NCERT Textbook - The Mughal Empire Class 7 Notes | EduRev

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UPSC : NCERT Textbook - The Mughal Empire Class 7 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


45
R
uling as large a territory as the Indian subcontinent
 with such a diversity of people and cultures was
an extremely difficult task for any ruler to accomplish
in the Middle Ages. Quite in contrast to their
predecessors, the Mughals created an empire and
accomplished what had hitherto seemed possible for
only short periods of time. From the latter half of the
sixteenth century they expanded their kingdom from
Agra and Delhi, until in the seventeenth century they
controlled nearly all of the subcontinent. They imposed
structures of administration and ideas of governance
that outlasted their rule, leaving a political legacy that
succeeding rulers of the subcontinent could not ignore.
Today the Prime Minister of India addresses the nation
on Independence Day from the ramparts of the Red
Fort in Delhi, the residence of the Mughal emperors.
4
THE MUGHAL EMPIRE THE MUGHAL EMPIRE THE MUGHAL EMPIRE THE MUGHAL EMPIRE THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
Fig. 1
The Red Fort.
2015-16 (12-01-15)
Page 2


45
R
uling as large a territory as the Indian subcontinent
 with such a diversity of people and cultures was
an extremely difficult task for any ruler to accomplish
in the Middle Ages. Quite in contrast to their
predecessors, the Mughals created an empire and
accomplished what had hitherto seemed possible for
only short periods of time. From the latter half of the
sixteenth century they expanded their kingdom from
Agra and Delhi, until in the seventeenth century they
controlled nearly all of the subcontinent. They imposed
structures of administration and ideas of governance
that outlasted their rule, leaving a political legacy that
succeeding rulers of the subcontinent could not ignore.
Today the Prime Minister of India addresses the nation
on Independence Day from the ramparts of the Red
Fort in Delhi, the residence of the Mughal emperors.
4
THE MUGHAL EMPIRE THE MUGHAL EMPIRE THE MUGHAL EMPIRE THE MUGHAL EMPIRE THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
Fig. 1
The Red Fort.
2015-16 (12-01-15)
46 OUR PASTS – II
Who were the Mughals? Who were the Mughals? Who were the Mughals? Who were the Mughals? Who were the Mughals?
The Mughals were descendants of two great lineages of
rulers. From their mother’s side they were descendants
of Genghis Khan (died 1227), ruler of the Mongol tribes,
China and Central Asia. From their father’s side they
were the successors of Timur (died 1404), the ruler of
Iran, Iraq and modern-day Turkey. However, the
Mughals did not like to be called Mughal or Mongol.
This was because Genghis Khan’s memory was
associated with the massacre of innumerable people.
It was also linked with the Uzbegs, their Mongol
competitors. On the other hand, the Mughals were
Fig. 2
A miniature painting (dated 1702-1712) of Timur, his descendants
and the Mughal emperors. Timur is in the centre and on his right is
his son Miran Shah (the first Mughal emperor Babur’s great-great-
grandfather) and then Abu Said (Babur’s grandfather). To the left of
Timur are Sultan Muhammad Mirza (Babur’s great-grandfather) and
Umar Shaikh (Babur’s father). The Mughal emperors Babur, Akbar
and Shah Jahan are the third, fourth and fifth individuals on
Timur’s right and on his left, in the same order, are Humayun,
Jahangir and Aurangzeb.
Do you think this
painting suggests
that the Mughals
claimed kingship
as a birthright?
?
2015-16 (12-01-15)
Page 3


45
R
uling as large a territory as the Indian subcontinent
 with such a diversity of people and cultures was
an extremely difficult task for any ruler to accomplish
in the Middle Ages. Quite in contrast to their
predecessors, the Mughals created an empire and
accomplished what had hitherto seemed possible for
only short periods of time. From the latter half of the
sixteenth century they expanded their kingdom from
Agra and Delhi, until in the seventeenth century they
controlled nearly all of the subcontinent. They imposed
structures of administration and ideas of governance
that outlasted their rule, leaving a political legacy that
succeeding rulers of the subcontinent could not ignore.
Today the Prime Minister of India addresses the nation
on Independence Day from the ramparts of the Red
Fort in Delhi, the residence of the Mughal emperors.
4
THE MUGHAL EMPIRE THE MUGHAL EMPIRE THE MUGHAL EMPIRE THE MUGHAL EMPIRE THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
Fig. 1
The Red Fort.
