NCERT Textbook - Transport and Communication, Class 12, Geography Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Geography Class 12

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - Transport and Communication, Class 12, Geography Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Unit IV Unit IV Unit IV Unit IV Unit IV
Chapter 10
TRANSPORT AND
COMMUNICATION
We use many items in our daily life. From tooth
paste to our bed tea, milk, clothes, soaps, food
items, etc. are required every day. All these can
be purchased from the market. Have you ever
thought as to how these items are brought from
the site of production? All the production is
meant for consumption. From the fields and
factory, the produce is brought to the place from
where consumers purchase it. It is the
transportation of these items from the site of
their production to the market which make
them available to the consumer.
We not only use material things like fruits,
vegetables, books, clothes, etc. but also use
ideas, views and messages in our daily life. Do
you know we exchange our views, ideas and
messages from one place to another or one
individual to another while communicating with
the help of various means?
The use of transport and communication
depends upon our need to move things from
place of their availability to the place of their
use. Human-beings use various methods to
move goods, commodities, ideas from one place
to another.
The following diagram shows the major
means of transportation.
Land T Land T Land T Land T Land Tr r r r ranspor anspor anspor anspor ansport t t t t
The pathways and unmetalled roads have been
used for transportation in India since ancient
times. With the economic and technological
development, metalled roads and railways were
developed to move large volume of goods and
2015-16
Page 2


Unit IV Unit IV Unit IV Unit IV Unit IV
Chapter 10
TRANSPORT AND
COMMUNICATION
We use many items in our daily life. From tooth
paste to our bed tea, milk, clothes, soaps, food
items, etc. are required every day. All these can
be purchased from the market. Have you ever
thought as to how these items are brought from
the site of production? All the production is
meant for consumption. From the fields and
factory, the produce is brought to the place from
where consumers purchase it. It is the
transportation of these items from the site of
their production to the market which make
them available to the consumer.
We not only use material things like fruits,
vegetables, books, clothes, etc. but also use
ideas, views and messages in our daily life. Do
you know we exchange our views, ideas and
messages from one place to another or one
individual to another while communicating with
the help of various means?
The use of transport and communication
depends upon our need to move things from
place of their availability to the place of their
use. Human-beings use various methods to
move goods, commodities, ideas from one place
to another.
The following diagram shows the major
means of transportation.
Land T Land T Land T Land T Land Tr r r r ranspor anspor anspor anspor ansport t t t t
The pathways and unmetalled roads have been
used for transportation in India since ancient
times. With the economic and technological
development, metalled roads and railways were
developed to move large volume of goods and
2015-16
114 India : People and Economy
people from one place to another. Ropeways,
cableways and pipelines were devised to cater
to the demands of transporting specific goods
under special circumstances.
Road Transport
India has one of the largest road networks in
the world with a total length of 42.3 lakh km
(2008-09). About 85 per cent of passenger and
(1961) was introduced to improve the
conditions of roads in India. However, roads
continue to concentrate in and around urban
centres. Rural and remote areas had the least
connectivity by road.
For the purpose of construction and
maintenance, roads are classified as National
Highways (NH), State Highways(SH), Major
District Roads and Rural Roads.
70 per cent of freight traffic are carried by roads
every year. Road transport is relatively suitable
for shorter distance travel.
Sher Shah Suri built the Shahi (Royal) road
to strengthen and consolidate his empire
from the Indus Valley to the Sonar Valley
in Bengal. This road was renamed the
Grand Trunk (GT) road during the British
period, connecting Calcutta and Peshawar .
At present, it extends from Amritsar to
Kolkata. It is bifurcated into 2 segments :
(a) National Highway(NH)-1 from Delhi to
Amritsar , and (b) NH- 2 from Delhi to Kolkata.
Road transport in modern sense was very
limited in India before World War-II. The first
serious attempt was made in 1943 when
‘Nagpur Plan’ was drawn. This plan could not
be implemented due to lack of coordination
among the princely states and British India.
