NCERT Textbook - The World Population Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy

Created by: Mehtab Ahmed

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - The World Population Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Unit-II
Chapter-2
The World Population
Distribution, Density and
Growth
The people of a country are its real wealth. It
is they who make use of the country’s resources
and decide its policies. Ultimately a country is
known by its people.
It is important to know how many women
and men a country has, how many children are
born each year, how many people die and how?
Whether they live in cities or villages, can they
read or write and what work do they do?  These
are what you will study about in this unit.
The world at the beginning of 21
st
 century
recorded the presence of over 6 billion
population. We shall discuss the patterns of
their distribution and density here.
Why do people prefer to live in certain
regions and not in others?
The population of the world is unevenly
distributed. The remark of George B. Cressey
about the population of Asia that “Asia has many
places where people are few and few place where
people are very many” is true about the pattern
of population distribution of the world also.
PATTERNS  OF  POPULATION
DISTRIBUTION IN THE WORLD
Patterns of population distribution and density
help us to understand the demographic
characteristics of any area. The term population
distribution refers to the way people are spaced
over the earth’s surface. Broadly, 90 per cent of
the world population lives in about 10 per cent
of its land area.
The 10 most populous countries of the
world contribute about 60 per cent of the world’s
population. Of these 10 countries, 6 are located
in Asia. Identify these six countries of Asia.
India
Japan
Russian Fed.
Nigeria
Bangladesh
Pakistan
Brazil
Indonesia
U.S.A.
China
0 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
Population in Million
Countries
200
Fig. 2.1: Most Populous Countries
Not gold but only (Wo)men can make
a people great and strong.
(Wo)men who for truth and
honour’s sake, stand fast and suffer
long  (Wo)men who toil while others
sleep – who dare while others flee –
they build a nation’s pillars deep and
lift it to the sky.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


Unit-II
Chapter-2
The World Population
Distribution, Density and
Growth
The people of a country are its real wealth. It
is they who make use of the country’s resources
and decide its policies. Ultimately a country is
known by its people.
It is important to know how many women
and men a country has, how many children are
born each year, how many people die and how?
Whether they live in cities or villages, can they
read or write and what work do they do?  These
are what you will study about in this unit.
The world at the beginning of 21
st
 century
recorded the presence of over 6 billion
population. We shall discuss the patterns of
their distribution and density here.
Why do people prefer to live in certain
regions and not in others?
The population of the world is unevenly
distributed. The remark of George B. Cressey
about the population of Asia that “Asia has many
places where people are few and few place where
people are very many” is true about the pattern
of population distribution of the world also.
PATTERNS  OF  POPULATION
DISTRIBUTION IN THE WORLD
Patterns of population distribution and density
help us to understand the demographic
characteristics of any area. The term population
distribution refers to the way people are spaced
over the earth’s surface. Broadly, 90 per cent of
the world population lives in about 10 per cent
of its land area.
The 10 most populous countries of the
world contribute about 60 per cent of the world’s
population. Of these 10 countries, 6 are located
in Asia. Identify these six countries of Asia.
India
Japan
Russian Fed.
Nigeria
Bangladesh
Pakistan
Brazil
Indonesia
U.S.A.
China
0 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
Population in Million
Countries
200
Fig. 2.1: Most Populous Countries
Not gold but only (Wo)men can make
a people great and strong.
(Wo)men who for truth and
honour’s sake, stand fast and suffer
long  (Wo)men who toil while others
sleep – who dare while others flee –
they build a nation’s pillars deep and
lift it to the sky.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
© NCERT
not to be republished
DENSITY OF POPUL DENSITY OF POPUL DENSITY OF POPUL DENSITY OF POPUL DENSITY OF POPULA A A A ATION TION TION TION TION
Each unit of land has limited capacity to
support people living on it.  Hence, it is
necessary to understand the ratio between the
numbers of people to the size of land.  This ratio
is the density of population. It is usually
measured in persons per sq km
Population 
Density of Population = 
Area
For example, area of Region X is 100 sq
km and the population is 1,50,000 persons.
The density of population is calculated as:
1,50,000
Density
100
=
= 1,500 person/sq km
What does this tell you about Region X?
