NCERT Textbook - The Delhi Sultans Class 7 Notes | EduRev

Social Studies (SST) Class 7

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - The Delhi Sultans Class 7 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


30 OUR PASTS — II
I
n Chapter 2 we saw that regions like the Kaveri delta
 became the centre of large kingdoms. Did you notice
that there was no mention of a kingdom with Delhi as
its capital? That was because Delhi became an
important city only in the twelfth century.
Take a look at Table 1. Delhi first became the capital
of a kingdom under the Tomara Rajputs, who were
defeated in the middle of the twelfth century by the
Chauhans (also referred to as Chahamanas) of Ajmer. It
was under the Tomaras and Chauhans that Delhi
became an important commercial centre. Many rich Jaina
merchants lived in the city and constructed several
temples. Coins minted here, called
dehliwal, had a wide circulation.
The transformation of Delhi into
a capital that controlled vast areas
of the subcontinent started with
the foundation of the Delhi
Sultanate in the beginning of the
thirteenth century. Take a look at
Table 1 again and identify the five
dynasties that together made the
Delhi Sultanate.
The Delhi Sultans built many
cities in the area that we now
know as Delhi. Look at Map 1
and locate Dehli-i Kuhna, Siri
and Jahanpanah.
3
THE DELHI SULTANS
Map 1 Map 1 Map 1 Map 1 Map 1
Selected Sultanate
cities of Delhi,
thirteenth-fourteenth
centuries.
©NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


30 OUR PASTS — II
I
n Chapter 2 we saw that regions like the Kaveri delta
 became the centre of large kingdoms. Did you notice
that there was no mention of a kingdom with Delhi as
its capital? That was because Delhi became an
important city only in the twelfth century.
Take a look at Table 1. Delhi first became the capital
of a kingdom under the Tomara Rajputs, who were
defeated in the middle of the twelfth century by the
Chauhans (also referred to as Chahamanas) of Ajmer. It
was under the Tomaras and Chauhans that Delhi
became an important commercial centre. Many rich Jaina
merchants lived in the city and constructed several
temples. Coins minted here, called
dehliwal, had a wide circulation.
The transformation of Delhi into
a capital that controlled vast areas
of the subcontinent started with
the foundation of the Delhi
Sultanate in the beginning of the
thirteenth century. Take a look at
Table 1 again and identify the five
dynasties that together made the
Delhi Sultanate.
The Delhi Sultans built many
cities in the area that we now
know as Delhi. Look at Map 1
and locate Dehli-i Kuhna, Siri
and Jahanpanah.
3
THE DELHI SULTANS
Map 1 Map 1 Map 1 Map 1 Map 1
Selected Sultanate
cities of Delhi,
thirteenth-fourteenth
centuries.
©NCERT
not to be republished
31
RAJPUT DYNASTIES RAJPUT DYNASTIES RAJPUT DYNASTIES RAJPUT DYNASTIES RAJPUT DYNASTIES
Tomaras early twelfth century - 1165
Ananga Pala 1130 -1145
Chauhans 1165 -1192
Prithviraj Chauhan 1175 -1192
EARLY TURKISH RULERS EARLY TURKISH RULERS EARLY TURKISH RULERS EARLY TURKISH RULERS EARLY TURKISH RULERS 1206-1290 1206-1290 1206-1290 1206-1290 1206-1290
Qutbuddin Aybak 1206 -1210
Shamsuddin Iltutmish 1210 -1236
Raziyya 1236 -1240
Ghiyasuddin Balban 1266 -1287
KHALJI DYNASTY KHALJI DYNASTY KHALJI DYNASTY KHALJI DYNASTY KHALJI DYNASTY 1290 - 1320 1290 - 1320 1290 - 1320 1290 - 1320 1290 - 1320
Jalaluddin Khalji 1290 - 1296
Alauddin Khalji 1296 -1316
TUGHLUQ DYNASTY TUGHLUQ DYNASTY TUGHLUQ DYNASTY TUGHLUQ DYNASTY TUGHLUQ DYNASTY 1320 - 1414 1320 - 1414 1320 - 1414 1320 - 1414 1320 - 1414
Ghiyasuddin Tughluq 1320 -1324
Muhammad Tughluq 1324 -1351
Firuz Shah Tughluq 1351 -1388
SAYYID DYNASTY SAYYID DYNASTY SAYYID DYNASTY SAYYID DYNASTY SAYYID DYNASTY 1414 - 1451 1414 - 1451 1414 - 1451 1414 - 1451 1414 - 1451
Khizr Khan 1414 -1421
LODI DYNASTY LODI DYNASTY LODI DYNASTY LODI DYNASTY LODI DYNASTY 1451 - 1526 1451 - 1526 1451 - 1526 1451 - 1526 1451 - 1526
Bahlul Lodi 1451 -1489
The rulers of Delhi
Table 1
Iltutmish’s tomb
Alai Darwaza
Firuz Shah Tughluq’s tomb
THE DELHI SULTANS
©NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


30 OUR PASTS — II
I
n Chapter 2 we saw that regions like the Kaveri delta
 became the centre of large kingdoms. Did you notice
that there was no mention of a kingdom with Delhi as
its capital? That was because Delhi became an
important city only in the twelfth century.