After Independence, twenty-year road plan
National Highways
The main roads which are constructed and
maintained by the Central Government are
known as the National Highways. These roads
are meant for inter-state transport and
movement of defence men and material in
strategic areas. These also connect the state
capitals, major cities, important ports, railway
junctions, etc. The length of the National
Highways has increased from 19,700 km in
1951 to 70,934 km in 2008-09. The National
Highways constitute only 1.67 per cent of the
total road length but carry 40 per cent of the
road traffic. (Table 10.1)
The National Highways Authority of India
(NHAI) was operationalised in 1995. It is an
autonomous body under the Ministry of
Surface Transport. It is entrusted with the
responsibility of development, maintenance
and operation of National Highways. This is also
the apex body to improve the quality of the roads
designated as National Highways.
A view of traffic flow in Delhi
Rain-soaked : Nomads go about their routine during an early morning
downpour in Srinagar. Traffic on the 300-km Srinagar-Jammu and 434-
km Srinagar-Leh National Highways is suspended as upper reaches of
J&K saw heavy snowfall while rain lashed the plains.
Fig. 10.1
2015-16
Page 3


Unit IV Unit IV Unit IV Unit IV Unit IV
Chapter 10
TRANSPORT AND
COMMUNICATION
We use many items in our daily life. From tooth
paste to our bed tea, milk, clothes, soaps, food
items, etc. are required every day. All these can
be purchased from the market. Have you ever
thought as to how these items are brought from
the site of production? All the production is
meant for consumption. From the fields and
factory, the produce is brought to the place from
where consumers purchase it. It is the
transportation of these items from the site of
their production to the market which make
them available to the consumer.
We not only use material things like fruits,
vegetables, books, clothes, etc. but also use
ideas, views and messages in our daily life. Do
you know we exchange our views, ideas and
messages from one place to another or one
individual to another while communicating with
the help of various means?
The use of transport and communication
depends upon our need to move things from
place of their availability to the place of their
use. Human-beings use various methods to
move goods, commodities, ideas from one place
to another.
The following diagram shows the major
means of transportation.
Land T Land T Land T Land T Land Tr r r r ranspor anspor anspor anspor ansport t t t t
The pathways and unmetalled roads have been
used for transportation in India since ancient
times. With the economic and technological
development, metalled roads and railways were
developed to move large volume of goods and
2015-16
114 India : People and Economy
people from one place to another. Ropeways,
cableways and pipelines were devised to cater
to the demands of transporting specific goods
under special circumstances.
Road Transport
India has one of the largest road networks in
the world with a total length of 42.3 lakh km
(2008-09). About 85 per cent of passenger and
(1961) was introduced to improve the
conditions of roads in India. However, roads
continue to concentrate in and around urban
centres. Rural and remote areas had the least
connectivity by road.
For the purpose of construction and
maintenance, roads are classified as National
Highways (NH), State Highways(SH), Major
District Roads and Rural Roads.
70 per cent of freight traffic are carried by roads
every year. Road transport is relatively suitable
for shorter distance travel.
Sher Shah Suri built the Shahi (Royal) road
to strengthen and consolidate his empire
from the Indus Valley to the Sonar Valley
in Bengal. This road was renamed the
Grand Trunk (GT) road during the British
period, connecting Calcutta and Peshawar .
At present, it extends from Amritsar to
Kolkata. It is bifurcated into 2 segments :
(a) National Highway(NH)-1 from Delhi to
Amritsar , and (b) NH- 2 from Delhi to Kolkata.
Road transport in modern sense was very
limited in India before World War-II. The first
serious attempt was made in 1943 when
‘Nagpur Plan’ was drawn. This plan could not
be implemented due to lack of coordination
among the princely states and British India.
After Independence, twenty-year road plan
National Highways
The main roads which are constructed and
maintained by the Central Government are
known as the National Highways. These roads
are meant for inter-state transport and
movement of defence men and material in
strategic areas. These also connect the state
capitals, major cities, important ports, railway
junctions, etc. The length of the National
Highways has increased from 19,700 km in
1951 to 70,934 km in 2008-09. The National
Highways constitute only 1.67 per cent of the
total road length but carry 40 per cent of the
road traffic. (Table 10.1)
The National Highways Authority of India
(NHAI) was operationalised in 1995. It is an
autonomous body under the Ministry of
Surface Transport. It is entrusted with the
responsibility of development, maintenance
and operation of National Highways. This is also
the apex body to improve the quality of the roads
designated as National Highways.