Look at the map given below:
Do you observe that some areas are really
crowded?  These are the densely populated
parts of the world with more than 200 persons
on every sq km.  These are the North -Eastern
part of U.S.A., North-Western part of Europe,
South, South-East and East Asia.
Other areas like those near the North and
South Poles, the hot and the cold deserts and
high rainfall zones near the Equator have very
low density of population. These are the
sparsely populated regions of the world with
less than 01 person per sq km.
In between these two types are the areas
of medium density. There are 11 to 50 persons
per sq km in these areas. Western China,
Southern India in Asia, Norway, Sweden in
Europe are some examples. Look at the Fig. 2.2
and identify some other areas.
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE
DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION
I. Geographical Factors
(i) Availability of water: It is the most
important factor for life. So, people prefer
Fig. 2.2: World Density of Population, 2001
The World Population: Distribution, Density and Growth     9
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


Unit-II
Chapter-2
The World Population
Distribution, Density and
Growth
The people of a country are its real wealth. It
is they who make use of the country’s resources
and decide its policies. Ultimately a country is
known by its people.
It is important to know how many women
and men a country has, how many children are
born each year, how many people die and how?
Whether they live in cities or villages, can they
read or write and what work do they do?  These
are what you will study about in this unit.
The world at the beginning of 21
st
 century
recorded the presence of over 6 billion
population. We shall discuss the patterns of
their distribution and density here.
Why do people prefer to live in certain
regions and not in others?
The population of the world is unevenly
distributed. The remark of George B. Cressey
about the population of Asia that “Asia has many
places where people are few and few place where
people are very many” is true about the pattern
of population distribution of the world also.
PATTERNS  OF  POPULATION
DISTRIBUTION IN THE WORLD
Patterns of population distribution and density
help us to understand the demographic
characteristics of any area. The term population
distribution refers to the way people are spaced
over the earth’s surface. Broadly, 90 per cent of
the world population lives in about 10 per cent
of its land area.
The 10 most populous countries of the
world contribute about 60 per cent of the world’s
population. Of these 10 countries, 6 are located
in Asia. Identify these six countries of Asia.
India
Japan
Russian Fed.
Nigeria
Bangladesh
Pakistan
Brazil
Indonesia
U.S.A.
China
0 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
Population in Million
Countries
200
Fig. 2.1: Most Populous Countries
Not gold but only (Wo)men can make
a people great and strong.
(Wo)men who for truth and
honour’s sake, stand fast and suffer
long  (Wo)men who toil while others
sleep – who dare while others flee –
they build a nation’s pillars deep and
lift it to the sky.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
© NCERT
not to be republished
DENSITY OF POPUL DENSITY OF POPUL DENSITY OF POPUL DENSITY OF POPUL DENSITY OF POPULA A A A ATION TION TION TION TION
Each unit of land has limited capacity to
support people living on it.  Hence, it is
necessary to understand the ratio between the
numbers of people to the size of land.  This ratio
is the density of population. It is usually
measured in persons per sq km
Population 
Density of Population = 
Area
For example, area of Region X is 100 sq
km and the population is 1,50,000 persons.
The density of population is calculated as:
1,50,000
Density
100
=
= 1,500 person/sq km
What does this tell you about Region X?
Look at the map given below:
Do you observe that some areas are really
crowded?  These are the densely populated
parts of the world with more than 200 persons
on every sq km.  These are the North -Eastern
part of U.S.A., North-Western part of Europe,
South, South-East and East Asia.
Other areas like those near the North and
South Poles, the hot and the cold deserts and
high rainfall zones near the Equator have very
low density of population. These are the
sparsely populated regions of the world with
less than 01 person per sq km.
In between these two types are the areas
of medium density. There are 11 to 50 persons
per sq km in these areas. Western China,
Southern India in Asia, Norway, Sweden in
Europe are some examples. Look at the Fig. 2.2
and identify some other areas.
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE
DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION
I. Geographical Factors
(i) Availability of water: It is the most
important factor for life. So, people prefer
Fig. 2.2: World Density of Population, 2001
The World Population: Distribution, Density and Growth     9
© NCERT
not to be republished
Fundamentals of Human Geography 10
to live in areas where fresh water is easily
available.  Water is used for drinking,
bathing and cooking – and also for cattle,
crops, industries and navigation.  It is
because of this that river valleys are among
the most densely populated areas of the
world.