Take a look at Table 1. Delhi first became the capital
of a kingdom under the Tomara Rajputs, who were
defeated in the middle of the twelfth century by the
Chauhans (also referred to as Chahamanas) of Ajmer. It
was under the Tomaras and Chauhans that Delhi
became an important commercial centre. Many rich Jaina
merchants lived in the city and constructed several
temples. Coins minted here, called
dehliwal, had a wide circulation.
The transformation of Delhi into
a capital that controlled vast areas
of the subcontinent started with
the foundation of the Delhi
Sultanate in the beginning of the
thirteenth century. Take a look at
Table 1 again and identify the five
dynasties that together made the
Delhi Sultanate.
The Delhi Sultans built many
cities in the area that we now
know as Delhi. Look at Map 1
and locate Dehli-i Kuhna, Siri
and Jahanpanah.
3
THE DELHI SULTANS
Map 1 Map 1 Map 1 Map 1 Map 1
Selected Sultanate
cities of Delhi,
thirteenth-fourteenth
centuries.
©NCERT
not to be republished
31
RAJPUT DYNASTIES RAJPUT DYNASTIES RAJPUT DYNASTIES RAJPUT DYNASTIES RAJPUT DYNASTIES
Tomaras early twelfth century - 1165
Ananga Pala 1130 -1145
Chauhans 1165 -1192
Prithviraj Chauhan 1175 -1192
EARLY TURKISH RULERS EARLY TURKISH RULERS EARLY TURKISH RULERS EARLY TURKISH RULERS EARLY TURKISH RULERS 1206-1290 1206-1290 1206-1290 1206-1290 1206-1290
Qutbuddin Aybak 1206 -1210
Shamsuddin Iltutmish 1210 -1236
Raziyya 1236 -1240
Ghiyasuddin Balban 1266 -1287
KHALJI DYNASTY KHALJI DYNASTY KHALJI DYNASTY KHALJI DYNASTY KHALJI DYNASTY 1290 - 1320 1290 - 1320 1290 - 1320 1290 - 1320 1290 - 1320
Jalaluddin Khalji 1290 - 1296
Alauddin Khalji 1296 -1316
TUGHLUQ DYNASTY TUGHLUQ DYNASTY TUGHLUQ DYNASTY TUGHLUQ DYNASTY TUGHLUQ DYNASTY 1320 - 1414 1320 - 1414 1320 - 1414 1320 - 1414 1320 - 1414
Ghiyasuddin Tughluq 1320 -1324
Muhammad Tughluq 1324 -1351
Firuz Shah Tughluq 1351 -1388
SAYYID DYNASTY SAYYID DYNASTY SAYYID DYNASTY SAYYID DYNASTY SAYYID DYNASTY 1414 - 1451 1414 - 1451 1414 - 1451 1414 - 1451 1414 - 1451
Khizr Khan 1414 -1421
LODI DYNASTY LODI DYNASTY LODI DYNASTY LODI DYNASTY LODI DYNASTY 1451 - 1526 1451 - 1526 1451 - 1526 1451 - 1526 1451 - 1526
Bahlul Lodi 1451 -1489
The rulers of Delhi
Table 1
Iltutmish’s tomb
Alai Darwaza
Firuz Shah Tughluq’s tomb
THE DELHI SULTANS
©NCERT
not to be republished
32 OUR PASTS — II
?