A view of traffic flow in Delhi
Rain-soaked : Nomads go about their routine during an early morning
downpour in Srinagar. Traffic on the 300-km Srinagar-Jammu and 434-
km Srinagar-Leh National Highways is suspended as upper reaches of
J&K saw heavy snowfall while rain lashed the plains.
Fig. 10.1
2015-16
Transport and Communication     115
Serial No. Road Category Length in Km % of total road length
1. National Highways 70,934 1.67
2. State Highways 154522 3.64
3. Major District Roads 2577396 60.83
4. Rural Roads 1433577 33.86
Total 4236429 100
Table 10.1 : Indian Road Network 2008-09
National Highways National Highways National Highways National Highways National Highways
Development Projects Development Projects Development Projects Development Projects Development Projects
NHAI has taken up some major projects in
the  country under different phases :
Golden Quadrilateral : It comprises
construction of 5,846 km long 4/6 lane, high
density traf fic corridor , to connect India’ s four
big metro cities of Delhi-Mumbai-Chennai-
Kolkata. With the construction of Golden
Quadrilateral, the time- distance and cost
of movement among the mega cities of India
will be considerably minimised.
North-South and East-West Corridors :
North-South corridor aims at connecting
Srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir with
Kaniyakumari in Tamil Nadu (including
Kochchi-Salem Spur) with 4,076 km long
road. The E ast-West Corridor has been planned
to connect Silchar in Assam with the port town
of Porbandar in Gujarat with 3,640 km of
road length.
Rural Roads
These roads are vital for providing links in the
rural areas. About 80 per cent of the total road
length in India are categorised as rural roads.
There is regional variation in the density of rural
road because these are influenced by the nature
of the terrain?
State Highways
These are constructed and maintained by state
governments. They join the state capitals with
district headquarters and other important
towns. These roads are connected to the
National Highways. These constitute 4 per cent
of total road length in the country.
District Roads
These roads are the connecting link between
District Headquarters and the other important
nodes in the district. They account for 14 per
cent of the total road length of the country.
Fig. 10.2 : Road constructed under the Pradhan
Mantri Gram Sadak Yojna
Why are the rural roads’ density very low
in hilly, plateau and forested areas? Why
does the quality of rural roads deteriorate
away from the urban centres?
Other Roads
Other roads include Border Roads and
International Highways. The Border Road
Organisation (BRO) was established in May
1960 for accelerating economic development
and strengthening defence preparedness
through rapid and coordinated improvement
of strategically important roads along the
northern and north-eastern boundary of the
Source: Ministry of Road Transport Annual Report 2010-11.
2015-16
Page 4


Unit IV Unit IV Unit IV Unit IV Unit IV
Chapter 10
TRANSPORT AND
COMMUNICATION
We use many items in our daily life. From tooth
paste to our bed tea, milk, clothes, soaps, food
items, etc. are required every day. All these can
be purchased from the market. Have you ever
thought as to how these items are brought from
the site of production? All the production is
meant for consumption. From the fields and
factory, the produce is brought to the place from
where consumers purchase it. It is the
transportation of these items from the site of
their production to the market which make
them available to the consumer.
We not only use material things like fruits,
vegetables, books, clothes, etc. but also use
ideas, views and messages in our daily life. Do
you know we exchange our views, ideas and
messages from one place to another or one
individual to another while communicating with
the help of various means?
The use of transport and communication
depends upon our need to move things from
place of their availability to the place of their
use. Human-beings use various methods to
move goods, commodities, ideas from one place
to another.
The following diagram shows the major
means of transportation.
Land T Land T Land T Land T Land Tr r r r ranspor anspor anspor anspor ansport t t t t
The pathways and unmetalled roads have been
used for transportation in India since ancient
times. With the economic and technological
development, metalled roads and railways were
developed to move large volume of goods and
2015-16
114 India : People and Economy
people from one place to another. Ropeways,
cableways and pipelines were devised to cater
to the demands of transporting specific goods
under special circumstances.