2015-16 (12-01-15)
46 OUR PASTS – II
Who were the Mughals? Who were the Mughals? Who were the Mughals? Who were the Mughals? Who were the Mughals?
The Mughals were descendants of two great lineages of
rulers. From their mother’s side they were descendants
of Genghis Khan (died 1227), ruler of the Mongol tribes,
China and Central Asia. From their father’s side they
were the successors of Timur (died 1404), the ruler of
Iran, Iraq and modern-day Turkey. However, the
Mughals did not like to be called Mughal or Mongol.
This was because Genghis Khan’s memory was
associated with the massacre of innumerable people.
It was also linked with the Uzbegs, their Mongol
competitors. On the other hand, the Mughals were
Fig. 2
A miniature painting (dated 1702-1712) of Timur, his descendants
and the Mughal emperors. Timur is in the centre and on his right is
his son Miran Shah (the first Mughal emperor Babur’s great-great-
grandfather) and then Abu Said (Babur’s grandfather). To the left of
Timur are Sultan Muhammad Mirza (Babur’s great-grandfather) and
Umar Shaikh (Babur’s father). The Mughal emperors Babur, Akbar
and Shah Jahan are the third, fourth and fifth individuals on
Timur’s right and on his left, in the same order, are Humayun,
Jahangir and Aurangzeb.
Do you think this
painting suggests
that the Mughals
claimed kingship
as a birthright?
?
2015-16 (12-01-15)
47
proud of their Timurid ancestry, not least of all because
their great ancestor had captured Delhi in 1398.
They celebrated their genealogy pictorially, each
ruler getting a picture made of Timur and himself.
Take a look at Figure 2, which is somewhat like a
“group photograph”.
Mughal Military Campaigns Mughal Military Campaigns Mughal Military Campaigns Mughal Military Campaigns Mughal Military Campaigns
Babur, the first Mughal emperor (1526-
1530), succeeded to the throne of
Ferghana in 1494 when he was only
12 years old. He was forced to leave
his ancestral throne due to the invasion
of another Mongol group, the Uzbegs.
After years of wandering he seized
Kabul in 1504. In 1526 he defeated the
Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodi, at
Panipat and captured Delhi and Agra.
Table 1 charts some of the major
campaigns of the Mughals. Study it
carefully and see if you can notice any long-term
patterns. You will notice, for example, that the Afghans
were an immediate threat to Mughal authority.
Note the relationship
between the Mughals
and the Ahoms (see also
Chapter 7), the Sikhs
(see also Chapters 8
and 10), and Mewar
and Marwar (see also
Chapter 9). How was
Humayun’s relationship
with Safavid Iran
different from Akbar’s?
Did the annexation of
Golconda and Bijapur
in Aurangzeb’s reign
end hostilities in the
Deccan?
Fig. 3
Mughal army on
campaign.
Fig. 4
Cannons were an
important addition in
sixteenth-century
warfare. Babur used
them effectively in the
first battle of Panipat.
THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
2015-16 (12-01-15)
Page 4


45
R
uling as large a territory as the Indian subcontinent
 with such a diversity of people and cultures was
an extremely difficult task for any ruler to accomplish
in the Middle Ages. Quite in contrast to their
predecessors, the Mughals created an empire and
accomplished what had hitherto seemed possible for
only short periods of time. From the latter half of the
sixteenth century they expanded their kingdom from
Agra and Delhi, until in the seventeenth century they
controlled nearly all of the subcontinent. They imposed
structures of administration and ideas of governance
that outlasted their rule, leaving a political legacy that
succeeding rulers of the subcontinent could not ignore.
Today the Prime Minister of India addresses the nation
on Independence Day from the ramparts of the Red
Fort in Delhi, the residence of the Mughal emperors.
4
THE MUGHAL EMPIRE THE MUGHAL EMPIRE THE MUGHAL EMPIRE THE MUGHAL EMPIRE THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
Fig. 1
The Red Fort.
2015-16 (12-01-15)
46 OUR PASTS – II
Who were the Mughals? Who were the Mughals? Who were the Mughals? Who were the Mughals? Who were the Mughals?