(ii) Landforms: People prefer living on flat
plains and gentle slopes.  This is because
such areas are favourable for the
production of crops and to build roads and
industries. The mountainous and hilly
areas hinder the development of transport
network and hence initially do not favour
agricultural and industrial development.
So, these areas tend to be less populated.
The Ganga plains are among the most
densely populated areas of the world while
the mountains zones in the Himalayas are
scarcely populated.
(iii) Climate: An extreme climate such as very
hot or cold deserts are uncomfortable for
human habitation. Areas with a
comfortable climate, where there is not
much seasonal variation attract more
people.  Areas with very heavy rainfall or
extreme and harsh climates have low
population. Mediterranean regions were
inhabited from early periods in history due
to their pleasant climate.
(iv) Soils: Fertile soils are important for
agricultural and allied activities. Therefore,
areas which have fertile loamy soils have
more people living on them as these can
support intensive agriculture. Can you
name some areas in India which are thinly
populated due to poor soils?
II. Economic Factors
(i) Minerals: Areas with mineral deposits
attract industries.  Mining and industrial
activities generate employment.  So, skilled
and semi–skilled workers move to these
areas and make them densely populated.
Katanga Zambia copper belt in Africa is
one such good example.
(ii) Urbanisation: Cities offer better
employment opportunities, educational
and medical facilities, better means of
transport and communication.  Good civic
amenities and the attraction of city life draw
people to the cities. It leads to rural to
urban migration and cities grow in size.
Mega cities of the world continue to attract
large number of migrants every year.
Yet city life can be very taxing…. think
of some of the unpleasant aspects of city
life.
(iii) Industrialisation: Industrial belts provide
job opportunities and attract large
numbers of people.  These include not just
factory workers but also transport
operators, shopkeepers, bank employees,
doctors, teachers and other service
providers. The Kobe-Osaka region of
Japan is thickly populated because of the
presence of a number of industries.
III. Social and Cultural Factors
Some places attract more people because they
have religious or cultural significance.  In the
same way – people tend to move away from
places where there is social and political
unrest. Many a times governments offer
incentives to people to live in sparsely
populated areas or move away from
overcrowded places.  Can you think of some
examples from your region?
POPULATION GROWTH
The population growth or population change
refers to the change in number of inhabitants of
a territory during a specific period of time. This
change may be positive as well as negative. It
can be expressed either in terms of absolute
numbers or in terms of percentage. Population
change in an area is an important indicator of
economic development, social upliftment and
historical and cultural background of the region.
Some Basic Concepts of
Population Geography
Growth of Population : Change of
population in particular area between two
points of time is known as growth of
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


Unit-II
Chapter-2
The World Population
Distribution, Density and
Growth
The people of a country are its real wealth. It
is they who make use of the country’s resources
and decide its policies. Ultimately a country is
known by its people.
It is important to know how many women
and men a country has, how many children are
born each year, how many people die and how?
Whether they live in cities or villages, can they
read or write and what work do they do?  These
are what you will study about in this unit.
The world at the beginning of 21
st
 century
recorded the presence of over 6 billion
population. We shall discuss the patterns of
their distribution and density here.
Why do people prefer to live in certain
regions and not in others?
The population of the world is unevenly
distributed. The remark of George B. Cressey
about the population of Asia that “Asia has many
places where people are few and few place where
people are very many” is true about the pattern
of population distribution of the world also.
PATTERNS  OF  POPULATION
DISTRIBUTION IN THE WORLD
Patterns of population distribution and density
help us to understand the demographic
characteristics of any area. The term population
distribution refers to the way people are spaced
over the earth’s surface. Broadly, 90 per cent of
the world population lives in about 10 per cent
of its land area.
The 10 most populous countries of the
world contribute about 60 per cent of the world’s
population. Of these 10 countries, 6 are located
in Asia. Identify these six countries of Asia.
India
Japan
Russian Fed.
Nigeria
Bangladesh
Pakistan
Brazil
Indonesia
U.S.A.
China
0 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
Population in Million
Countries
200
Fig. 2.1: Most Populous Countries
Not gold but only (Wo)men can make
a people great and strong.