Road Transport
India has one of the largest road networks in
the world with a total length of 42.3 lakh km
(2008-09). About 85 per cent of passenger and
(1961) was introduced to improve the
conditions of roads in India. However, roads
continue to concentrate in and around urban
centres. Rural and remote areas had the least
connectivity by road.
For the purpose of construction and
maintenance, roads are classified as National
Highways (NH), State Highways(SH), Major
District Roads and Rural Roads.
70 per cent of freight traffic are carried by roads
every year. Road transport is relatively suitable
for shorter distance travel.
Sher Shah Suri built the Shahi (Royal) road
to strengthen and consolidate his empire
from the Indus Valley to the Sonar Valley
in Bengal. This road was renamed the
Grand Trunk (GT) road during the British
period, connecting Calcutta and Peshawar .
At present, it extends from Amritsar to
Kolkata. It is bifurcated into 2 segments :
(a) National Highway(NH)-1 from Delhi to
Amritsar , and (b) NH- 2 from Delhi to Kolkata.
Road transport in modern sense was very
limited in India before World War-II. The first
serious attempt was made in 1943 when
‘Nagpur Plan’ was drawn. This plan could not
be implemented due to lack of coordination
among the princely states and British India.
After Independence, twenty-year road plan
National Highways
The main roads which are constructed and
maintained by the Central Government are
known as the National Highways. These roads
are meant for inter-state transport and
movement of defence men and material in
strategic areas. These also connect the state
capitals, major cities, important ports, railway
junctions, etc. The length of the National
Highways has increased from 19,700 km in
1951 to 70,934 km in 2008-09. The National
Highways constitute only 1.67 per cent of the
total road length but carry 40 per cent of the
road traffic. (Table 10.1)
The National Highways Authority of India
(NHAI) was operationalised in 1995. It is an
autonomous body under the Ministry of
Surface Transport. It is entrusted with the
responsibility of development, maintenance
and operation of National Highways. This is also
the apex body to improve the quality of the roads
designated as National Highways.
A view of traffic flow in Delhi
Rain-soaked : Nomads go about their routine during an early morning
downpour in Srinagar. Traffic on the 300-km Srinagar-Jammu and 434-
km Srinagar-Leh National Highways is suspended as upper reaches of
J&K saw heavy snowfall while rain lashed the plains.
Fig. 10.1
2015-16
Transport and Communication     115
Serial No. Road Category Length in Km % of total road length
1. National Highways 70,934 1.67
2. State Highways 154522 3.64
3. Major District Roads 2577396 60.83
4. Rural Roads 1433577 33.86
Total 4236429 100
Table 10.1 : Indian Road Network 2008-09
National Highways National Highways National Highways National Highways National Highways
Development Projects Development Projects Development Projects Development Projects Development Projects
NHAI has taken up some major projects in
the  country under different phases :
Golden Quadrilateral : It comprises
construction of 5,846 km long 4/6 lane, high
density traf fic corridor , to connect India’ s four
big metro cities of Delhi-Mumbai-Chennai-
Kolkata. With the construction of Golden
Quadrilateral, the time- distance and cost
of movement among the mega cities of India
will be considerably minimised.
North-South and East-West Corridors :
North-South corridor aims at connecting
Srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir with
Kaniyakumari in Tamil Nadu (including
Kochchi-Salem Spur) with 4,076 km long
road. The E ast-West Corridor has been planned
to connect Silchar in Assam with the port town
of Porbandar in Gujarat with 3,640 km of
road length.
Rural Roads
These roads are vital for providing links in the
rural areas. About 80 per cent of the total road
length in India are categorised as rural roads.
There is regional variation in the density of rural
road because these are influenced by the nature
of the terrain?
State Highways
These are constructed and maintained by state
governments. They join the state capitals with
district headquarters and other important
towns. These roads are connected to the
National Highways. These constitute 4 per cent
of total road length in the country.
District Roads
These roads are the connecting link between
District Headquarters and the other important
nodes in the district. They account for 14 per
cent of the total road length of the country.