The Mughals were descendants of two great lineages of
rulers. From their mother’s side they were descendants
of Genghis Khan (died 1227), ruler of the Mongol tribes,
China and Central Asia. From their father’s side they
were the successors of Timur (died 1404), the ruler of
Iran, Iraq and modern-day Turkey. However, the
Mughals did not like to be called Mughal or Mongol.
This was because Genghis Khan’s memory was
associated with the massacre of innumerable people.
It was also linked with the Uzbegs, their Mongol
competitors. On the other hand, the Mughals were
Fig. 2
A miniature painting (dated 1702-1712) of Timur, his descendants
and the Mughal emperors. Timur is in the centre and on his right is
his son Miran Shah (the first Mughal emperor Babur’s great-great-
grandfather) and then Abu Said (Babur’s grandfather). To the left of
Timur are Sultan Muhammad Mirza (Babur’s great-grandfather) and
Umar Shaikh (Babur’s father). The Mughal emperors Babur, Akbar
and Shah Jahan are the third, fourth and fifth individuals on
Timur’s right and on his left, in the same order, are Humayun,
Jahangir and Aurangzeb.
Do you think this
painting suggests
that the Mughals
claimed kingship
as a birthright?
?
2015-16 (12-01-15)
47
proud of their Timurid ancestry, not least of all because
their great ancestor had captured Delhi in 1398.
They celebrated their genealogy pictorially, each
ruler getting a picture made of Timur and himself.
Take a look at Figure 2, which is somewhat like a
“group photograph”.
Mughal Military Campaigns Mughal Military Campaigns Mughal Military Campaigns Mughal Military Campaigns Mughal Military Campaigns
Babur, the first Mughal emperor (1526-
1530), succeeded to the throne of
Ferghana in 1494 when he was only
12 years old. He was forced to leave
his ancestral throne due to the invasion
of another Mongol group, the Uzbegs.
After years of wandering he seized
Kabul in 1504. In 1526 he defeated the
Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodi, at
Panipat and captured Delhi and Agra.
Table 1 charts some of the major
campaigns of the Mughals. Study it
carefully and see if you can notice any long-term
patterns. You will notice, for example, that the Afghans
were an immediate threat to Mughal authority.
Note the relationship
between the Mughals
and the Ahoms (see also
Chapter 7), the Sikhs
(see also Chapters 8
and 10), and Mewar
and Marwar (see also
Chapter 9). How was
Humayun’s relationship
with Safavid Iran
different from Akbar’s?
Did the annexation of
Golconda and Bijapur
in Aurangzeb’s reign
end hostilities in the
Deccan?
Fig. 3
Mughal army on
campaign.
Fig. 4
Cannons were an
important addition in
sixteenth-century
warfare. Babur used
them effectively in the
first battle of Panipat.
THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
2015-16 (12-01-15)
48 OUR PASTS – II
Table 1
mughal emperors
Major campaigns and events
1526 – defeated Ibrahim Lodi and his Afghan supporters
at Panipat.
1527 – defeated Rana Sanga, Rajput rulers and allies
at Khanua.
1528 – defeated the Rajputs at Chanderi;
Established control over Agra and Delhi before his death.
BABUR 1526-1530
 AKBAR
1556-1605
Akbar was 13 years old when he became emperor. His
reign can be divided into three periods.
(1) 1556-1570 – Akbar became independent of the regent
Bairam Khan and other members of his domestic staff.
Military campaigns were launched against the Suris and
other Afghans, against the neighbouring kingdoms of
Malwa and Gondwana, and to suppress the revolt of his
half-brother Mirza Hakim and the Uzbegs. In 1568 the
Sisodiya capital of Chittor was seized and in 1569
Ranthambhor.
(2) 1570-1585 – military campaigns in Gujarat were
followed by campaigns in the east in Bihar, Bengal and
Orissa. These campaigns were complicated by the
1579-1580 revolt in support of Mirza Hakim.
(3) 1585-1605 – expansion of Akbar’s empire. Campaigns
were launched in the north-west. Qandahar was seized
from the Safavids, Kashmir was annexed, as also Kabul,
after the death of Mirza Hakim. Campaigns in the Deccan
started and Berar, Khandesh and parts of Ahmadnagar
were annexed. In the last years of his reign Akbar was
distracted by the rebellion of Prince Salim, the future
Emperor Jahangir.
HUMAYUN 1530-1540, 1555-1556
(1) Humayun divided his inheritance according to the will
of his father. His brothers were each given a province.
