Nitin Singhania: Summary of Cultural Institutions in India Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC

UPSC: Nitin Singhania: Summary of Cultural Institutions in India Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC

The document Nitin Singhania: Summary of Cultural Institutions in India Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course History for UPSC CSE.
All you need of UPSC at this link: UPSC

Introduction
(i) Constitution of India has vested upon Government of India, the responsibility to preserve, conserve and propagate Indian culture & there are various government and non- Government organisations that specialise in safeguarding the long cultural traditions of India.
(ii) Some of these institutions are:

THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA
(i) Directly under aegis of Ministry of Culture
(ii) Foremost institution for archaeological researches conducted across India.
(iii) Charged with preservation of cultural heritage.
(iv) Focus- preservation of physical & tangible heritage that is accumulated in ancient monuments & archaeological sites.
(v) Provisions of Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958, guide ASI.
(vi) Antiquities and Art Treasure Act, 1972 also directs ASI to prevent illegal export of Indian antiquities from our nation.
(vii) ASI is charged with control over all heritage sites across the nation, entire country has been divided into 24 Circles, which concentrate on preservation of monuments.
(viii) ASI employs many trained archaeologists, architects, conservators, epigraphists, etc. They have other institutions under their aegis like Museums, Excavation branches, Epigraphy branches, Building Survey Projects etc.
(ix) ASPs Underwater Archaeology Wing- more specialised.
(x) ASI also has several diplomas and degrees for studying archaeology from Institute of Archaeology in New Delhi.

CRAFTS COUNCIL OF INDIA
(i) Non-profit organisation
(ii) Promotes activities to preserve & develop handicraft industry in India.
(iii) Kamala Devi Chattopadhyay who wanted to help craft persons to get regular work and recognition for their craft, so established CCI in 1976.
(iv) Headquarter- in Chennai, they have over ten State Councils that are affiliated to parent organisation.
(v) They achieved a global platform after being affiliated to World Crafts Council.
(vi) Main objective- safeguard interests of crafts personnel & preserve craft traditions.
(vii) Series of shops established to display arts and crafts.
(viii) Shop has been named ‘Kamala’ after founder of CCI.
(ix) Craft Fair Council- main body behind organising All India Craft Fair.
(x) Department of Culture- Zonal Cultural Centres responsible for organising craft fairs areas.

INDIRA GANDHI NATIONAL CENTRE FOR THE ARTS
(i) Launched by Late Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, in memory of his mother Smt. in 1985.
(ii) Functioning of IGNCA- governed by Indira Gandhi National Centre for Arts Trust which was constituted & registered on 24 March 1987 at New Delhi.
(iii) Board of Trustees meet frequently to decide work of the Centre.
(iv) IGNCA- headed by a Chairman who is assisted by an Executive Committee.
(v) They direct the functioning of academic & administrative division.
(vi) IGNCA- autonomous institution that concentrates on research, conservation, display and dissemination of arts.
(vii) Concentrate on visual & performing art but promote critical & creative literature.
(viii) Six functional units of IGNCA:

 Units Functions
 Kala Nidhi Multi-form library
 Kala Kosa Devoted to study & publication o f fundamental texts in Indian languages.
 Janapada Sampada Engaged in lifestyle studies
 Cultural Informatics Apply technology-based tools for cultural preservation and propagation
 Sutradhara Administrative section that acts as a spine supporting and coordinating all the activities
 Kala Darsana Executive unit which transforms researches & studies emanating from IGNCA into visible forms through exhibitions

(ix) Main objectives
- Be major resource centre for oral & visual art forms in India.
- To accumulate & preserve art and crafts.
- Conduct researches on arts & humanities and publish their findings in the form of reference works, glossaries, encyclopedia & dictionaries.
- Cultivate linkages & webs of interaction with different strata of the society.