(Wo)men who for truth and
honour’s sake, stand fast and suffer
long  (Wo)men who toil while others
sleep – who dare while others flee –
they build a nation’s pillars deep and
lift it to the sky.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
© NCERT
not to be republished
DENSITY OF POPUL DENSITY OF POPUL DENSITY OF POPUL DENSITY OF POPUL DENSITY OF POPULA A A A ATION TION TION TION TION
Each unit of land has limited capacity to
support people living on it.  Hence, it is
necessary to understand the ratio between the
numbers of people to the size of land.  This ratio
is the density of population. It is usually
measured in persons per sq km
Population 
Density of Population = 
Area
For example, area of Region X is 100 sq
km and the population is 1,50,000 persons.
The density of population is calculated as:
1,50,000
Density
100
=
= 1,500 person/sq km
What does this tell you about Region X?
Look at the map given below:
Do you observe that some areas are really
crowded?  These are the densely populated
parts of the world with more than 200 persons
on every sq km.  These are the North -Eastern
part of U.S.A., North-Western part of Europe,
South, South-East and East Asia.
Other areas like those near the North and
South Poles, the hot and the cold deserts and
high rainfall zones near the Equator have very
low density of population. These are the
sparsely populated regions of the world with
less than 01 person per sq km.
In between these two types are the areas
of medium density. There are 11 to 50 persons
per sq km in these areas. Western China,
Southern India in Asia, Norway, Sweden in
Europe are some examples. Look at the Fig. 2.2
and identify some other areas.
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE
DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION
I. Geographical Factors
(i) Availability of water: It is the most
important factor for life. So, people prefer
Fig. 2.2: World Density of Population, 2001
The World Population: Distribution, Density and Growth     9
© NCERT
not to be republished
Fundamentals of Human Geography 10
to live in areas where fresh water is easily
available.  Water is used for drinking,
bathing and cooking – and also for cattle,
crops, industries and navigation.  It is
because of this that river valleys are among
the most densely populated areas of the
world.
(ii) Landforms: People prefer living on flat
plains and gentle slopes.  This is because
such areas are favourable for the
production of crops and to build roads and
industries. The mountainous and hilly
areas hinder the development of transport
network and hence initially do not favour
agricultural and industrial development.
So, these areas tend to be less populated.
The Ganga plains are among the most
densely populated areas of the world while
the mountains zones in the Himalayas are
scarcely populated.
(iii) Climate: An extreme climate such as very
hot or cold deserts are uncomfortable for
human habitation. Areas with a
comfortable climate, where there is not
much seasonal variation attract more
people.  Areas with very heavy rainfall or
extreme and harsh climates have low
population. Mediterranean regions were
inhabited from early periods in history due
to their pleasant climate.
(iv) Soils: Fertile soils are important for
agricultural and allied activities. Therefore,
areas which have fertile loamy soils have
more people living on them as these can
support intensive agriculture. Can you
name some areas in India which are thinly
populated due to poor soils?
II. Economic Factors
(i) Minerals: Areas with mineral deposits
attract industries.  Mining and industrial
activities generate employment.  So, skilled
and semi–skilled workers move to these
areas and make them densely populated.
Katanga Zambia copper belt in Africa is
one such good example.
(ii) Urbanisation: Cities offer better
employment opportunities, educational
and medical facilities, better means of
transport and communication.  Good civic
amenities and the attraction of city life draw
people to the cities. It leads to rural to
urban migration and cities grow in size.
Mega cities of the world continue to attract
large number of migrants every year.
Yet city life can be very taxing…. think
of some of the unpleasant aspects of city
life.
(iii) Industrialisation: Industrial belts provide
job opportunities and attract large
numbers of people.  These include not just
factory workers but also transport
operators, shopkeepers, bank employees,
doctors, teachers and other service
providers. The Kobe-Osaka region of
Japan is thickly populated because of the
presence of a number of industries.
III. Social and Cultural Factors
Some places attract more people because they
have religious or cultural significance.  In the
same way – people tend to move away from
places where there is social and political
unrest. Many a times governments offer
incentives to people to live in sparsely
populated areas or move away from
overcrowded places.  Can you think of some
examples from your region?
POPULATION GROWTH
The population growth or population change
refers to the change in number of inhabitants of
a territory during a specific period of time. This
change may be positive as well as negative. It
can be expressed either in terms of absolute
numbers or in terms of percentage. Population
change in an area is an important indicator of
economic development, social upliftment and
historical and cultural background of the region.
