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(Part - 2) - Psychological Disorders Class 12 Psychology

Somatic Symptom and Related Disorder

The term "somatic symptom and related disorders" refers to conditions in which clients experience physical symptoms and psychological distress without any clear medical explanation.
The main types of these disorders are described as follows:

  • Somatic Symptom Disorder: This disorder is characterized by persistent physical symptoms that do not have a clear medical explanation. Individuals with this disorder are excessively worried about their health and preoccupied with their symptoms, leading them to seek medical attention frequently.
  • Illness Anxiety Disorder: People diagnosed with Illness Anxiety Disorder are excessively concerned about the possibility of having or developing a serious medical condition or illness.
  • Conversion Disorder: Individuals who have conversion disorder experience a loss or alteration in bodily function or a body part, such as blindness, deafness, or difficulty in walking, without any underlying medical cause.

Question for Revision Notes (Part - 2) - Psychological Disorders
Try yourself:Which of the subsequent isn’t a kind of hysteria disorder?
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Dissociative Disorders

Dissociation refers to a state of feeling detached, unreal, or disconnected from one's surroundings or sense of self.
Several types of dissociative disorders are:

  • Dissociative disorders are characterized by feelings of estrangement, unreality, or depersonalization. There are several types of dissociative disorders, including Dissociative Amnesia, which involves selective memory loss of a specific incident or period of time due to high stress. 
  • Dissociative Identity Disorder, also known as multiple personality disorder, is rooted in traumatic childhood experiences and involves a person taking on different personalities that may or may not be aware of each other. 
  • Depersonalization is characterized by a dream-like state in which a person feels disconnected from themselves and reality. 
  • Dissociative Fugue involves the formation of a new identity as a result of unexpected travel away from home and work, with an inability to recall the previous identity.

Depressive Disorder

Depression is a commonly known mental disorder characterized by a variety of negative emotions and behavioral changes. It often occurs following a relationship breakdown or when a person fails to achieve an important goal.

Major Depressive Disorder

  • Depression is a common mental disorder marked by a variety of negative emotions and behavioral changes. It is often triggered by a breakdown in a relationship or a failure to achieve an important goal. 
  • Symptoms of depression include disinterest and lack of enthusiasm towards most activities, disrupted sleep patterns, changes in appetite and weight, irritability, and withdrawal from social relationships. 
  • There are several factors that increase the risk of depression, including age, with women more likely to experience depression in young adulthood and men more likely to experience it in middle age due to midlife crisis. 
  • Genetics is also a significant factor that determines a person's susceptibility to depression. 
  • Additionally, other factors such as significant life events or a lack of desired social support can also contribute to depression.

Bipolar And Related Disorders

Bipolar and related disorders are a group of mental health conditions characterized by extreme mood swings. There are three main types of bipolar disorders:

  • Bipolar I Disorder: This is the most severe form of bipolar disorder. It involves manic episodes that last at least 7 days or require hospitalization. Depressive episodes usually last for at least 2 weeks.
  • Bipolar II Disorder: This involves less severe manic episodes, known as hypomania, that last for at least 4 days. Depressive episodes last for at least 2 weeks.
  • Cyclothymic Disorder: This involves milder mood swings that last for at least 2 years. Hypomania and depressive symptoms are present, but not as severe as in bipolar I and II disorders.

The exact cause of bipolar disorders is not known, but it is believed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Treatment may include medication, psychotherapy, and lifestyle changes.

Schizophrenia Disorders

Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. It is a chronic condition that requires lifelong treatment. Some of the key symptoms of schizophrenia include:

  • Delusions - false beliefs that are not based in reality
  • Hallucinations - seeing or hearing things that are not there
  • Disorganized thinking and speech - difficulty in organizing thoughts and expressing them in a logical manner
  • Abnormal motor behaviour - unusual movements or gestures
  • Negative symptoms - lack of motivation, emotional expression, and enjoyment of activities

Schizophrenia is believed to be caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of antipsychotic medications and therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy or family therapy. It is important to seek help from a mental health professional if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of schizophrenia.

Question for Revision Notes (Part - 2) - Psychological Disorders
Try yourself:Folks that are in danger represent which category of abnormal behavior?
View Solution

Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Neurodevelopmental disorders are a group of disorders that manifest early in life and are associated with developmental problems in various areas such as communication, socialization, cognition, and motor function. These disorders are usually identified during childhood and can persist into adulthood. Some of the major neurodevelopmental disorders are:

  • Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): ASD is a condition characterized by impaired social interaction, communication, and restricted interests or repetitive behavior patterns. Children with ASD may have difficulty in understanding social cues, maintaining eye contact, and expressing emotions.
  • Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): ADHD is a condition characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Children with ADHD may have difficulty in paying attention, following instructions, sitting still, and waiting for their turn.
  • Specific Learning Disorder: Specific learning disorder is a condition characterized by difficulty in acquiring and using academic skills like reading, writing, and arithmetic. Children with this disorder may have difficulty in understanding written and spoken language, recognizing letters and numbers, and memorizing information.
  • Intellectual Disability: Intellectual disability is a condition characterized by below-average intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior. Children with this disorder may have difficulty in learning new skills, solving problems, and adapting to new situations.
  • Communication Disorders: Communication disorders are a group of disorders characterized by difficulty in communication. Children with these disorders may have difficulty in understanding spoken language, expressing themselves, and using appropriate social communication skills.
  • Motor Disorders: Motor disorders are a group of disorders characterized by problems with movement and coordination. Children with these disorders may have difficulty in performing fine and gross motor skills, such as writing, catching a ball, or walking.

These disorders can have a significant impact on the child's academic, social, and emotional functioning, and early identification and intervention can help in improving the child's outcomes.

Feeding and Eating Disorders

Feeding and Eating Disorders are a group of mental health conditions that affect a person's eating habits, body weight, and physical health. Here are some of the major types of Feeding and Eating Disorders:

  • Anorexia Nervosa: This disorder is characterised by an intense fear of gaining weight, distorted body image, and a severely restricted diet that leads to significant weight loss. People with anorexia often have a low body weight and may engage in excessive exercise or other behaviours to lose weight.
  • Bulimia Nervosa: This disorder is characterised by episodes of binge eating followed by purging, such as vomiting or using laxatives. People with bulimia often have a normal body weight or may be slightly overweight, and they may be preoccupied with their body shape and weight.
  • Binge-Eating Disorder: This disorder involves episodes of binge eating without purging. People with binge-eating disorder may eat large amounts of food in a short period of time and feel a loss of control during these episodes. They may be overweight or obese and may experience guilt, shame, and distress related to their eating habits.
  • Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID): This disorder involves a persistent lack of interest in eating or avoidance of certain foods, which can lead to nutritional deficiencies, weight loss, and impaired growth in children. People with ARFID may have sensory sensitivity to certain foods or experience anxiety or fear related to eating.
  • Pica: This disorder involves eating non-food items, such as dirt, paint, or hair. Pica is more commonly diagnosed in children and can lead to health problems such as lead poisoning or intestinal blockages.
  • Rumination Disorder: This disorder involves regurgitating food after eating and then re-chewing, re-swallowing, or spitting out the food. Rumination disorder is more commonly diagnosed in infants and young children but can also affect adults.

Substance Related and Addictive Disorder

Substance Related and Addictive Disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by compulsive use of substances that lead to significant impairments in personal, social, and occupational functioning. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) lists the following substance-related and addictive disorders:

  • Substance use disorders: This includes alcohol use disorder, cannabis use disorder, opioid use disorder, stimulant use disorder, and other substance use disorders. It is characterized by compulsive substance use, tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, and impaired functioning.
  • Gambling disorder: This disorder is characterized by persistent and recurrent gambling behavior that leads to significant distress or impairment.
  • Other addictive disorders: This includes internet gaming disorder, which is characterized by excessive gaming behavior that leads to impairment in personal, social, and occupational functioning, and other addictive disorders that are still being researched and defined.

These disorders are serious and can have severe consequences on an individual's life. Treatment for substance-related and addictive disorders often involves a combination of medication, therapy, and support groups.

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FAQs on (Part - 2) - Psychological Disorders Class 12 Psychology

1. What are the different types of psychological disorders?
Ans. There are several types of psychological disorders, including anxiety disorders, mood disorders, personality disorders, psychotic disorders, and eating disorders. Each type of disorder has its own set of symptoms and treatment approaches.
2. How are psychological disorders diagnosed?
Ans. Psychological disorders are typically diagnosed through a combination of interviews, psychological assessments, and observations of the individual's behavior. Mental health professionals use criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) to determine if someone meets the criteria for a specific disorder.
3. What are the common symptoms of anxiety disorders?
Ans. Common symptoms of anxiety disorders include excessive worry or fear, restlessness, irritability, difficulty concentrating, muscle tension, and sleep disturbances. These symptoms can significantly impact a person's daily life and functioning.
4. How are mood disorders different from personality disorders?
Ans. Mood disorders refer to conditions such as depression and bipolar disorder, which primarily affect a person's emotional state and mood. Personality disorders, on the other hand, involve enduring patterns of behavior, cognition, and inner experience that deviate from cultural expectations and cause significant distress or impairment in social and occupational functioning.
5. What are some effective treatments for psychological disorders?
Ans. The treatment of psychological disorders depends on the specific disorder and individual needs. Some common treatment approaches include therapy (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy), medication, support groups, lifestyle changes, and self-help strategies. In some cases, a combination of these approaches may be recommended for optimal management of the disorder.
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