ALL INDIA RADIO
(i) Premier public service radio broadcaster in India.
(ii) Is under Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India.
(iii) Their motto- Bahujan Hitaya: Bahujan Sukhaya’, meaning sole objective is to serve, educate & entertain the audience.
(iv) AIR has 414 stations around the country & stations cover nearly 92% of India’s landmass.
(v) Demographically, they reach out to almost 99.19% of the population.
(vi) Create programmes in about 23 languages & cover 146 dialects.
(vii) Content, aims & objectives of AIR are governed by Prasar Bharati Act (amended in 1990).
(viii) Main objectives of AIR:
- create programmes to promote national integration & uphold values enshrined in Indian Constitution.
- pay greater attention to dissemination of education & spread of literacy, environment, health and family welfare, agriculture, rural development, etc;
- bring issues about women to forefront as well as concentrate on the issues of children, disabled, minority community, tribal or any other vulnerable section of the society
- endeavour to promote research and expand broadcasting faculties and develop new broadcast technology; and
- focus on showcasing the diversity of Indian culture, promote youth affairs like sports and other games.

NEHRU MEMORIAL MUSEUM AND LIBRARY
(i) Was built in 1929-30 as part of Lutyens’ designs for imperial capital.
(ii) Its building was called Teen Murti House & was official residence of last British Commander-in-Chief.
(iii) After British left India, it became residence of first Prime Minister of India, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, who lived here for 16 years.
(iv) After he passed away in 1964, government made Teen Murti House a museum & library in his honour.
(v) An exclusive library was built in 1974.
(vi) Museum- express purpose of creating a space to exhibit personalia, memorabilia, mementos and any other object related to Pt. Nehru’s life and India’s freedom struggle.
(vii) Major objectives of the NMML:
- should collect & acquire all historical materials & personal papers related to Jawaharlal Nehru.
- should also collect any papers pertaining to his family, close associates and friends.
- all administrative documents related to officials of Nehru’s administration should also be collected & documented.
- establish a LIBRARY to store books, pamphlets, periodicals, microfilms, newspapers bearing history of Modem India, with special reference to Nehru’s papers.
- should also make all these documents available to researchers through the library and to the public.
- Currently, NMML organises weekly & monthly lectures, seminars, conferences, symposiums, etc. in India & abroad.

CENTRE FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES AND TRAINING
(i) Instituted by Ministry of Culture for linking education with culture.
(ii) Established in 1979 at behest of Dr. Kapila Vatsyayan & Smt. Kamala Devi Chattopadhyay.
(iii) Autonomous body but it has been mandated by government to strengthen foundation of nation by making education, culture based & meaningful.
(iv) Headquarters in New Delhi & three Regional Centres at Udaipur (west), Hyderabad (south) & Guwahati in (north-cast).
(v) CCRT focuses on emotional, spiritual & cognitive development of children.
(vi) CCRT not only focuses on students but creates awareness amongst teachers, principals & nonteaching/ administrative actors about multiplicity of regional cultures and languages in India.
(vii) New methodologies are:
- To organise workshops to equip teachers with practical training & knowledge in crafts that can be taught as part of school curriculum.
- To create a curriculum on Indian art & culture for teachers who would consequently teach them to the students.
- To create a library to house scripts, digital photographs, audio and visual recordings, on arts & crafts of rural India and keep them alive.
(viii) Government provides funds to CCRT to offer scholarships to students, teachers and artists helping them in their endeavour in interlinking education with culture.
(ix) Scholarships are given to Young Artists, Junior & Senior Fellowships for deeper researches.
(x) They also organise Cultural Heritage Young Leadership Programme to promote social values & community participation.

NATIONAL ARCHIVES OF INDIA
(i) One of the oldest institutions
(ii) Was created by British to keep administrative records pertaining to India.
(iii) Idea of its establishment- British Civil Auditor, Sandeman, who wanted a ‘Grand Central Archive’ to protect all valuable records in 1860.
(iv) Archive or ‘Imperial Records Department’ (IRD)- first established in 1891 in Calcutta under auspices of Prof. G.W. Forrest.
(v) IRD was shifted to New Delhi in 1911 when British capital changed.
(vi) After independence, IRD was renamed as National Archives of India (NAI).
(vii) Administrative set-up changed & Director of Archives headed NAI.
(viii) Archives were opened to public for research in 1939.
(ix) Conservation Research Laboratory (CRL) was added to archives in 1940 for conserving & preserving important documents on Indian history.
(x) Also given responsibility to acquire public records & private papers/collections.
(xi) They also started research & reference programmes and formalised training for conservation.
(xii) Regional centres at Jaipur, Bhubaneswar and Puducherry.
(xiii) Main objectives of NAI:
- help in preservation of Indian documentary cultural heritage & ensure that it is handed to coming generations and they can be given greater access to the archival holdings.
- collect large amount of documents & to manage them scientifically
- promote administration & conservation of records in all regional centres.
- create & nurture closer relations between archival institutions & archivists especially at national & international level.
- to develop a scientific temper amongst the archivists, custodians and users of the records.

