Natural Disasters - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev

Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy

UPSC : Natural Disasters - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev

The document Natural Disasters - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev is a part of the UPSC Course Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy.
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Natural Disasters

Natural Disasters

Natural Disasters - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev

Types

  • Earthquakes
  • Tsunami
  • Cyclones
  • Floods
  • Droughts

Earthquakes

  • Mainly caused by tectonic movements which were discussed in “Basics of Geography”
  • Indian has been divided into five earthquake zones:
    • Very high damage risk zone
    • High damage risk zone
    • Moderate damage risk zone
    • Low damage risk zone
    • Very low damage risk zone

Natural Disasters - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev

Effects of earthquake

  • Damage and destruction of settlement, industry , infrastructure
  • It renders people homeless
  • Landslides, sometime resulting into floods
  • Tsunami

Mitigation

  • Establishing earthquake monitoring centres
  • Preparing a vulnerability map of the country
  • Modifying house types and building designs

Tsunami

Natural Disasters - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev

Tsunami

  • Tsunami is a Japanese word which means sea-waves
  • Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions that cause the sea-floor to move abruptly resulting in sudden displacement of oceanic water in the form of high vertical waves are called tsunami
  • The speed of the waves depends on the depth of water

Natural Disasters - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev

 

Natural Disasters - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev

  • It is more in the shallow than in the deep water
  • So the impact of the Tsunami is less in the ocean than in the shallow water near the coasts
  • In the deep sea  the Tsunami has a very long wave-length and limited wave height
  • As against it the wave height increases in shallow water

Areas of occurrence

  • Tsunamis are frequently observed along the Pacific ring of fire, coasts of Alaska, Japan, Philippines and other islands of Southeast Asia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and India etc.

Effects & Remedies

  • The energy stored in water destroys settlements, buildings results in the loss of life and property.
  • It result in spread of diseases
  • It is beyond the capacity of govt. to mitigate the damage.
  • Early warning is the only way to deal with it.

Natural Disasters - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev

Natural Disasters - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev

Floods

Causes

  • Storm surge in coastal areas
  • High intensity rainfall for long period
  • Poor drainage due to silting of rivers

Besides, human activities like deforestation, colonisation of flood plains play an important role in increasing the intensity of floods

 

Natural Disasters - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev

Control of floods

  • Construction of river embankment
  • Construction of dams
  • Afforestation
  • Marking of flood zones
  • Establishment of cyclone centres in coastal areas

Droughts

  • It is applied to a period when there is a shortage of water availability due to inadequate precipitation, excessive evaporation and over utilisation of water
  • In India nearly 19% of the area suffers fron drought

Drought Phone Areas

Natural Disasters - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev

Natural Disasters - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev

Consequences of drought

  • Crop failure leading to scarcity of foodgrains
  • Shortage of water
  • Large scale death of cattle and other animals
  • Spread of many waterborne disease

Remedy

  • Identification of ground water potential in the form of aquifers
  • Transfer of river water from surplus to deficit area
  • Construction of reservoirs and dams
  • Dissemination of knowledge about drought resistant crops
  • Rainwater Harvesting can also be effective
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