to the service sector.
Manpower is an important component of the
service sector as most of the tertiary activities
are performed by skilled labour, professionally
trained experts and consultants.
In the initial stages of economic
development, larger proportion of people
worked in the primary sector.  In a developed
economy, the majority of workers get
employment in tertiary activity and a moderate
proportion is employed in the secondary sector.
Tertiary activities include both production
and exchange. The production involves the
‘provision’ of services that are ‘consumed’. The
output is indirectly measured in terms of wages
and salaries. Exchange, involves trade,
transport and communication facilities that are
used to overcome distance. Tertiary activities,
therefore, involve the commercial output of
services rather than the production of tangible
goods. They are not directly involved in the
processing of physical raw materials. Common
examples are the work of a plumber, electrician,
technician, launderer, barber, shopkeeper,
driver, cashier, teacher, doctor, lawyer and
publisher etc. The main difference between
secondary activities and tertiary activities is that
the expertise provided by services relies more
heavily on specialised skills, experience and
knowledge of the workers rather than on the
production techniques, machinery and factory
processes.
TYPES OF TERTIARY ACTIVITIES
By now you know that you purchase your
books, stationery from traders shop, travel by
© NCERT
not to be republished
Fundamentals of Human Geography 56
Fig. 7.1: Service Sector
© NCERT
not to be republished
Tertiary and Quaternary Activities     57
bus or rail, send letters, talk on telephone and
obtain services of teachers for studies and
doctors at the time of illness.
Thus, trade, transport, communication
and services are some of the tertiary activities
discussed in this section. The chart provides
the basis for classifying the tertiary activities.
Trade and commerce
Trade is essentially buying and selling of items
produced elsewhere. All the services in retail
and wholesale trading or commerce are
specifically intended for profit.  The towns and
cities where all these works  take place are
known us trading centres.
The rise of trading from barter at the local
level to money-exchange of international scale
has produced many centres and institutions
such as trading centres or collection and
distribution points.
Trading centres may be divided into rural
and urban marketing centres.
Rural marketing centres cater to nearby
settlements.  These are quasi-urban centres.
They serve as trading centres of the most
rudimentary type. Here personal and
professional services are not well-developed.
These form local collecting and distributing
centres.  Most of these have mandis (wholesale
markets) and also retailing areas. They are not
urban centres per se but are significant centres
for making available goods and services which
are most frequently demanded by rural folk.
Fig. 7.2: A Wholesale Vegetable Market
Periodic markets in rural areas are found
where there are no regular markets and local
periodic markets are organised at different
temporal intervals. These may be weekly, bi-
weekly markets from where people from the
surrounding areas meet their temporally
accumulated demand. These markets are
held on specified dates and move from one
place to another. The shopkeepers thus,
remain busy on all the days while a large area
is served by them.
Urban marketing centres have more widely
specialised urban services. They provide
ordinary goods and services as well as many of
the specialised goods and services required by
people. Urban centres, therefore, offer
manufactured goods as well as many
specialised markets develop, e.g. markets for
labour, housing, semi or finished products.
Services of educational institutions and
professionals such as teachers, lawyers,
consultants, physicians, dentists and veterinary
doctors are available.
Fig. 7.3: Packed Food Market in U.S.A.
Retail Trading
This is the business activity concerned with the
sale of goods directly to the consumers. Most
of the retail trading takes place in fixed
establishments or stores solely devoted to
selling. Street peddling, handcarts, trucks,
door-to-door, mail-order, telephone, automatic
vending machines and internet are examples
of non-store retail trading.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Fundamentals of Human Geography 58
More on Stores
Consumer  cooperatives were the first of
the large-scale innovations in retailing.
Departmental stores delegate the
responsibility and authority to departmental
heads for purchasing of commodities and
for overseeing the sale in different sections
of the stores.
Chain stores are able to purchase
merchandise most economically, often
going so far as to direct the goods to be
manufactured to their specification.  They
employ highly skilled specialists in many
executive tasks. They have the ability to
experiment in one store and apply the
results to many.
