UPSC  >  History for UPSC CSE  >  Spectrum Summary: The Foundation & the Moderate Phase of the INC

Spectrum Summary: The Foundation & the Moderate Phase of the INC Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC

Document Description: Spectrum Summary: The Foundation & the Moderate Phase of the INC for UPSC 2022 is part of History for UPSC CSE preparation. The notes and questions for Spectrum Summary: The Foundation & the Moderate Phase of the INC have been prepared according to the UPSC exam syllabus. Information about Spectrum Summary: The Foundation & the Moderate Phase of the INC covers topics like and Spectrum Summary: The Foundation & the Moderate Phase of the INC Example, for UPSC 2022 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises and tests below for Spectrum Summary: The Foundation & the Moderate Phase of the INC.

Introduction of Spectrum Summary: The Foundation & the Moderate Phase of the INC in English is available as part of our History for UPSC CSE for UPSC & Spectrum Summary: The Foundation & the Moderate Phase of the INC in Hindi for History for UPSC CSE course. Download more important topics related with notes, lectures and mock test series for UPSC Exam by signing up for free. UPSC: Spectrum Summary: The Foundation & the Moderate Phase of the INC Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC
1 Crore+ students have signed up on EduRev. Have you?

Foundation of Indian National Congress

  • The final shape to the establishment of an all-India organisation idea was given by A.O. Hume, who organised the first session of the Indian National Congress at Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College in Bombay in December 1885.Spectrum Summary: The Foundation & the Moderate Phase of the INC Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC
  • Two sessions of the Indian National Conference had been held in 1883 and 1885, Surendranath Banerjee and Ananda Mohan Bose were the main architects of the Indian National Conference.Surendranath BanerjeeSurendranath Banerjee
  • The first session of the Indian National Congress was attended by 72 delegates and presided over by Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee.
  • Kadambini Ganguly, the first woman graduate of Calcutta University, addressed the Congress session.

Was It a Safety Valve?

  • Hume formed the Congress with the idea that it would prove to be a safety valve’ for releasing the growing discontent of the Indians.
  • Even the Marxist historian’s 'conspiracy theory’ was an offspring of the "safety valve’ notion.
  • R.P. Dutt opined that the Indian National Congress was born out of a conspiracy to abort a popular uprising in India and the bourgeois leaders were a party to it.
  • Bipan Chandra observes, the early Congress leaders used Hume as a "lightning conductor to bring together the nationalistic forces even if under the guise of a "safety valve’.

Aims and Objectives of the Congress-The main aims of the Indian National Congress in the initial stage were to—

  • found a democratic, nationalist movement;
  • politicize and politically educate people;
  • establish the headquarters for a movement;
  • promote friendly relations among nationalist political workers from different parts of the country;
  • develop and propagate an anti-colonial nationalist ideology;
  • formulate and present popular demands before the government with a view to unifying the people over a common economic and political programme;
  • Develop and consolidate a feeling of national unity among people irrespective of religion, caste or province.
  • Carefully promote and nurture Indian nationhood.

The era of Moderates (1885-1905)

  • The national leaders like Dadabhai Naoroji, Pherozshah Mehta, D.E. Wacha, W.C. Bonnerjea, S.N. Banerjea

Moderate Approach

  • They worked on a two-pronged methodology—one, create a strong public opinion to arouse consciousness and national spirit and then educate and unite people on common political questions; and two, persuade the British Government and British public opinion to introduce reforms in India on the lines laid out by the nationalists.
  • A British committee of the Indian National Congress was established in London in 1899 which had India as its organ.

Contributions of Moderate Nationalists

  • The early nationalists, led by Dadabhai Naoroji, R.C. Dutt, Dinshaw Wacha and others, carefully analysed the political economy of British rule in India and put forward the “drain theory" to explain British exploitation of India.Dadabhai NaorojiDadabhai Naoroji
  • They opposed the transformation of a basically self-sufficient Indian economy into a colonial economy.

Constitutional Reforms and Propaganda in Legislature-From 1885 to 1892, the nationalist demands for constitutional reforms were centered around—

  • Expansion of councils—i.e., greater participation of Indians in councils; and
  • Reform of councils—i.e., more powers to councils, especially greater control over finances. They gave the slogan—“No taxation without representation".

Campaign for General Administrative Reforms-The Moderates campaigned on the following grounds - 

  • Indianisation of government service
  • Call for separation of judicial from executive functions.
  • Criticism of an oppressive and tyrannical bureaucracy and an expensive and time-consuming judicial system.
  • Criticism of an aggressive foreign policy which resulted in the annexation of Burma, attack on Afghanistan and suppression of tribals in the North-West—all costing heavily for the Indian treasury.
  • Call for increase in expenditure on welfare (i.e., health, sanitation), education— especially elementary and technical—irrigation works and improvement of agriculture, agricultural banks for cultivators, etc.
  • Demand for better treatment for Indian labour abroad in other British colonies, where they faced oppression and racial discrimination.
  • Protection of Civil Rights- Through an incessant campaign, the nationalists were able to spread modern democratic ideas, and soon the defence of civil rights became an integral part of the freedom struggle.

An Evaluation of the Early Nationalists

  • They represented the most progressive forces of the time.
  • They were able to create a wide national awakening of all Indians having common interests and the need to rally around a common programme against a common enemy, and above all, the feeling of belonging to one nation.
  • They trained people in political work and popularized modern ideas.
  • They exposed the basically exploitative character of colonial rule, thus undermining its moral foundations.
  • Their political work was based on hard realities, and not on shallow sentiments, religion, etc.
  • They were able to establish the basic political truth that India should be ruled in the interest of Indians.
  • They created a solid base for a more vigorous, militant, mass-based national movement in the years that followed.
  • They failed to widen their democratic base and the scope of their demands.

Role of Masses

  • The moderate phase of the national movement had a narrow social base and the masses played a passive role. This was because the early nationalists lacked political faith in the masses; they felt that there were numerous divisions and subdivisions in the Indian society, and the masses were generally ignorant and had conservative ideas and thoughts.

The attitude of the GovernmentSpectrum Summary: The Foundation & the Moderate Phase of the INC Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC

  • The government resorted to open condemnation of the Congress, calling the nationalists “seditious brahmins", “disloyal babus", etc. Dufferin called the Congress “a factory of sedition". Later, the government adopted a "divide and rule' policy.
The document Spectrum Summary: The Foundation & the Moderate Phase of the INC Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course History for UPSC CSE.
All you need of UPSC at this link: UPSC
156 videos|558 docs|338 tests
Download as PDF

How to Prepare for UPSC

Read our guide to prepare for UPSC which is created by Toppers & the best Teachers

Download free EduRev App

Track your progress, build streaks, highlight & save important lessons and more!

Related Searches

Semester Notes

,

practice quizzes

,

MCQs

,

Summary

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

Objective type Questions

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

Extra Questions

,

past year papers

,

study material

,

mock tests for examination

,

video lectures

,

Free

,

Spectrum Summary: The Foundation & the Moderate Phase of the INC Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC

,

Spectrum Summary: The Foundation & the Moderate Phase of the INC Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC

,

Sample Paper

,

Spectrum Summary: The Foundation & the Moderate Phase of the INC Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC

,

Exam

,

Important questions

,

pdf

,

Viva Questions

,

ppt

;