Finding out about the Delhi Sultans
Although inscriptions, coins and architecture provide
a lot of information, especially valuable are “histories”,
tarikh (singular) / tawarikh (plural), written in Persian,
the language of administration under the Delhi Sultans.
The authors of tawarikh were learned men:
secretaries, administrators, poets and courtiers, who
both recounted events and advised rulers on
governance, emphasising the importance of just rule.
The Circle of Justice
Fakhr-i Mudabbir wrote in the thirteenth century:
 A king cannot survive without soldiers. And soldiers cannot
live without salaries. Salaries come from the revenue collected
from peasants. But peasants can pay revenue only when they
are prosperous and happy. This happens when the king
promotes justice and honest governance.
Fig.1
Four stages in the
preparation of a
manuscript.
1. Preparing the paper.
2. Writing the text.
3. Melting gold to
highlight important
words and passages.
4. Preparing the
binding.
Do you think the
circle of justice is
an appropriate
term to describe
the relationship
between the king
and his subjects?
1 2
3 4
©NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


30 OUR PASTS — II
I
n Chapter 2 we saw that regions like the Kaveri delta
 became the centre of large kingdoms. Did you notice
that there was no mention of a kingdom with Delhi as
its capital? That was because Delhi became an
important city only in the twelfth century.
Take a look at Table 1. Delhi first became the capital
of a kingdom under the Tomara Rajputs, who were
defeated in the middle of the twelfth century by the
Chauhans (also referred to as Chahamanas) of Ajmer. It
was under the Tomaras and Chauhans that Delhi
became an important commercial centre. Many rich Jaina
merchants lived in the city and constructed several
temples. Coins minted here, called
dehliwal, had a wide circulation.
The transformation of Delhi into
a capital that controlled vast areas
of the subcontinent started with
the foundation of the Delhi
Sultanate in the beginning of the
thirteenth century. Take a look at
Table 1 again and identify the five
dynasties that together made the
Delhi Sultanate.
The Delhi Sultans built many
cities in the area that we now
know as Delhi. Look at Map 1
and locate Dehli-i Kuhna, Siri
and Jahanpanah.
3
THE DELHI SULTANS
Map 1 Map 1 Map 1 Map 1 Map 1
Selected Sultanate
cities of Delhi,
thirteenth-fourteenth
centuries.
©NCERT
not to be republished
31
RAJPUT DYNASTIES RAJPUT DYNASTIES RAJPUT DYNASTIES RAJPUT DYNASTIES RAJPUT DYNASTIES
Tomaras early twelfth century - 1165
Ananga Pala 1130 -1145
Chauhans 1165 -1192
Prithviraj Chauhan 1175 -1192
EARLY TURKISH RULERS EARLY TURKISH RULERS EARLY TURKISH RULERS EARLY TURKISH RULERS EARLY TURKISH RULERS 1206-1290 1206-1290 1206-1290 1206-1290 1206-1290
Qutbuddin Aybak 1206 -1210
Shamsuddin Iltutmish 1210 -1236
Raziyya 1236 -1240
Ghiyasuddin Balban 1266 -1287
KHALJI DYNASTY KHALJI DYNASTY KHALJI DYNASTY KHALJI DYNASTY KHALJI DYNASTY 1290 - 1320 1290 - 1320 1290 - 1320 1290 - 1320 1290 - 1320
Jalaluddin Khalji 1290 - 1296
Alauddin Khalji 1296 -1316
TUGHLUQ DYNASTY TUGHLUQ DYNASTY TUGHLUQ DYNASTY TUGHLUQ DYNASTY TUGHLUQ DYNASTY 1320 - 1414 1320 - 1414 1320 - 1414 1320 - 1414 1320 - 1414
Ghiyasuddin Tughluq 1320 -1324
Muhammad Tughluq 1324 -1351
Firuz Shah Tughluq 1351 -1388
SAYYID DYNASTY SAYYID DYNASTY SAYYID DYNASTY SAYYID DYNASTY SAYYID DYNASTY 1414 - 1451 1414 - 1451 1414 - 1451 1414 - 1451 1414 - 1451
Khizr Khan 1414 -1421
LODI DYNASTY LODI DYNASTY LODI DYNASTY LODI DYNASTY LODI DYNASTY 1451 - 1526 1451 - 1526 1451 - 1526 1451 - 1526 1451 - 1526
Bahlul Lodi 1451 -1489
The rulers of Delhi
Table 1
Iltutmish’s tomb
Alai Darwaza
Firuz Shah Tughluq’s tomb
THE DELHI SULTANS
©NCERT
not to be republished
32 OUR PASTS — II
?