Fig. 10.2 : Road constructed under the Pradhan
Mantri Gram Sadak Yojna
Why are the rural roads’ density very low
in hilly, plateau and forested areas? Why
does the quality of rural roads deteriorate
away from the urban centres?
Other Roads
Other roads include Border Roads and
International Highways. The Border Road
Organisation (BRO) was established in May
1960 for accelerating economic development
and strengthening defence preparedness
through rapid and coordinated improvement
of strategically important roads along the
northern and north-eastern boundary of the
Source: Ministry of Road Transport Annual Report 2010-11.
2015-16
116 India : People and Economy
Fig. 10.3 : India – Density of Roads, 2001
2015-16
Page 5


Unit IV Unit IV Unit IV Unit IV Unit IV
Chapter 10
TRANSPORT AND
COMMUNICATION
We use many items in our daily life. From tooth
paste to our bed tea, milk, clothes, soaps, food
items, etc. are required every day. All these can
be purchased from the market. Have you ever
thought as to how these items are brought from
the site of production? All the production is
meant for consumption. From the fields and
factory, the produce is brought to the place from
where consumers purchase it. It is the
transportation of these items from the site of
their production to the market which make
them available to the consumer.
We not only use material things like fruits,
vegetables, books, clothes, etc. but also use
ideas, views and messages in our daily life. Do
you know we exchange our views, ideas and
messages from one place to another or one
individual to another while communicating with
the help of various means?
The use of transport and communication
depends upon our need to move things from
place of their availability to the place of their
use. Human-beings use various methods to
move goods, commodities, ideas from one place
to another.
The following diagram shows the major
means of transportation.
Land T Land T Land T Land T Land Tr r r r ranspor anspor anspor anspor ansport t t t t
The pathways and unmetalled roads have been
used for transportation in India since ancient
times. With the economic and technological
development, metalled roads and railways were
developed to move large volume of goods and
2015-16
114 India : People and Economy
people from one place to another. Ropeways,
cableways and pipelines were devised to cater
to the demands of transporting specific goods
under special circumstances.
Road Transport
India has one of the largest road networks in
the world with a total length of 42.3 lakh km
(2008-09). About 85 per cent of passenger and
(1961) was introduced to improve the
conditions of roads in India. However, roads
continue to concentrate in and around urban
centres. Rural and remote areas had the least
connectivity by road.
For the purpose of construction and
maintenance, roads are classified as National
Highways (NH), State Highways(SH), Major
District Roads and Rural Roads.
70 per cent of freight traffic are carried by roads
every year. Road transport is relatively suitable
for shorter distance travel.
Sher Shah Suri built the Shahi (Royal) road
to strengthen and consolidate his empire
from the Indus Valley to the Sonar Valley
in Bengal. This road was renamed the
Grand Trunk (GT) road during the British
period, connecting Calcutta and Peshawar .
At present, it extends from Amritsar to
Kolkata. It is bifurcated into 2 segments :
(a) National Highway(NH)-1 from Delhi to
Amritsar , and (b) NH- 2 from Delhi to Kolkata.
Road transport in modern sense was very
limited in India before World War-II. The first
serious attempt was made in 1943 when
‘Nagpur Plan’ was drawn. This plan could not
be implemented due to lack of coordination
among the princely states and British India.
After Independence, twenty-year road plan
National Highways
The main roads which are constructed and
maintained by the Central Government are
known as the National Highways. These roads
are meant for inter-state transport and
movement of defence men and material in
strategic areas. These also connect the state
capitals, major cities, important ports, railway
junctions, etc. The length of the National
Highways has increased from 19,700 km in
1951 to 70,934 km in 2008-09. The National
Highways constitute only 1.67 per cent of the
total road length but carry 40 per cent of the
road traffic. (Table 10.1)
The National Highways Authority of India
(NHAI) was operationalised in 1995. It is an
autonomous body under the Ministry of
Surface Transport. It is entrusted with the
responsibility of development, maintenance
and operation of National Highways. This is also
the apex body to improve the quality of the roads
designated as National Highways.
A view of traffic flow in Delhi
Rain-soaked : Nomads go about their routine during an early morning
downpour in Srinagar. Traffic on the 300-km Srinagar-Jammu and 434-
km Srinagar-Leh National Highways is suspended as upper reaches of
J&K saw heavy snowfall while rain lashed the plains.