INDIAN COUNCIL FOR CULTURAL RELATIONS
(i) ICCR is under aegis of Ministry of Culture
(ii) Was established to conduct programmes that promote Indian culture on an international platform.
(iii) Maulana Abul Kalam Azad- firmly believed in promoting cultural exchanges with other countries and cultures, established it in 1950.
(iv) Focuses on formulation & implementation of programmes and policies that are deeply rooted in the external cultural relations between India & other nations.
(v) It funds programmes relating to visual & performing arts that are international in their appeal.
(vi) Provide grants in support of programmes like Jazz Festival in New Delhi, North-East Music Festival in Guwahati, etc.
(vii) Major focus of ICCR- promote international friendship, promote cultural exchange between nations, generate healthy competition and exchange, and in turn blend the new & old features of Indian culture.

Directorate of Film Festivals
(i) DFF was set up by Government of India in 1973
(ii) Purpose- organising National & International Film festivals in India.
(iii) They ensure that Indian films find recognition at global platforms & a lot of brilliant foreign films are showcased to Indian audience.
(iv) DFF- additional charge- to organise National Film Award Functions.
Nitin Singhania: Summary of Cultural Institutions in India Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC
(v) Main motto- promote cultural exchange between nations & cultures through medium of film.
(vi) They have responsibility of organising Cultural Exchange programmes.
(vii) Government has directed them to create a Print Collection and Documentation Centre for the use of those studying cinema .
(viii) Major usage of DFF - open international dialogue between nations → It opens several commercial opportunities for Indian filmmakers.

INDIAN COUNCIL OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH
(i) Was established under Societies Registration Act in 1972.
(ii) Autonomous organisation, which draws funds from University Grants Commission (UGC).
(iii) Created with express purpose to promote & preserve history of India.
(iv) Main objectives are:
- give a platform for historians to write an objective and scientific history and to create and unbiased & rational interpretation of history.
- promote the studies in areas that have been neglected so far.
- Ensure there is no regional disparity & a balanced distribution of research effort is made all over the country.
- provide funds, elicit support and gamer recognition for historical research from all concerned areas.
- very active body that conducts seminars, conferences, to promote historical knowledge.
- also provide Junior & Senior fellowships & financial assistance to scholars.
- publish journals like the Indian Historical Review in English & ‘Itihas’ in Hindi,
(v) Two regional centres in Bangalore (South) and Guwahati (North-East).

NATIONAL MISSION FOR MANUSCRIPTS
(i) Government of India, on recommendation of ASI and NAI has ordered for establishment of National Mission for Manuscripts (NMM).
(ii) Foremost task of NMM was to create ‘National Electronic Database’.
(iii) This database has about one million manuscripts, which makes it largest database of Indian Manuscripts.
(iv) Another major task of the NMM was to conserve the manuscripts using indigenous and modem methods so as to preserve documents while retaining its ancient heritage.
(v) Important tasks of NMM:
- train the coming generation of manuscript conservators through diploma and degree courses.
- train those working with manuscripts on issues of languages, scripts and critical editing.
(vi) Given funds by Government of India to procuren best techniques & to digitise rare & most endangered manuscripts.

