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Passage Based Questions: English - 3 Notes | Study Passage Based Questions for CLAT Preparation - CLAT

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Directions: Kindly read the passage carefully and answer the questions given beside.
Gurgling infants might seem like no match for artificial intelligence. They are terrible at labelling images, hopeless at mining text, and awful at videogames. Then again, babies can do things beyond the reach of any AI. By just a few months old, they've begun to grasp the foundations of language, such as grammar. They've started to understand how the physical world works, how to adapt to unfamiliar situations.
Yet even experts don't understand precisely how babies—or adults, for that matter—learn. That gap points to a puzzle at the heart of modern artificial intelligence: We're not sure what to aim for. Consider one of the most impressive examples of AI, Alpha Zero, a program that plays board games with superhuman skill. After playing thousands of games against itself at hyper speed, and learning from winning positions, Alpha Zero independently discovered several famous chess strategies and even invented new ones. It certainly seems like a machine eclipsing human cognitive abilities. But Alpha Zero needs to play millions more games than a person during practice to learn a game. Most tellingly, it cannot take what it has learned from the game and apply it to another area.
To some members of the AI priesthood, that calls for a new approach. “Human intelligence is special because of its adaptability—its power to generalize to never-seen-before situations,” says Chollet, a well-known AI engineer and the creator of Keras, a widely used framework for deep learning. In a November research paper, he argued that it's misguided to measure machine intelligence solely according to its skills at specific tasks. “Humans don't start out with skills; they start out with a broad ability to acquire new skills,” he says. “What a strong human chess player is demonstrating isn't the ability to play chess per se, but the potential to acquire any task of a similar difficulty. That's a very different capability.”
It isn't yet clear how humans solve these problems, but Spelke's work offers a few clues. For one thing, it suggests that humans are born with an innate ability to quickly learn certain things, like what a smile means or what happens when you drop something. It also suggests we learn a lot from each other. One recent experiment showed that 3-month-olds appear puzzled when someone grabs a ball in an inefficient way, suggesting that they already appreciate that people cause changes in their environment. Even the most sophisticated and powerful AI systems on the market can't grasp such concepts. A self-driving car, for instance, cannot intuit from common sense what will happen if a truck spills its load.
Some scientists believe that, just as evolution has given the human brain certain capabilities, AI programs will need a basic understanding of physics and psychology in order to acquire and use knowledge as efficiently as a baby. And to apply this knowledge to new situations, he says, they'll need to learn in new ways—for example, by drawing causal inferences rather than simply finding patterns. “At some point—you know, if you're intelligent—you realize maybe there's something else out there,” he says.

Question for Passage Based Questions: English - 3
Try yourself:Which of the following summarizes the passage?
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Question for Passage Based Questions: English - 3
Try yourself:How according to the author is Alpha zero different from a human?
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Question for Passage Based Questions: English - 3
Try yourself:What does the word ‘cognitive’ as used in the passage mean?
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Question for Passage Based Questions: English - 3
Try yourself:Which of the following represent Spelke's work regarding the learning of humans and AI?
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Question for Passage Based Questions: English - 3
Try yourself:According to the passage how adaptability makes human intelligence special?
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