Fig. 10.1
2015-16
Transport and Communication     115
Serial No. Road Category Length in Km % of total road length
1. National Highways 70,934 1.67
2. State Highways 154522 3.64
3. Major District Roads 2577396 60.83
4. Rural Roads 1433577 33.86
Total 4236429 100
Table 10.1 : Indian Road Network 2008-09
National Highways National Highways National Highways National Highways National Highways
Development Projects Development Projects Development Projects Development Projects Development Projects
NHAI has taken up some major projects in
the  country under different phases :
Golden Quadrilateral : It comprises
construction of 5,846 km long 4/6 lane, high
density traf fic corridor , to connect India’ s four
big metro cities of Delhi-Mumbai-Chennai-
Kolkata. With the construction of Golden
Quadrilateral, the time- distance and cost
of movement among the mega cities of India
will be considerably minimised.
North-South and East-West Corridors :
North-South corridor aims at connecting
Srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir with
Kaniyakumari in Tamil Nadu (including
Kochchi-Salem Spur) with 4,076 km long
road. The E ast-West Corridor has been planned
to connect Silchar in Assam with the port town
of Porbandar in Gujarat with 3,640 km of
road length.
Rural Roads
These roads are vital for providing links in the
rural areas. About 80 per cent of the total road
length in India are categorised as rural roads.
There is regional variation in the density of rural
road because these are influenced by the nature
of the terrain?
State Highways
These are constructed and maintained by state
governments. They join the state capitals with
district headquarters and other important
towns. These roads are connected to the
National Highways. These constitute 4 per cent
of total road length in the country.
District Roads
These roads are the connecting link between
District Headquarters and the other important
nodes in the district. They account for 14 per
cent of the total road length of the country.
Fig. 10.2 : Road constructed under the Pradhan
Mantri Gram Sadak Yojna
Why are the rural roads’ density very low
in hilly, plateau and forested areas? Why
does the quality of rural roads deteriorate
away from the urban centres?
Other Roads
Other roads include Border Roads and
International Highways. The Border Road
Organisation (BRO) was established in May
1960 for accelerating economic development
and strengthening defence preparedness
through rapid and coordinated improvement
of strategically important roads along the
northern and north-eastern boundary of the
Source: Ministry of Road Transport Annual Report 2010-11.
2015-16
116 India : People and Economy
Fig. 10.3 : India – Density of Roads, 2001
2015-16
Transport and Communication     117
Apart from the construction and
maintenance of roads in strategically sensitive
areas, the BRO also undertakes snow
clearance in high altitude areas. The
international highways are meant to promote
the harmonious relationship with the
neighbouring countries by providing effective
links with India. (Fig. 10.5 and 10.6)
The distribution of roads is not uniform in
the country. Density of roads (length of roads
per 100 square km of area) varies from only
12.14 km in Jammu and Kashmir to 517.77
km in Kerala with a national average of 142.68
km in 2011. The density of road is high in most
of the northern states and major southern
states. It is low in the Himalayan region, north-
eastern region, Madhya Pradesh and
Rajasthan. Why does this variation occur?
Nature of terrain and the level of economic
development are the main determinants of
density of roads. Construction of roads is easy
and cheaper in the plain areas while it is difficult
and costly in hilly and plateau areas. Therefore,
not only the density but also the quality of roads
is relatively better in plains as compared to
roads in high altitude areas, rainy and forested
regions.
List the names of 10 important towns along NH-1 and
NH-2.
Fig. 10.5 : A Bus from Lahore to Delhi at Wagah Border
Fig. 10.6 : Aman Setu between Srinagar and
Muzaffarabad
Delhi-Lahore Bus
Fig. 10.4 : Khardung La Pass in Jammu & Kashmir
country. It is a premier multifaceted construction
agency. It has constructed roads in high altitude
mountainous terrain joining Chandigarh with
Manali (Himachal Pradesh) and Leh (Ladakh).
This road runs at an average altitude of 4,270
metres above the mean sea level.
2015-16
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