Wholesale Trading
Wholesale trading constitutes bulk business
through numerous intermediary merchants
and supply houses and not through retail
stores. Some large stores including chain stores
are able to buy directly from the manufacturers.
However, most retail stores procure supplies
from an intermediary source.   Wholesalers often
extend credit to retail stores to such an extent
that the retailer operates very largely on the
wholesaler’s capital.
Transport
Transport is a service or facility by which
people, materials and manufactured goods
are physically carried from one location to
another. It is an organised industry created
to satisfy man’s basic need of mobility.
Modern society requires speedy and efficient
transport systems to assist in the production,
distribution and consumption of goods. At
every stage in this complex system, the value
of the material is significantly enhanced by
transportation.
Transport distance can be measured as:
km distance or actual distance of route length;
time distance or the time taken to travel on a
particular route; and cost distance or the
expense of travelling on a route. In selecting the
mode of transport, distance, in terms of time or
cost, is the determining factor. Isochrone lines
are drawn on a map to join places equal in terms
of the time taken to reach them.
Network and Accessibility
As transport systems develop, different
places are linked together to form  a
network. Networks are made up of nodes
and links. A node is the meeting point of
two or more routes, a point of origin, a point
of destination or any sizeable town along a
route, Every road that joins two nodes is
called a link.  A developed network has
many links, which means that places are
well-connected.
Factors Affecting Transport
Demand for transport is influenced by the size
of population. The larger the population size,
the greater is the demand for transport.
Routes depend on: location of cities,
towns, villages, industrial centres and raw
materials, pattern of trade between them, nature
of the landscape between them, type of climate,
and funds available for overcoming obstacles
along the length of the route.
Communication
Communication services involve the
transmission of words and messages, facts
and ideas. The invention of writing preserved
messages and helped to make communication
dependent on means of transport. These were
actually carried by hand, animals, boat, road,
rail and air. That is why all forms of transport
are also referred to as lines of communication.
Where the transport network is efficient,
communications are easily disseminated.
Certain developments, such as mobile
telephony and satellites, have made
communications independent of transport. All
forms are not fully disassociated because of the
cheapness of the older systems. Thus, very
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


Unit-III
Chapter-7
Tertiary and
Quaternary Activities
When you fall ill you go to your family doctor
or you call a doctor. Sometimes your parents
take you to a hospital for treatment. While in
school, you are taught by your teachers. In the
event of any dispute, legal opinion is obtained
from a lawyer. Likewise, there are many
professionals who provide their services against
payment of their fee.  Thus, all types of services
are special skills provided in exchange of
payments. Health, education, law, governance
and recreation etc. require professional skills.
These services require other theoretical
knowledge and practical training. Tertiary
activities are related to the service sector.
Manpower is an important component of the
service sector as most of the tertiary activities
are performed by skilled labour, professionally
trained experts and consultants.
In the initial stages of economic
development, larger proportion of people
worked in the primary sector.  In a developed
economy, the majority of workers get
employment in tertiary activity and a moderate
proportion is employed in the secondary sector.
Tertiary activities include both production
and exchange. The production involves the
‘provision’ of services that are ‘consumed’. The
output is indirectly measured in terms of wages
and salaries. Exchange, involves trade,
transport and communication facilities that are
used to overcome distance. Tertiary activities,
therefore, involve the commercial output of
services rather than the production of tangible
goods. They are not directly involved in the
processing of physical raw materials. Common
examples are the work of a plumber, electrician,
technician, launderer, barber, shopkeeper,
driver, cashier, teacher, doctor, lawyer and
publisher etc. The main difference between
secondary activities and tertiary activities is that
the expertise provided by services relies more
heavily on specialised skills, experience and
knowledge of the workers rather than on the
production techniques, machinery and factory
processes.