The ambitions of his brother Mirza Kamran weakened
Humayun’s cause against Afghan competitors. Sher Khan
defeated Humayun at Chausa (1539) and Kanauj (1540),
forcing him to flee to Iran.
(2) In Iran Humayun received help from the Safavid Shah.
He recaptured Delhi in 1555 but died the next year after
an accident in this building.
2015-16 (12-01-15)
Page 5


45
R
uling as large a territory as the Indian subcontinent
 with such a diversity of people and cultures was
an extremely difficult task for any ruler to accomplish
in the Middle Ages. Quite in contrast to their
predecessors, the Mughals created an empire and
accomplished what had hitherto seemed possible for
only short periods of time. From the latter half of the
sixteenth century they expanded their kingdom from
Agra and Delhi, until in the seventeenth century they
controlled nearly all of the subcontinent. They imposed
structures of administration and ideas of governance
that outlasted their rule, leaving a political legacy that
succeeding rulers of the subcontinent could not ignore.
Today the Prime Minister of India addresses the nation
on Independence Day from the ramparts of the Red
Fort in Delhi, the residence of the Mughal emperors.
4
THE MUGHAL EMPIRE THE MUGHAL EMPIRE THE MUGHAL EMPIRE THE MUGHAL EMPIRE THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
Fig. 1
The Red Fort.
2015-16 (12-01-15)
46 OUR PASTS – II
Who were the Mughals? Who were the Mughals? Who were the Mughals? Who were the Mughals? Who were the Mughals?
The Mughals were descendants of two great lineages of
rulers. From their mother’s side they were descendants
of Genghis Khan (died 1227), ruler of the Mongol tribes,
China and Central Asia. From their father’s side they
were the successors of Timur (died 1404), the ruler of
Iran, Iraq and modern-day Turkey. However, the
Mughals did not like to be called Mughal or Mongol.
This was because Genghis Khan’s memory was
associated with the massacre of innumerable people.
It was also linked with the Uzbegs, their Mongol
competitors. On the other hand, the Mughals were
Fig. 2
A miniature painting (dated 1702-1712) of Timur, his descendants
and the Mughal emperors. Timur is in the centre and on his right is
his son Miran Shah (the first Mughal emperor Babur’s great-great-
grandfather) and then Abu Said (Babur’s grandfather). To the left of
Timur are Sultan Muhammad Mirza (Babur’s great-grandfather) and
Umar Shaikh (Babur’s father). The Mughal emperors Babur, Akbar
and Shah Jahan are the third, fourth and fifth individuals on
Timur’s right and on his left, in the same order, are Humayun,
Jahangir and Aurangzeb.
Do you think this
painting suggests
that the Mughals
claimed kingship
as a birthright?
?
2015-16 (12-01-15)
47
proud of their Timurid ancestry, not least of all because
their great ancestor had captured Delhi in 1398.
They celebrated their genealogy pictorially, each
ruler getting a picture made of Timur and himself.
Take a look at Figure 2, which is somewhat like a
“group photograph”.
Mughal Military Campaigns Mughal Military Campaigns Mughal Military Campaigns Mughal Military Campaigns Mughal Military Campaigns
Babur, the first Mughal emperor (1526-
1530), succeeded to the throne of
Ferghana in 1494 when he was only
12 years old. He was forced to leave
his ancestral throne due to the invasion
of another Mongol group, the Uzbegs.
After years of wandering he seized
Kabul in 1504. In 1526 he defeated the
Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodi, at
Panipat and captured Delhi and Agra.
Table 1 charts some of the major
campaigns of the Mughals. Study it
carefully and see if you can notice any long-term
patterns. You will notice, for example, that the Afghans
were an immediate threat to Mughal authority.
Note the relationship
between the Mughals
and the Ahoms (see also
Chapter 7), the Sikhs
(see also Chapters 8
and 10), and Mewar
and Marwar (see also
Chapter 9). How was
Humayun’s relationship
with Safavid Iran
different from Akbar’s?
Did the annexation of
Golconda and Bijapur
in Aurangzeb’s reign
end hostilities in the
Deccan?
Fig. 3
Mughal army on
campaign.
Fig. 4
Cannons were an
important addition in
sixteenth-century
warfare. Babur used
them effectively in the
first battle of Panipat.
THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
2015-16 (12-01-15)
48 OUR PASTS – II
Table 1
mughal emperors
Major campaigns and events
1526 – defeated Ibrahim Lodi and his Afghan supporters
at Panipat.
