Successors of Shivaji
Shambhaji (1608-89 A.D.)
- War of succession between Shambhaji (elder son) and Rajaram (younger son of Shivaji), resulting in the victory of the former and imprisonment of the latter.
- Protection and support to Akbar, the rebellious son of Aurangazeb; failure of Akbar against his father and his final departure to Persia (1687).
- Shambhaji's capture at Sangameshvar by a Mughal noble and his execution.
Rajaram (1689-1700 A.D.)
- Release of Rajaram and his succession to the throne with the help of the ministers at Raigarh.
- His flight from Raigarh to Jinji in 1689 (Jinji remained his base till 1698) due to Mughal invasion; capture of Raigarh along with Shambhaji's wife and son (Shahu) by the Mughals.
Points To Be Remembered
- q Baji Rao II became pensioner of the British and lived for more than thirty years at Bithur near Kanpur was Baji Rao II.
- q Holkar was the last Maratha chief to enter into a subsidiary alliance with the English.
- q The most famous of Peshwa Bajirao’s many achievements was the North Indian expedition of 1737-38.
- q Mamlatdar was responsible for every branch of district administration.
- q Nana Phadnavis was the chief accountant in the Maratha administration.
- q The Peshwaship was abolished by the English at the time of Peshwa Baji Rao II
- q The Peshwa were chitpawan brahmins.
- q Shivjai III and Shabhaji II ruled from Kolhapur.
- q Seat of Shahu’s kingdom was Satara.
- q Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadav, two able and active Maratha generals, were the heroes of Maratha history during the reign of Rajaram.
- q Shivaji built a considerable army in famous which was stationed at Kolaba.
- q The most in famous character in the Maratha history is that of Raghunath Rao.
Points To Be Remembered
- q Sambhaji, distrusted of the Maratha leaders, invested in a Brahmin the supreme control of the administration and the title of Kavi-Kalash.
- In 1698 Gingee fell to the Mughals. After that Satara become the Maratha capital.
- q The new post of ‘Pratinidhi’ came into existence during the reign of Rajaram.
- q Shivaji stationed his naval fleet at Kolaba.
- q Shahu was the first Maratha ruler to get legal recognition from the Mughals.
- q Patel was responsible for the collection of land revenue at the lowest unit, i.e. the village.
- q Balutadar was the hereditary village servant or artisan.
- q Kulkarni was the hereditary village accountant.
- q Bhagdar or Patidar was the partner or shareholder of a joint village.
- q Haliya was the bonded agricultural labourer.
- q Mirsadar was the holder of the herditary rights in land.
- q Upari was the cultivator of rented lands.
- Fall of Jinji to Mughals (1698) and escape of Rajaram to Vishalgarh (Maharashtra).
- Death of Rajaram at Satara, which had become the capital after the fall of Jinji.
- Administrative changes - creation of the new post of “Pratinidhi”, thus taking the total number of ministers to 9 from 8.
Shivaji II & Tarabai (1700-1707 A.D.)
Succession of Shivaji II (the minor son of Rajaram) under the guardianship of his mother Tarabai.
- Attack of Berar (1703), Baroda (1706) and Aurangabad (on several occasions).
Shahu (1707-1749 A.D.)
- His release by the Mughal emperor (Bahadur Shah) and the beginning of civil war (1707-14) between him and Tarabai. Defeat of Tarabai's army by Shahu in the Battle of Khed (1708) and occupation of Satara.
- Final defeat and imprisonment of Tarabai by Shahu in 1714; but the southern part of Maratha kingdom with its capital at Kolhapur continued to be under the control of the descendants of Rajaram (ShivajiII & later Shambhaji II).
- Rise of Peshwaship and transformation of Maratha kingdom into an empire based on the principle of confederacy.
Balaji Vishwanath (1713-20 A.D.)
- Began his careers as a small revenue official; given the title of “Sena Karte” (maker of the army) by Shahu in 1708; became his Peswa in 1713 and made the post of Peshwa the most important and powerful as well as hereditary.
- Played a crucial role in the civil war and was responsible for the final victory of Shahu in it by winning over almost all the Maratha sardars to the side of Shahu.
- Conclusion of an agreement with the Sayyid Brothers (1719) by which the Mughal Emperor (Faruk Siyar) recognised Shahu as the king of "Swarajya", released all the family members of Shahu, and allowed Shahu to collect Chauth and Sardeshmukhi from the six Mughal provinces of the Deccan.
Baji Rao I (1720-40 A.D.)
1. First Battle of Tarain-1191: Prithviraj Chauhan defeated Muhammad Gori.
2 Second Battle of Tarain-1192: Prithviraj Chauhan defeated by Muhammad Gori.
3. Battle of Chandawar-1194: Jaichand, the ruler of Kanauj, was defeated by Ghoi.
4. First Battle of Panipat-1526: Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi.
5. Battle of Khanwa-1527: Babur defeated Rana Sanga.
6. Battle of Ghaghar-1529: Babur defeated Afghans.
7. Battle of Chausa-1539: Shershah defeated Humayun.
8. Battle of Kanauj or Bilgram-1540: Shershah defeated Humayun, captured Delhi.
9. Second Battle of Panipat-1556: Akbar defeated Hemu.
10. Battle of Talikota or Bannihatti-1565: Vijayanagar defeated by combined forces of five Muslim states.
11. The Battle of Haldighati-1576: Akbar defeated Rana Pratap.
12. Battle of Asirgarh-1601: Last battle of Akbar.
13. Qandhar invested by the Persians-1606.
14. Qandhar relieved by the Mughals-1607
15. Mewar submits to Mughals-1615.
16. Qandhar again taken by Persia-1622.
17. Qandhar taken back by the Mughals-1638.
18. Qandhar again lost to Persia-1649 and never recovered again.
19. Battle of Dharmat and Samugarh-1658: Dara defeated by Aurangzeb.
20. Battle of Khajwab and Deorai-1659.
21. Battle of Jajah-1707.
- Innumerable successful expeditions into north India to weaken the Mughal empire and to make the Marathas “Supreme Power” in India. He said “Let us strike at the trunk of the withering tree and the branches will fall of themselves".
Balaji Baji Rao (1740-61 A.D.)
- Popularly known as “Nana Saheb”, he succeeded his father at the age of 20.
- After the death of Shahu (1749), the management of all state affairs was left in his hands. Shahu died childless and though he had nominated Ram Raja (a grandson of Rajaram) as the successor, the latter was imprisoned at Satara by the Peshwa on the suspicion that he was an imposter.
- Agreement between the Mughal emperor (Ahmad Shah) and the Peshwa (1752) that the latter would protect the Mughal empire from internal and external (Ahmed Shah Abdali) enemies in return for the `Chauth' of the North- West Provinces and the total revenues of Agra and Ajmer provinces.
- This agreement brought the Marathas in direct conflict with Ahmad Shah Abdali of Afghanistan.
- Third Battle of Panipat (Jan. 14, 1761 A.D.) - Defeat of the Marathas and murder of Viswas Rao (son of Nana Sahab) and Sadashiv Rao Bhau (cousin of Nana Sahab) and several other Maratha leaders and soldiers (28,000) by Ahmed Shah Abdali.
- It decided who was not to rule India instead of who was to.
- Death of Nana Saheb on hearing the bad news (June 23, 1761).
- After the Third Battle of Panipat the rulers were:
- Madhav Rao (1761-72 A.D.)
- Narayana Rao (1772-73 A.D.)
- Sawai Madhav Rao (1773-95 A.D.)
- Baji Rao II (1795-1818 A.D.) q