TYPES OF TERTIARY ACTIVITIES
By now you know that you purchase your
books, stationery from traders shop, travel by
© NCERT
not to be republished
Fundamentals of Human Geography 56
Fig. 7.1: Service Sector
© NCERT
not to be republished
Tertiary and Quaternary Activities     57
bus or rail, send letters, talk on telephone and
obtain services of teachers for studies and
doctors at the time of illness.
Thus, trade, transport, communication
and services are some of the tertiary activities
discussed in this section. The chart provides
the basis for classifying the tertiary activities.
Trade and commerce
Trade is essentially buying and selling of items
produced elsewhere. All the services in retail
and wholesale trading or commerce are
specifically intended for profit.  The towns and
cities where all these works  take place are
known us trading centres.
The rise of trading from barter at the local
level to money-exchange of international scale
has produced many centres and institutions
such as trading centres or collection and
distribution points.
Trading centres may be divided into rural
and urban marketing centres.
Rural marketing centres cater to nearby
settlements.  These are quasi-urban centres.
They serve as trading centres of the most
rudimentary type. Here personal and
professional services are not well-developed.
These form local collecting and distributing
centres.  Most of these have mandis (wholesale
markets) and also retailing areas. They are not
urban centres per se but are significant centres
for making available goods and services which
are most frequently demanded by rural folk.
Fig. 7.2: A Wholesale Vegetable Market
Periodic markets in rural areas are found
where there are no regular markets and local
periodic markets are organised at different
temporal intervals. These may be weekly, bi-
weekly markets from where people from the
surrounding areas meet their temporally
accumulated demand. These markets are
held on specified dates and move from one
place to another. The shopkeepers thus,
remain busy on all the days while a large area
is served by them.
Urban marketing centres have more widely
specialised urban services. They provide
ordinary goods and services as well as many of
the specialised goods and services required by
people. Urban centres, therefore, offer
manufactured goods as well as many
specialised markets develop, e.g. markets for
labour, housing, semi or finished products.
Services of educational institutions and
professionals such as teachers, lawyers,
consultants, physicians, dentists and veterinary
doctors are available.
Fig. 7.3: Packed Food Market in U.S.A.
Retail Trading
This is the business activity concerned with the
sale of goods directly to the consumers. Most
of the retail trading takes place in fixed
establishments or stores solely devoted to
selling. Street peddling, handcarts, trucks,
door-to-door, mail-order, telephone, automatic
vending machines and internet are examples
of non-store retail trading.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Fundamentals of Human Geography 58
More on Stores
Consumer  cooperatives were the first of
the large-scale innovations in retailing.
Departmental stores delegate the
responsibility and authority to departmental
heads for purchasing of commodities and
for overseeing the sale in different sections
of the stores.
Chain stores are able to purchase
merchandise most economically, often
going so far as to direct the goods to be
manufactured to their specification.  They
employ highly skilled specialists in many
executive tasks. They have the ability to
experiment in one store and apply the
results to many.
Wholesale Trading
Wholesale trading constitutes bulk business
through numerous intermediary merchants
and supply houses and not through retail
stores. Some large stores including chain stores
are able to buy directly from the manufacturers.
However, most retail stores procure supplies
from an intermediary source.   Wholesalers often
extend credit to retail stores to such an extent
that the retailer operates very largely on the
wholesaler’s capital.
Transport
Transport is a service or facility by which
people, materials and manufactured goods
are physically carried from one location to
another. It is an organised industry created
to satisfy man’s basic need of mobility.
Modern society requires speedy and efficient
transport systems to assist in the production,
distribution and consumption of goods. At
every stage in this complex system, the value
of the material is significantly enhanced by
transportation.
Transport distance can be measured as:
km distance or actual distance of route length;
time distance or the time taken to travel on a
particular route; and cost distance or the
expense of travelling on a route. In selecting the
mode of transport, distance, in terms of time or
cost, is the determining factor. Isochrone lines
are drawn on a map to join places equal in terms
of the time taken to reach them.