Some Basic Concepts of
Population Geography
Growth of Population : Change of
population in particular area between two
points of time is known as growth of
© NCERT
not to be republished
The World Population: Distribution, Density and Growth     11
population. For example, if we deduct  the
population of India 2001 (102.70 crore) from
population of 2011 (121.02 crore) then we
shall get the growth of population (18.15
crores) in actual numbers.
Growth Rate of Population : This is the
change of population expressed in
percentage.
Natural Growth of Population: This is the
population increased by difference between
births and deaths in a particular region
between two points of time.
Natural Growth  =  Births  –  Deaths
Actual Growth of Population : This is
Births – Deaths + In Migration – Out
Migration
Positive Growth of Population: This
happens when the birth rate is more than
the death rate between two points of time
or when people from other countries migrate
permanently to a region.
Negative Growth of Population: If the
population decreases between two points
of time it is known as negative growth of
population. It occurs when the birth rate falls
below the death rate or people migrate to
other countries.
Components of Population Change
There are three components of population
change – births, deaths and migration.
The crude birth rate (CBR) is expressed as
number of live births in a year per thousand of
population. It is calculated as:
Bi
CBR 1000
P
=¥
Here, CBR = Crude Birth Rate; Bi = live
births during the year; P=Mid year population
of the area.
Death rate plays an active role in
population change. Population growth occurs
not only by increasing births rate but also due
to decreasing death rate. Crude Death Rate
(CDR) is a simple method of measuring
mortality of any area. CDR is expressed in terms
of number of deaths in a particular year per
thousand of population in a particular region.
CDR is calculated as:
D
CDR 1000
P
=¥
Here, CDR=Crude Death Rate; D= Number
of deaths; P=Estimated mid-year population of
that year.
By and large mortality rates are affected
by  the region’s demographic structure, social
advancement and levels of its economic
development.
Migration
Apart from birth and death there is another way
by which the population size changes.
When people move from one place to
another, the place they move from is called the
Place of Origin and the place they move to is
called the Place of Destination.  The place of
origin shows a decrease in population while  the
population increases in the place of destination.
Migration may be interpreted as a spontaneous
effort to achieve a better balance between
population and resources.
Migration may be permanent, temporary
or seasonal. It may take place from rural to
rural areas, rural to urban areas, urban to
urban areas and urban to rural areas.
Do you realise that the same person is both
an immigrant and an emigrant?
Immigration: Migrants who move into a new
place are called Immigrants.
Emigration: Migrants who move out of a
place are called Emigrants.
Can you think of reasons why people
migrate?
People migrate for a better economic and
social life. There are two sets of factors that
influence migration.
The Push factors make the place of origin
seem less attractive for reasons like
unemployment, poor living conditions, political
turmoil, unpleasant climate, natural disasters,
epidemics and socio-economic backwardness.
The Pull factors make the place of
destination seem more attractive than the place
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


Unit-II
Chapter-2
The World Population
Distribution, Density and
Growth
The people of a country are its real wealth. It
is they who make use of the country’s resources
and decide its policies. Ultimately a country is
known by its people.
It is important to know how many women
and men a country has, how many children are
born each year, how many people die and how?
Whether they live in cities or villages, can they
read or write and what work do they do?  These
are what you will study about in this unit.
The world at the beginning of 21
st
 century
recorded the presence of over 6 billion
population. We shall discuss the patterns of
their distribution and density here.
Why do people prefer to live in certain
regions and not in others?
The population of the world is unevenly
distributed. The remark of George B. Cressey
about the population of Asia that “Asia has many
places where people are few and few place where
people are very many” is true about the pattern
of population distribution of the world also.
PATTERNS  OF  POPULATION
DISTRIBUTION IN THE WORLD
Patterns of population distribution and density
help us to understand the demographic
characteristics of any area. The term population
distribution refers to the way people are spaced
over the earth’s surface. Broadly, 90 per cent of
the world population lives in about 10 per cent
of its land area.
The 10 most populous countries of the
world contribute about 60 per cent of the world’s
population. Of these 10 countries, 6 are located
in Asia. Identify these six countries of Asia.
India
Japan
Russian Fed.