1527 – defeated Rana Sanga, Rajput rulers and allies
at Khanua.
1528 – defeated the Rajputs at Chanderi;
Established control over Agra and Delhi before his death.
BABUR 1526-1530
 AKBAR
1556-1605
Akbar was 13 years old when he became emperor. His
reign can be divided into three periods.
(1) 1556-1570 – Akbar became independent of the regent
Bairam Khan and other members of his domestic staff.
Military campaigns were launched against the Suris and
other Afghans, against the neighbouring kingdoms of
Malwa and Gondwana, and to suppress the revolt of his
half-brother Mirza Hakim and the Uzbegs. In 1568 the
Sisodiya capital of Chittor was seized and in 1569
Ranthambhor.
(2) 1570-1585 – military campaigns in Gujarat were
followed by campaigns in the east in Bihar, Bengal and
Orissa. These campaigns were complicated by the
1579-1580 revolt in support of Mirza Hakim.
(3) 1585-1605 – expansion of Akbar’s empire. Campaigns
were launched in the north-west. Qandahar was seized
from the Safavids, Kashmir was annexed, as also Kabul,
after the death of Mirza Hakim. Campaigns in the Deccan
started and Berar, Khandesh and parts of Ahmadnagar
were annexed. In the last years of his reign Akbar was
distracted by the rebellion of Prince Salim, the future
Emperor Jahangir.
HUMAYUN 1530-1540, 1555-1556
(1) Humayun divided his inheritance according to the will
of his father. His brothers were each given a province.
The ambitions of his brother Mirza Kamran weakened
Humayun’s cause against Afghan competitors. Sher Khan
defeated Humayun at Chausa (1539) and Kanauj (1540),
forcing him to flee to Iran.
(2) In Iran Humayun received help from the Safavid Shah.
He recaptured Delhi in 1555 but died the next year after
an accident in this building.
2015-16 (12-01-15)
49
CHAPTER 1
Jahangir 1605-1627
Military campaigns started by Akbar continued.
The Sisodiya ruler of Mewar, Amar Singh, accepted
Mughal service. Less successful campaigns against
the Sikhs, the Ahoms and Ahmadnagar followed.
Prince Khurram, the future Emperor Shah Jahan,
rebelled in the last years of his reign. The efforts of
Nur Jahan, Jahangir’s wife, to marginalise him were
unsuccessful.
Shah Jahan 1627-1658
Mughal campaigns continued in the Deccan under
Shah Jahan. The Afghan noble Khan Jahan Lodi
rebelled and was defeated. Campaigns were launched
against Ahmadnagar; the Bundelas were defeated and
Orchha seized. In the north-west, the campaign to seize
Balkh from the Uzbegs was unsuccessful and
Qandahar was lost to the Safavids. In 1632
Ahmadnagar was finally annexed and the Bijapur
forces sued for peace. In 1657-1658, there was conflict
over succession amongst Shah Jahan’s sons.
Aurangzeb was victorious and his three brothers,
including Dara Shukoh, were killed. Shah Jahan was
imprisoned for the rest of his life in Agra.
Aurangzeb 1658-1707
(1) In the north-east, the Ahoms were defeated in 1663, but rebelled again in
the 1680s. Campaigns in the north-west against the Yusufzai and the Sikhs
were temporarily successful. Mughal intervention in the
succession and internal politics of the Rathor Rajputs of
Marwar led to their rebellion. Campaigns against the
Maratha chieftain Shivaji were initially successful. But
Aurangzeb insulted Shivaji who escaped from Agra,
declared himself an independent king and resumed his
campaigns against the Mughals. Prince Akbar rebelled
against Aurangzeb and received support from the
Marathas and the Deccan Sultanate. He finally fled to
Safavid Iran.
(2) After Akbar’s rebellion Aurangzeb sent armies against
the Deccan Sultanates. Bijapur was annexed in 1685 and
Golconda in 1687. From 1698 Aurangzeb personally
managed campaigns in the Deccan against the Marathas
who started guerrilla warfare. Aurangzeb also had to face the
rebellion in north India of the Sikhs, Jats and Satnamis, in the north-east
of the Ahoms and in the Deccan of the Marathas. His death was followed
by a succession conflict amongst his sons.
THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
2015-16 (12-01-15)
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