Network and Accessibility
As transport systems develop, different
places are linked together to form  a
network. Networks are made up of nodes
and links. A node is the meeting point of
two or more routes, a point of origin, a point
of destination or any sizeable town along a
route, Every road that joins two nodes is
called a link.  A developed network has
many links, which means that places are
well-connected.
Factors Affecting Transport
Demand for transport is influenced by the size
of population. The larger the population size,
the greater is the demand for transport.
Routes depend on: location of cities,
towns, villages, industrial centres and raw
materials, pattern of trade between them, nature
of the landscape between them, type of climate,
and funds available for overcoming obstacles
along the length of the route.
Communication
Communication services involve the
transmission of words and messages, facts
and ideas. The invention of writing preserved
messages and helped to make communication
dependent on means of transport. These were
actually carried by hand, animals, boat, road,
rail and air. That is why all forms of transport
are also referred to as lines of communication.
Where the transport network is efficient,
communications are easily disseminated.
Certain developments, such as mobile
telephony and satellites, have made
communications independent of transport. All
forms are not fully disassociated because of the
cheapness of the older systems. Thus, very
© NCERT
not to be republished
Tertiary and Quaternary Activities     59
large volumes of mail continue to be handled
by post offices all over the world.
Some of the communication services are
discussed below.
Telecommunications
The use of telecommunications is linked to the
development of modern technology. It has
revolutionised communications because of the
speed with which messages are sent.  The time
reduced is from weeks to minutes. Besides, the
recent advancements like mobile telephony
have made communications direct and
instantaneous at any time and from anywhere.
The telegraph, morse code and telex have almost
become  things of the past.
Radio and television also help to relay
news, pictures, and telephone calls to vast
audiences around the world and hence they are
termed as mass media.  They are vital for
advertising and entertainment. Newspapers are
able to cover events in all corners of the world.
Satellite communication relays information of
the earth and from space. The internet has truly
revolutionised the global communication
system .
Services
Services occur at many different levels. Some
are geared to industry, some to people, and some
to both industry and people, e.g. the transport
systems.  Low-order services, such as grocery
shops and laundries, are more common and
widespread than high-order services or more
specialised ones like those of accountants,
consultants and physicians. Services are
provided to individual consumers who can
afford to pay for them. For example, the
gardener, the launderers and the barber do
primarily physical labour. Teacher, lawyers,
physicians, musicians and others perform
mental labour.
 Many services have now been regulated.
Making and maintaining highways and
bridges, maintaining fire fighting departments
and supplying or supervising education and
customer-care are among the important
services most often supervised or performed by
governments or companies.  State and union
legislation have established corporations to
supervise and control the marketing of such
services as transport, telecommunication,
energy and water supply. Professional services
are primarily health care, engineering, law and
management. The location of recreational and
entertainment services depends on the market.
Multiplexes and restaurants might find location
within or near the Central Business District
(CBD), whereas a golf course would choose a
site where land costs are lower than in the CBD.
Personal services are made available to the
people to facilitate their work in daily life. The
workers migrate from rural areas in search of
employment and are unskilled. They are
employed in domestic services as
housekeepers, cooks, and gardeners. This
segment of workers is generally unorganised.
One such example in India is Mumbai’s
dabbawala (Tiffin) service provided to about
1,75,000 customers all over the city.
Fig. 7.4: Dabbawala Service in Mumbai
PEOPLE  ENGAGED  IN PEOPLE  ENGAGED  IN PEOPLE  ENGAGED  IN PEOPLE  ENGAGED  IN PEOPLE  ENGAGED  IN
TER TER TER TER TERTIAR TIAR TIAR TIAR TIARY ACTIVITIES Y ACTIVITIES Y ACTIVITIES Y ACTIVITIES Y ACTIVITIES
Today most people are service workers. Services
are provided in all societies. But in more
developed countries a higher percentage of
workers is employed in providing services as
compared to less developed countries.  The
trend in employment in this sector has been
© NCERT
not to be republished
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