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Lecture 15 
Poverty & Unemployment
Capstone IAS Learning
Page 2


Lecture 15 
Poverty & Unemployment
Capstone IAS Learning
What will we cover
Concept of Inclusive Growth & Sustainable Development 
GiNi Coefficient & Lorenz Curve 
Concept of Poverty & Poverty Line Estimates 
Government Interventions  
Various terms related to employment 
Types of Unemployment 
Gig Economy 
Issues related to Unemployment Data 
Labour reforms 
International Labour Organisation 
Economic Survey 2019-20
Page 3


Lecture 15 
Poverty & Unemployment
Capstone IAS Learning
What will we cover
Concept of Inclusive Growth & Sustainable Development 
GiNi Coefficient & Lorenz Curve 
Concept of Poverty & Poverty Line Estimates 
Government Interventions  
Various terms related to employment 
Types of Unemployment 
Gig Economy 
Issues related to Unemployment Data 
Labour reforms 
International Labour Organisation 
Economic Survey 2019-20
Inclusive Growth
The agenda for “inclusive growth” was 
envisaged in the 11th Five Year Plan which 
not only intended faster growth but a growth 
process which ensures broad-based 
improvement in quality of life of people. 
Inclusive growth brings special focus on 
poor, SC/STs, OBCs, minorities and women. 
Plus it seeks to provide “equality of 
opportunity”. 
Page 4


Lecture 15 
Poverty & Unemployment
Capstone IAS Learning
What will we cover
Concept of Inclusive Growth & Sustainable Development 
GiNi Coefficient & Lorenz Curve 
Concept of Poverty & Poverty Line Estimates 
Government Interventions  
Various terms related to employment 
Types of Unemployment 
Gig Economy 
Issues related to Unemployment Data 
Labour reforms 
International Labour Organisation 
Economic Survey 2019-20
Inclusive Growth
The agenda for “inclusive growth” was 
envisaged in the 11th Five Year Plan which 
not only intended faster growth but a growth 
process which ensures broad-based 
improvement in quality of life of people. 
Inclusive growth brings special focus on 
poor, SC/STs, OBCs, minorities and women. 
Plus it seeks to provide “equality of 
opportunity”. 
Elements of 
Inclusive 
Growth
Employment  
Generation
Agriculture 
Development
Social Sector 
Development
Equitable Distribution 
Of Income
Environment  
Protection
Reduce 
Regional Disparities
Industrial  
Development
Poverty 
Reduction
Page 5


Lecture 15 
Poverty & Unemployment
Capstone IAS Learning
What will we cover
Concept of Inclusive Growth & Sustainable Development 
GiNi Coefficient & Lorenz Curve 
Concept of Poverty & Poverty Line Estimates 
Government Interventions  
Various terms related to employment 
Types of Unemployment 
Gig Economy 
Issues related to Unemployment Data 
Labour reforms 
International Labour Organisation 
Economic Survey 2019-20
Inclusive Growth
The agenda for “inclusive growth” was 
envisaged in the 11th Five Year Plan which 
not only intended faster growth but a growth 
process which ensures broad-based 
improvement in quality of life of people. 
Inclusive growth brings special focus on 
poor, SC/STs, OBCs, minorities and women. 
Plus it seeks to provide “equality of 
opportunity”. 
Elements of 
Inclusive 
Growth
Employment  
Generation
Agriculture 
Development
Social Sector 
Development
Equitable Distribution 
Of Income
Environment  
Protection
Reduce 
Regional Disparities
Industrial  
Development
Poverty 
Reduction
Sustainable Development
Meeting human development while at the same time sustaining the ability of 
natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon 
which the economy and society depends. 
One of the first uses of the term sustainable in the contemporary sense was 
by “Club of Rome” in 1972 in its classic report on the “Limits to Growth”, 
written by a group of scientists. 
In 1987, the UN World Commission on Environment and Development released 
the report “Our Common Future”, commonly called the “Brundtland Report”. 
Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs) : 
-
In September 2015, UNGA formally adopted the “universal, integrated and 
transformative” 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. 
-
A set of 17 SDGs were adopted in this agenda with 169 targets between them. 
-
The goals are to be implemented and achieved in every country from 
2016-2030. 
-
This is to be operated under UNDP.
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FAQs on PPT: Poverty & Unemployment - Indian Economy for UPSC CSE

1. What is the relationship between poverty and unemployment?
Ans. Poverty and unemployment are closely intertwined. When unemployment rates are high, it often leads to an increase in poverty rates as individuals and families struggle to meet their basic needs without a stable source of income. Conversely, poverty can also contribute to higher unemployment rates as individuals lack the resources and opportunities necessary to find and maintain employment.
2. How does poverty impact employment opportunities?
Ans. Poverty can significantly limit employment opportunities for individuals. Lack of access to quality education and skills development programs, limited networking opportunities, and discrimination based on socio-economic background are some ways poverty hinders employment prospects. Additionally, individuals living in poverty often face challenges such as transportation barriers, lack of affordable childcare, and inadequate access to healthcare, making it difficult for them to secure and maintain employment.
3. What are some government interventions to address poverty and unemployment?
Ans. Governments employ various interventions to combat poverty and unemployment. These include implementing job creation programs, providing unemployment benefits, increasing minimum wages, investing in education and skills training, offering tax credits and subsidies for low-income individuals and businesses, and promoting economic growth through infrastructure development and attracting investments. Additionally, social safety nets and welfare programs are often established to provide support and assistance to those living in poverty or experiencing unemployment.
4. How does poverty and unemployment affect mental health?
Ans. Poverty and unemployment can have detrimental effects on mental health. The stress, anxiety, and feelings of hopelessness associated with financial instability and joblessness can contribute to the development or exacerbation of mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety. Additionally, the lack of access to quality healthcare and the social stigma surrounding poverty and unemployment further compound the mental health challenges faced by those in these circumstances.
5. What are some long-term solutions to poverty and unemployment?
Ans. Long-term solutions to poverty and unemployment require comprehensive approaches. These may include investing in quality education and vocational training, promoting inclusive economic growth that generates employment opportunities, implementing social protection programs, ensuring access to affordable healthcare and childcare, addressing systemic inequalities and discrimination, and fostering an enabling environment for entrepreneurship and innovation. Additionally, collaborative efforts between governments, businesses, and civil society are crucial in creating sustainable solutions to alleviate poverty and reduce unemployment rates.
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