INDIAN NATIONAL TRUST FOR ART AND CULTURAL HERITAGE (INTACH)
(i) Non-profit NGO
(ii) Founded in 1984 in New Delhi.
(iii) Primary purpose- spearhead awareness regarding our heritage.
(iv) Has various branches called ‘Chapters’.
(v) Currently, they have Chapters in about 170 Indian cities and several international ones too.
(vi) First governing council of INTACH had- Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, M.G.K Menon, Dr. Kapila Vatsyayan, Madhavrao Scindia etc.
(vii) As per Memorandum of Rules & Regulations:
- Restore monuments & ruins to their original state and help with subsequent management and sustenance of the monument.
- Create awareness amongst masses about conservation of heritage property.
- Create & support Heritage Walks that would cover major areas of historic cities.
- Should focus on monuments that fall out of the purview of Archaeological survey of India and work with the local authorities.
(viii) Work of INTACH is supported by various governmental agencies & several foreign countries have signed Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with them.
(ix) Example- INTACH UK Trust (1987) through a bequest from Charles Wallace foundation → fund projects in India that focus on heritage conservation and help people reconcile tourism activities and conservation of monuments.

SAHITYA ACADEMY
(i) Government of India established“National Academy of Letters” or Sahitya Academi in 1954.
(ii) Primary function- to work as a national organisation to promote literary culture in India, to foster & co-ordinate literature in all Indian languages and to overall promote national unity of country.
(iii) Autonomous organisation, which undertakes literary activities in over 24 Indian languages (22 in Constitution + English +Rajasthani).
(iv) They give out following awards:

 Name of Award Purpose of the Award
 Bhasha Samman For Significant contribution to the languages not recognised by the Academi.

 To those who have contributed to Ancient and Medieval literature.

 Dr. Anand Coomaraswamy Fellowship Those who have worked on the field of art especially in Ancient India.
 Premchand Fellowship Those who have contributed to the literature in Hindi.

(v) Recently, their focus has shifted to preservation of Oral & tribal literature. • (vi) Organized literary gatherings: Samvad, Meet the Author, Kathasandi, Midakat, Asmita, etc.- to reach wider audience.

SANGEET NATAK ACADEMY
(i) First national academy set up for Arts by Government of India in 1952.
(ii) First President of India, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, inaugurated it.
(iii) Major focus- create a set-up for music, drama & dances of India.
(iv) Primary body for showcasing performing arts in country.
(v) Promoting intangible heritage of India as demonstrated through forms of music, dance & drama.
(vi) Central agency to monitor preservation of our cultural heritage by collaborating with State & Union territory governments.
(vii) Also looks after several institutions of either dance or music or drama. Like, they administer National School of Drama set up in 1959 for focused work on dramatics in India.
(viii) Also collaborate with international organizations like UNESCO to save cultural heritage.
(ix) It launched a decade long project to work on dance form of Koodiyattam.
(x) Aims & objectives:
- To promote research & performances in the fields of music, dance and drama.
- To encourage establishment of centres for theatres & to promote teaching acting, study of stagecraft and play production and direction.
- To conduct & promote literature on Indian music, dance and drama.
- Special emphasis to create handbooks & illustrated dictionaries that explain technical terms.
- To revive, promote and preserve the folk dance, music and drama especially community art, martial music and any other type of music.
- To foster cultural contacts with international community in the fields of dance, music and drama.

LALIT KALA ACADEMY
(i) National Academy of Art or Lalit Kala Academy was set up by Government of India in 1954.
(ii) Sole object- promote fine arts in India.
(iii) Autonomous body that is funded by Ministry of Culture.
(iv) Focus on encouragement & understanding of fine arts.
(v) Their focus is on promotion & preservation of Indian art.
(vi) Main centre- Delhi & Regional Centres- Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Shimla, Shillong & Bhubaneswar.
(vii) Important exhibitions- National Exhibition of Art, International Triennale India etc.
(viii) Have task to preserve long tradition of visual arts in India.
(ix) Have established centres to preserve & document a permanent collection, which focuses on modern & contemporary art in India.
(x) Have an archive, a library & a conservation laboratory.
(xi) Providing scholarships and grants to artists and art organizations.    

The document Nitin Singhania: Summary of Cultural Institutions in India Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course History for UPSC CSE.
All you need of UPSC at this link: UPSC
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