Nigeria
Bangladesh
Pakistan
Brazil
Indonesia
U.S.A.
China
0 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
Population in Million
Countries
200
Fig. 2.1: Most Populous Countries
Not gold but only (Wo)men can make
a people great and strong.
(Wo)men who for truth and
honour’s sake, stand fast and suffer
long  (Wo)men who toil while others
sleep – who dare while others flee –
they build a nation’s pillars deep and
lift it to the sky.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
© NCERT
not to be republished
DENSITY OF POPUL DENSITY OF POPUL DENSITY OF POPUL DENSITY OF POPUL DENSITY OF POPULA A A A ATION TION TION TION TION
Each unit of land has limited capacity to
support people living on it.  Hence, it is
necessary to understand the ratio between the
numbers of people to the size of land.  This ratio
is the density of population. It is usually
measured in persons per sq km
Population 
Density of Population = 
Area
For example, area of Region X is 100 sq
km and the population is 1,50,000 persons.
The density of population is calculated as:
1,50,000
Density
100
=
= 1,500 person/sq km
What does this tell you about Region X?
Look at the map given below:
Do you observe that some areas are really
crowded?  These are the densely populated
parts of the world with more than 200 persons
on every sq km.  These are the North -Eastern
part of U.S.A., North-Western part of Europe,
South, South-East and East Asia.
Other areas like those near the North and
South Poles, the hot and the cold deserts and
high rainfall zones near the Equator have very
low density of population. These are the
sparsely populated regions of the world with
less than 01 person per sq km.
In between these two types are the areas
of medium density. There are 11 to 50 persons
per sq km in these areas. Western China,
Southern India in Asia, Norway, Sweden in
Europe are some examples. Look at the Fig. 2.2
and identify some other areas.
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE
DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION
I. Geographical Factors
(i) Availability of water: It is the most
important factor for life. So, people prefer
Fig. 2.2: World Density of Population, 2001
The World Population: Distribution, Density and Growth     9
© NCERT
not to be republished
Fundamentals of Human Geography 10
to live in areas where fresh water is easily
available.  Water is used for drinking,
bathing and cooking – and also for cattle,
crops, industries and navigation.  It is
because of this that river valleys are among
the most densely populated areas of the
world.
(ii) Landforms: People prefer living on flat
plains and gentle slopes.  This is because
such areas are favourable for the
production of crops and to build roads and
industries. The mountainous and hilly
areas hinder the development of transport
network and hence initially do not favour
agricultural and industrial development.
So, these areas tend to be less populated.
The Ganga plains are among the most
densely populated areas of the world while
the mountains zones in the Himalayas are
scarcely populated.
(iii) Climate: An extreme climate such as very
hot or cold deserts are uncomfortable for
human habitation. Areas with a
comfortable climate, where there is not
much seasonal variation attract more
people.  Areas with very heavy rainfall or
extreme and harsh climates have low
population. Mediterranean regions were
inhabited from early periods in history due
to their pleasant climate.
(iv) Soils: Fertile soils are important for
agricultural and allied activities. Therefore,
areas which have fertile loamy soils have
more people living on them as these can
support intensive agriculture. Can you
name some areas in India which are thinly
populated due to poor soils?
II. Economic Factors
(i) Minerals: Areas with mineral deposits
attract industries.  Mining and industrial
activities generate employment.  So, skilled
and semi–skilled workers move to these
areas and make them densely populated.
Katanga Zambia copper belt in Africa is
one such good example.
(ii) Urbanisation: Cities offer better
employment opportunities, educational
and medical facilities, better means of
transport and communication.  Good civic
amenities and the attraction of city life draw
people to the cities. It leads to rural to
urban migration and cities grow in size.
Mega cities of the world continue to attract
large number of migrants every year.
Yet city life can be very taxing…. think
of some of the unpleasant aspects of city
life.
(iii) Industrialisation: Industrial belts provide
job opportunities and attract large
numbers of people.  These include not just
factory workers but also transport
operators, shopkeepers, bank employees,
doctors, teachers and other service
providers. The Kobe-Osaka region of
Japan is thickly populated because of the
presence of a number of industries.
