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Polytropic Process - Thermodynamics,Class 11, Physics Video Lecture | Additional Study Material for NEET

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FAQs on Polytropic Process - Thermodynamics,Class 11, Physics Video Lecture - Additional Study Material for NEET

1. What is a polytropic process in thermodynamics?
Ans. A polytropic process is a type of thermodynamic process in which the relationship between pressure and volume follows the equation P^n = constant, where P is the pressure, V is the volume, and n is the polytropic index. This index determines the specific heat capacity ratio and the type of process (e.g., isothermal, adiabatic) involved.
2. How is the polytropic index related to the specific heat capacity ratio?
Ans. The polytropic index (n) is directly related to the specific heat capacity ratio (γ) through the equation n = γ/(γ-1). The specific heat capacity ratio is the ratio of the specific heat at constant pressure to the specific heat at constant volume. It is a property of the working substance and determines the efficiency and behavior of the polytropic process.
3. What are the different types of polytropic processes?
Ans. There are three main types of polytropic processes: 1. Isothermal process (n = 1): In this process, the polytropic index is equal to 1, indicating that the temperature remains constant. The work done in an isothermal process is given by W = P(V2 - V1) ln(V2/V1), where V1 and V2 are the initial and final volumes, respectively. 2. Adiabatic process (n = γ): In this process, the polytropic index is equal to the specific heat capacity ratio (γ). The temperature changes in an adiabatic process, but there is no heat exchange with the surroundings. The work done in an adiabatic process is given by W = (P2V2 - P1V1)/(γ - 1), where P1 and P2 are the initial and final pressures, respectively. 3. Polytropic process (1 < n < γ): In this process, the polytropic index lies between 1 and the specific heat capacity ratio (γ). The work done in a polytropic process is given by W = (P2V2 - P1V1)/(n - 1), where P1 and P2 are the initial and final pressures, respectively.
4. How is a polytropic process different from an isentropic process?
Ans. A polytropic process and an isentropic process are similar in that both involve changes in pressure and volume. However, the key difference lies in the heat transfer. In a polytropic process, heat transfer may occur between the system and its surroundings, leading to changes in temperature. On the other hand, an isentropic process is adiabatic and reversible, meaning there is no heat transfer. Therefore, in an isentropic process, the temperature remains constant.
5. What are some real-life examples of polytropic processes?
Ans. Polytropic processes can be observed in various real-life scenarios. Some examples include: 1. Compression and expansion of gases in internal combustion engines: The compression and expansion strokes in an internal combustion engine follow polytropic processes due to the interaction between the piston and the gases. 2. Air compression in refrigeration systems: The compression of air in refrigeration systems, such as air conditioners and refrigerators, can be modeled as a polytropic process. 3. Expansion and compression of gases in turbines and compressors: The expansion and compression of gases in turbines and compressors also involve polytropic processes. 4. Expansion and compression of air in pneumatic systems: The expansion and compression of air in pneumatic systems, such as air brakes in vehicles or air tools, can be approximated using polytropic processes.
26 videos|287 docs|64 tests
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