Finding out about the Delhi Sultans
Although inscriptions, coins and architecture provide
a lot of information, especially valuable are “histories”,
tarikh (singular) / tawarikh (plural), written in Persian,
the language of administration under the Delhi Sultans.
The authors of tawarikh were learned men:
secretaries, administrators, poets and courtiers, who
both recounted events and advised rulers on
governance, emphasising the importance of just rule.
The Circle of Justice
Fakhr-i Mudabbir wrote in the thirteenth century:
 A king cannot survive without soldiers. And soldiers cannot
live without salaries. Salaries come from the revenue collected
from peasants. But peasants can pay revenue only when they
are prosperous and happy. This happens when the king
promotes justice and honest governance.
Fig.1
Four stages in the
preparation of a
manuscript.
1. Preparing the paper.
2. Writing the text.
3. Melting gold to
highlight important
words and passages.
4. Preparing the
binding.
Do you think the
circle of justice is
an appropriate
term to describe
the relationship
between the king
and his subjects?
1 2
3 4
©NCERT
not to be republished
33
Express Minhaj’s
ideas in your own
words. Do you
think Raziyya
shared these
ideas? Why do
you think it was so
difficult for a
woman to be a
ruler?
Keep the following additional details in mind: (1) the
authors of tawarikh lived in cities (mainly Delhi) and
hardly ever in villages. (2) They often wrote their histories
for Sultans in the hope of rich rewards. (3) These authors
advised rulers on the need to preserve an “ideal” social
order based on birthright birthright birthright birthright birthright and gender distinctions gender distinctions gender distinctions gender distinctions gender distinctions.
Their ideas were not shared by everybody.
 In 1236 Sultan Iltutmish’s daughter, Raziyya,
became Sultan. The chronicler of the age, Minhaj-i Siraj,
recognised that she was more able and qualified than
all her brothers. But he was not comfortable at having
a queen as ruler. Nor were the nobles happy at her
attempts to rule independently. She was removed from
the throne in 1240.
What Minhaj-i Siraj thought about Raziyya
Minhaj-i Siraj thought that the queen’s rule went against
the ideal social order created by God, in which women
were supposed to be subordinate to men. He therefore
asked: “In the register of God’s creation, since her account
did not fall under the column of men, how did she gain
from all of her excellent qualities?”
On her inscriptions and coins Raziyya mentioned that
she was the daughter of Sultan Iltutmish. This was in
contrast to the queen Rudramadevi (1262-1289), of the
Kakatiya dynasty of Warangal, part of modern Andhra
Pradesh. Rudramadevi changed her name on her
inscriptions and pretended she was a man. Another
queen, Didda, ruled in Kashmir (980-1003). Her title is
interesting: it comes from “didi” or “elder sister”, an
obviously affectionate term given to a loved ruler by
her subjects.
Birthright Birthright Birthright Birthright Birthright
Privileges claimed
on account of
birth. For example,
people believed
that nobles
inherited their
rights to govern,
because they
were born in
certain families.
Gender Gender Gender Gender Gender
distinctions distinctions distinctions distinctions distinctions
Social and biological
differences between
women and men.
Usually, these
differences are used
to argue that men
are superior to
women.
THE DELHI SULTANS
?
©NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


30 OUR PASTS — II
I
n Chapter 2 we saw that regions like the Kaveri delta
 became the centre of large kingdoms. Did you notice
that there was no mention of a kingdom with Delhi as
its capital? That was because Delhi became an
important city only in the twelfth century.
Take a look at Table 1. Delhi first became the capital
of a kingdom under the Tomara Rajputs, who were
defeated in the middle of the twelfth century by the
Chauhans (also referred to as Chahamanas) of Ajmer. It
was under the Tomaras and Chauhans that Delhi
became an important commercial centre. Many rich Jaina
merchants lived in the city and constructed several
temples. Coins minted here, called
dehliwal, had a wide circulation.
The transformation of Delhi into
a capital that controlled vast areas
of the subcontinent started with
the foundation of the Delhi
Sultanate in the beginning of the
thirteenth century. Take a look at
Table 1 again and identify the five
dynasties that together made the
Delhi Sultanate.
The Delhi Sultans built many
cities in the area that we now
know as Delhi. Look at Map 1
and locate Dehli-i Kuhna, Siri
and Jahanpanah.
3
THE DELHI SULTANS
Map 1 Map 1 Map 1 Map 1 Map 1
Selected Sultanate
cities of Delhi,
thirteenth-fourteenth
centuries.
©NCERT
not to be republished
31
RAJPUT DYNASTIES RAJPUT DYNASTIES RAJPUT DYNASTIES RAJPUT DYNASTIES RAJPUT DYNASTIES
Tomaras early twelfth century - 1165
Ananga Pala 1130 -1145
Chauhans 1165 -1192
Prithviraj Chauhan 1175 -1192
EARLY TURKISH RULERS EARLY TURKISH RULERS EARLY TURKISH RULERS EARLY TURKISH RULERS EARLY TURKISH RULERS 1206-1290 1206-1290 1206-1290 1206-1290 1206-1290
Qutbuddin Aybak 1206 -1210
Shamsuddin Iltutmish 1210 -1236
Raziyya 1236 -1240
Ghiyasuddin Balban 1266 -1287
KHALJI DYNASTY KHALJI DYNASTY KHALJI DYNASTY KHALJI DYNASTY KHALJI DYNASTY 1290 - 1320 1290 - 1320 1290 - 1320 1290 - 1320 1290 - 1320
Jalaluddin Khalji 1290 - 1296
Alauddin Khalji 1296 -1316
TUGHLUQ DYNASTY TUGHLUQ DYNASTY TUGHLUQ DYNASTY TUGHLUQ DYNASTY TUGHLUQ DYNASTY 1320 - 1414 1320 - 1414 1320 - 1414 1320 - 1414 1320 - 1414
Ghiyasuddin Tughluq 1320 -1324
Muhammad Tughluq 1324 -1351
Firuz Shah Tughluq 1351 -1388
SAYYID DYNASTY SAYYID DYNASTY SAYYID DYNASTY SAYYID DYNASTY SAYYID DYNASTY 1414 - 1451 1414 - 1451 1414 - 1451 1414 - 1451 1414 - 1451
Khizr Khan 1414 -1421
LODI DYNASTY LODI DYNASTY LODI DYNASTY LODI DYNASTY LODI DYNASTY 1451 - 1526 1451 - 1526 1451 - 1526 1451 - 1526 1451 - 1526
Bahlul Lodi 1451 -1489
The rulers of Delhi
Table 1
Iltutmish’s tomb
Alai Darwaza
Firuz Shah Tughluq’s tomb
THE DELHI SULTANS
©NCERT
not to be republished
32 OUR PASTS — II
?
Finding out about the Delhi Sultans
Although inscriptions, coins and architecture provide
a lot of information, especially valuable are “histories”,
tarikh (singular) / tawarikh (plural), written in Persian,
the language of administration under the Delhi Sultans.
The authors of tawarikh were learned men:
secretaries, administrators, poets and courtiers, who
both recounted events and advised rulers on
governance, emphasising the importance of just rule.
The Circle of Justice
Fakhr-i Mudabbir wrote in the thirteenth century:
 A king cannot survive without soldiers. And soldiers cannot
live without salaries. Salaries come from the revenue collected
from peasants. But peasants can pay revenue only when they
are prosperous and happy. This happens when the king
promotes justice and honest governance.