III. Social and Cultural Factors
Some places attract more people because they
have religious or cultural significance.  In the
same way – people tend to move away from
places where there is social and political
unrest. Many a times governments offer
incentives to people to live in sparsely
populated areas or move away from
overcrowded places.  Can you think of some
examples from your region?
POPULATION GROWTH
The population growth or population change
refers to the change in number of inhabitants of
a territory during a specific period of time. This
change may be positive as well as negative. It
can be expressed either in terms of absolute
numbers or in terms of percentage. Population
change in an area is an important indicator of
economic development, social upliftment and
historical and cultural background of the region.
Some Basic Concepts of
Population Geography
Growth of Population : Change of
population in particular area between two
points of time is known as growth of
© NCERT
not to be republished
The World Population: Distribution, Density and Growth     11
population. For example, if we deduct  the
population of India 2001 (102.70 crore) from
population of 2011 (121.02 crore) then we
shall get the growth of population (18.15
crores) in actual numbers.
Growth Rate of Population : This is the
change of population expressed in
percentage.
Natural Growth of Population: This is the
population increased by difference between
births and deaths in a particular region
between two points of time.
Natural Growth  =  Births  –  Deaths
Actual Growth of Population : This is
Births – Deaths + In Migration – Out
Migration
Positive Growth of Population: This
happens when the birth rate is more than
the death rate between two points of time
or when people from other countries migrate
permanently to a region.
Negative Growth of Population: If the
population decreases between two points
of time it is known as negative growth of
population. It occurs when the birth rate falls
below the death rate or people migrate to
other countries.
Components of Population Change
There are three components of population
change – births, deaths and migration.
The crude birth rate (CBR) is expressed as
number of live births in a year per thousand of
population. It is calculated as:
Bi
CBR 1000
P
=¥
Here, CBR = Crude Birth Rate; Bi = live
births during the year; P=Mid year population
of the area.
Death rate plays an active role in
population change. Population growth occurs
not only by increasing births rate but also due
to decreasing death rate. Crude Death Rate
(CDR) is a simple method of measuring
mortality of any area. CDR is expressed in terms
of number of deaths in a particular year per
thousand of population in a particular region.
CDR is calculated as:
D
CDR 1000
P
=¥
Here, CDR=Crude Death Rate; D= Number
of deaths; P=Estimated mid-year population of
that year.
By and large mortality rates are affected
by  the region’s demographic structure, social
advancement and levels of its economic
development.
Migration
Apart from birth and death there is another way
by which the population size changes.
When people move from one place to
another, the place they move from is called the
Place of Origin and the place they move to is
called the Place of Destination.  The place of
origin shows a decrease in population while  the
population increases in the place of destination.
Migration may be interpreted as a spontaneous
effort to achieve a better balance between
population and resources.
Migration may be permanent, temporary
or seasonal. It may take place from rural to
rural areas, rural to urban areas, urban to
urban areas and urban to rural areas.
Do you realise that the same person is both
an immigrant and an emigrant?
Immigration: Migrants who move into a new
place are called Immigrants.
Emigration: Migrants who move out of a
place are called Emigrants.
Can you think of reasons why people
migrate?
People migrate for a better economic and
social life. There are two sets of factors that
influence migration.
The Push factors make the place of origin
seem less attractive for reasons like
unemployment, poor living conditions, political
turmoil, unpleasant climate, natural disasters,
epidemics and socio-economic backwardness.
The Pull factors make the place of
destination seem more attractive than the place
© NCERT
not to be republished
Fundamentals of Human Geography 12
Fig. 2.3: Resource, Technology and Population Growth
of origin for reasons like better job opportunities
and living conditions, peace and stability,
security of life and property and pleasant climate.
TRENDS IN POPULATION GROWTH
The population on the earth is more than six
billion. It has grown to this size over centuries.
In the early periods population of the world
grew very slowly. It is only during the last few
hundred years that population has increased
at an alarming rate.
Fig. 2.3 tells the story of population
growth. After the evolution and introduction
of agriculture about 8,000 to 12,000 years
ago, the size of population was small – roughly
8 million. In the first century A.D. it was below
Observe the news items and think of some reasons why certain countries become attractive destinations for migrants.
Migration to cities are traditionally age and sex selective i.e. more men of working age groups move to cities.
Can you think of some reason why 22 per cent of migrants to Mumbai are kids?
© NCERT
not to be republished
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