Detailed Overview: Pronoun Notes | Study English Grammar Basic - Class 10

Class 10: Detailed Overview: Pronoun Notes | Study English Grammar Basic - Class 10

The document Detailed Overview: Pronoun Notes | Study English Grammar Basic - Class 10 is a part of the Class 10 Course English Grammar Basic.
All you need of Class 10 at this link: Class 10

Pronoun

Pronoun is the word that is used for a noun. Pronoun makes our language stylistic and saves us from repeating the same noun. [Pronoun actually means for-a-noun].
As,
Ashi is absent, because Ashi is ill.
But, we can say:
Ashi is absent because She is ill.

     ↓
Pronoun

Kinds of Pronoun

Pronouns are of nine kinds:

  • Personal Pronoun.
  • Reflexive Pronoun.
  • Demonstrative Pronoun.
  • Relative Pronoun.
  • Interrogative Pronoun.
  • Possessive Pronoun.
  • Reciprocal Pronoun.
  • Universal Pronoun.
  • Pronouns denoting number of amount.

1. Personal Pronoun
Personal Pronoun includes — We, I, She, He, It, They, You, Thou, Thee etc. They all stand for three persons, i.e.,

  • The person speaking
  • The person spoken to
  • The person spoken of

We and I are used for first person. He, she and it are used for third person while you, thou and thee are used for second persons. Thou and thee are out of use now. They can be used for mankind, animal, bird, non-living in plural.
They are boys.
     ↓
Mankind
They are tables
      ↓
Non-livings
They are dogs
    ↓
 Animals
The pronoun it is used:

  • It is used for time and weather.
    As,
    It is fine.
    It is winter.
    It is ten o'clock.
    It is morning.
    It is July.
    It was Monday.
    It is ten p.m.
  • It is used for things without life.
    As,
    Here is your book take it away.
  • It is used for a young child, unless we clearly wish to refer to the sex.
    As,
    It is a baby.
    It is infant.
    When I saw the child it was crying.
    The baby has torn its clothes.
    Again,
    Who is it at the gate?
    [When referred to mankind if its sex is unknown]
  • It is used for animal, bird and non-living.
    As,
    It is an ox.
    It is a crow.
    It is a chair.
  • It is used to refer to some statement going before.
    As,
    He is telling what is not true; as he knows it.
    He deserved his punishment; as he knew it.
  • It is used for natural incidence.
    As,
    It is raining.
    It is thundering.
    It was an earthquake.
    It snows.
  • It is used as a provisional and temporary subject before the verb to be when the real subject follows.
    As,
    It is easy to find fault.
    It is doubtful whether he will come.
    It is certain that you are wrong.
  • It is used to give emphasis to the noun or pronoun following.
    As,
    It is a silly fish that is caught twice with the same bait.
    It was you who began the quarrel.
    It is an ill wind that blows nobody good.
    It was at Versailles that the treaty was made.
    It was I who first protested.

2. Reflexive Pronoun
Reflexive Pronouns are formed by adding - self to Personal Pronouns of the singular number and - selves to Personal Pronouns of the plural number.
As,
Myself — I hurt myself.
Yourself — You will hurt yourself.
Himself — He hurt himself.
Herself — She hurt herself.
Itself — The horse hurt itself.
Ourselves — We hurt ourselves.
Yourselves — You will hurt yourselves.
Themselves — They hurt themselves.

3. Demonstrative Pronoun
A Pronoun that points out (demonstrates) some nouns instead of which it is used, is called a Demonstrative Pronoun.

  • This and that are used for singular noun while these and those are used for plural noun.
    As,
    The people of India are poorer than that of England. —wrong
    The people of India are poorer than those of En gland.   — correct
               ↓                                                ↓
    Plural Noun                                those
  • These and those should not be used before kind of and sort of.
    As,
    These kind of people are poor. — wrong
    This kind of people are poor. — correct
  • When two nouns have been mentioned in a clause or sentence going before, this is a substitute for the latter and that for the former.
    As,
    Both health and wealth are necessary i.e., this (wealth) gives us opportunities; and that (health) gives us energy for work.
  • This or that is also used as a substitute for a clause or a sentence going before.
    As,
    You neglect your studies and this is bad of you.
    Johny never cared for his health and that rained him.
  • One and its plural form ones are Demonstrative Pronouns when they are used as substitutes for nouns.
    As,
    I lost my pen, but I have got one (=a pen) from my father.
    The books that you sent me are not good ones (=books).
  • Such is a Demonstrative Pronoun when it is used as a substitute for a noun.
    As,
    I am a party to this case and as such (=a party) I cannot help you.

4. Relative Pronoun
A Relative Pronoun is one which relates to (refers to) some other noun or pronoun, called its antecedent, and which has the force of conjunction.
[The noun or pronoun for which the Relative pronoun stands, is called its antecedent]
As,
I met a man. He gave me a letter.
I met a man who gave me a letter.
and  he
John read the book. It was lent to him.
John read the book which was lent to him.
and it
The pen is lost. You gave me the pen.
The pen that you gave me is lost.

5. Interrogative Pronoun
Who is there? (person)
Which of them did it, Mary or Maratha? (Person)
Which of the books do you like most? (thing)
What has happened to you? (thing)
The pronoun who, which and what are used in asking questions and are therefore called Interrogative Pronouns.
Who is applied to persons of whom the speaker is ignorant.
As,
Who went there?

6. Possessive Pronoun
Our, your, her, their etc., are called possessive adjectives.
And,
Mine, thine, hers, ours, yours and theirs etc., are called possessive pronouns.
Note: Noun is not used after possessive pronoun.
As,
Your watch is new but mine watch is old.  — wrong
Your watch is new but mine is old. — correct

7. Reciprocal Pronoun
Ram
Reciprocal Pronoun includes:
Each other
and One another
Each other is used for two, while
One another is used for more than two.
As,
The two boys love each other.
              ↓                      ↓
            two            each other
The five girls hate one another.
              ↓                     ↓
           five            one another
But, now-a-days, both each other and one another are used for two or more than two.
As,
The six boys love each other. — correct
The two girls hate one another. — correct

8. Universal Pronoun

  • Universal Pronoun includes anybody, somebody, nobody, everybody, someone, everyone etc., which indicate singular nouns.
    As,
    Anybody has helped him.
    Somebody opposes him.
    Everybody loves song.
    Nobody knows God.
  • Universal Pronoun also includes all, both, some, many etc., which indicate plural nouns.
    As,
    All are lazy here.
    Both have done their job.
    Some have required.
    Many were there.

9. Pronouns denoting number or amount
(a) Indefinite Pronoun
The Indefinite Pronoun are those that have no actual relationship with a noun in their own or a neighbouring sentence, but which stand generally for a noun.
Example: One, none, some, all, any, many, both etc.
As,
One should be careful of one's health. (= any man and every man)
One cannot be too careful of one's purse. (not his)
None was allowed to get in.
None of his answers are correct.
(b) Distributive Pronoun
Each, everyone, either and neither are Distributive Pronouns, as they are separate person or thing from a group of persons or things: they always take singular verbs while other pronouns referring to them must also be singular.
As,
Each of them was a scholar.
Everyone of them was busy.

The document Detailed Overview: Pronoun Notes | Study English Grammar Basic - Class 10 is a part of the Class 10 Course English Grammar Basic.
All you need of Class 10 at this link: Class 10

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