Fig.1
Four stages in the
preparation of a
manuscript.
1. Preparing the paper.
2. Writing the text.
3. Melting gold to
highlight important
words and passages.
4. Preparing the
binding.
Do you think the
circle of justice is
an appropriate
term to describe
the relationship
between the king
and his subjects?
1 2
3 4
©NCERT
not to be republished
33
Express Minhaj’s
ideas in your own
words. Do you
think Raziyya
shared these
ideas? Why do
you think it was so
difficult for a
woman to be a
ruler?
Keep the following additional details in mind: (1) the
authors of tawarikh lived in cities (mainly Delhi) and
hardly ever in villages. (2) They often wrote their histories
for Sultans in the hope of rich rewards. (3) These authors
advised rulers on the need to preserve an “ideal” social
order based on birthright birthright birthright birthright birthright and gender distinctions gender distinctions gender distinctions gender distinctions gender distinctions.
Their ideas were not shared by everybody.
 In 1236 Sultan Iltutmish’s daughter, Raziyya,
became Sultan. The chronicler of the age, Minhaj-i Siraj,
recognised that she was more able and qualified than
all her brothers. But he was not comfortable at having
a queen as ruler. Nor were the nobles happy at her
attempts to rule independently. She was removed from
the throne in 1240.
What Minhaj-i Siraj thought about Raziyya
Minhaj-i Siraj thought that the queen’s rule went against
the ideal social order created by God, in which women
were supposed to be subordinate to men. He therefore
asked: “In the register of God’s creation, since her account
did not fall under the column of men, how did she gain
from all of her excellent qualities?”
On her inscriptions and coins Raziyya mentioned that
she was the daughter of Sultan Iltutmish. This was in
contrast to the queen Rudramadevi (1262-1289), of the
Kakatiya dynasty of Warangal, part of modern Andhra
Pradesh. Rudramadevi changed her name on her
inscriptions and pretended she was a man. Another
queen, Didda, ruled in Kashmir (980-1003). Her title is
interesting: it comes from “didi” or “elder sister”, an
obviously affectionate term given to a loved ruler by
her subjects.
Birthright Birthright Birthright Birthright Birthright
Privileges claimed
on account of
birth. For example,
people believed
that nobles
inherited their
rights to govern,
because they
were born in
certain families.
Gender Gender Gender Gender Gender
distinctions distinctions distinctions distinctions distinctions
Social and biological
differences between
women and men.
Usually, these
differences are used
to argue that men
are superior to
women.
THE DELHI SULTANS
?
©NCERT
not to be republished
34 OUR PASTS — II
From garrison town to empire
The expansion of the Delhi Sultanate
In the early thirteenth century the control of the Delhi
Sultans rarely went beyond heavily fortified towns
occupied by garrisons. The Sultans seldom controlled
the hinterland hinterland hinterland hinterland hinterland of the cities and were therefore
dependent upon trade, tribute or plunder for supplies.
Controlling garrison towns garrison towns garrison towns garrison towns garrison towns in distant Bengal and
Sind from Delhi was extremely difficult. Rebellion, war,
even bad weather could snap fragile communication
routes. The state was also challenged by Mongol
invasions from Afghanistan and by governors who
rebelled at any sign of the Sultan’s weakness. The
Sultanate barely survived these challenges. Its
expansion occurred during the reigns of Ghiyasuddin
Balban, Alauddin Khalji and Muhammad Tughluq.
The first set of campaigns along the “internal frontier”
of the Sultanate aimed at consolidating the hinterlands
of the garrison towns. During these campaigns forests
were cleared in the Ganga-Yamuna doab and hunter-
gatherers and pastoralists expelled from their habitat.
Garrison town Garrison town Garrison town Garrison town Garrison town
A fortified
settlement, with
soldiers.
Hinterland Hinterland Hinterland Hinterland Hinterland
The lands
adjacent to a city
or port that supply
it with goods and
services.
Map 2 Map 2 Map 2 Map 2 Map 2
Major cities captured
by Shamsuddin
Iltutmish.
©NCERT
not to be republished
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