TN History Textbook: Indian National Movement (1905-1916) Notes | Study Must Read (Old & New) NCERTs for IAS Preparation - UPSC

UPSC: TN History Textbook: Indian National Movement (1905-1916) Notes | Study Must Read (Old & New) NCERTs for IAS Preparation - UPSC

The document TN History Textbook: Indian National Movement (1905-1916) Notes | Study Must Read (Old & New) NCERTs for IAS Preparation - UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course Must Read (Old & New) NCERTs for IAS Preparation.
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 Page 1


149 148
3. The economic conditions of the people became worse.
4. The ill-treatment of Indians in South Africa on the basis of
colour of skin.
5. The Russo-Japanese war of 1904-5 in which Japan defeated
the European power Russia. This encouraged Indians to fight
against the European nation, Britain.
6. The immediate cause for the rise of extremism was the
reactionary rule of Lord Curzon:
" He passed the Calcutta Corporation Act, (1899) reducing
the Indian control of this local body.
" The Universities Act (1904) reduced the elected
members in the University bodies. It also reduced the
autonomy of the universities and made them government
departments.
" The Sedition Act and the Official Secrets Act reduced
the freedoms of all people.
" His worst measure was the Partition of Bengal (1905).
Main Objective of Extremists
Their main objective was to attain Swaraj or complete
independence and not just self-government.
Methods of the Extremists
The Extremists had no faith in the British sense of justice and
fair play. They pointed out the forceful means by which the British
had taken control of India. They believed that political rights will
have to be fought for. They had the spirit of self-reliance and self-
determination.
LESSON 15
INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT (1905-1916)
Learning Objectives
Students will come to know
1. The causes for the rise of extremism in the Indian National
Movement.
2. Main objective and methods of extremists.
3. Leaders of extremists such as Tilak, Bipan Chandra Pal and
Lala Lajpat Rai.
4. The impact of the Partition of Bengal on national movement.
5. Swadeshi Movement and the achievements of extremists.
6. The birth of Muslim League.
7. The Home Rule Movement.
The period from 1905 was known as the era of extremism in
the Indian National Movement. The extremists or the aggressive
nationalists believed that success could be achieved through bold
means. The important extremist leaders were Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal
Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh.
Causes for the Rise of Extremism
1. The failure of the Moderates to win any notable success other
than the expansion of the legislative councils by the Indian
Councils Act (1892).
2. The famine and plague of 1896-97 which affected the whole
country and the suffering of the masses.
Page 2


149 148
3. The economic conditions of the people became worse.
4. The ill-treatment of Indians in South Africa on the basis of
colour of skin.
5. The Russo-Japanese war of 1904-5 in which Japan defeated
the European power Russia. This encouraged Indians to fight
against the European nation, Britain.
6. The immediate cause for the rise of extremism was the
reactionary rule of Lord Curzon:
" He passed the Calcutta Corporation Act, (1899) reducing
the Indian control of this local body.
" The Universities Act (1904) reduced the elected
members in the University bodies. It also reduced the
autonomy of the universities and made them government
departments.
" The Sedition Act and the Official Secrets Act reduced
the freedoms of all people.
" His worst measure was the Partition of Bengal (1905).
Main Objective of Extremists
Their main objective was to attain Swaraj or complete
independence and not just self-government.
Methods of the Extremists
The Extremists had no faith in the British sense of justice and
fair play. They pointed out the forceful means by which the British
had taken control of India. They believed that political rights will
have to be fought for. They had the spirit of self-reliance and self-
determination.
LESSON 15
INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT (1905-1916)
Learning Objectives
Students will come to know
1. The causes for the rise of extremism in the Indian National
Movement.
2. Main objective and methods of extremists.
3. Leaders of extremists such as Tilak, Bipan Chandra Pal and
Lala Lajpat Rai.
4. The impact of the Partition of Bengal on national movement.
5. Swadeshi Movement and the achievements of extremists.
6. The birth of Muslim League.
7. The Home Rule Movement.
The period from 1905 was known as the era of extremism in
the Indian National Movement. The extremists or the aggressive
nationalists believed that success could be achieved through bold
means. The important extremist leaders were Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal
Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh.
Causes for the Rise of Extremism
1. The failure of the Moderates to win any notable success other
than the expansion of the legislative councils by the Indian
Councils Act (1892).
2. The famine and plague of 1896-97 which affected the whole
country and the suffering of the masses.
151 150
Aurobinda Ghosh was another extremist leader and he actively
participated in the Swadeshi Movement. He was also imprisoned.
After his release he settled in the French territory of Pondicherry
and concentrated on spiritual activities.
Partition of Bengal and the Rise of Extremism
The partition of Bengal in 1905 provided a spark for the rise of
extremism in the Indian National Movement.
Curzon’s real motives were:
· To break the growing strength of
Bengali nationalism since Bengal was
the base of Indian nationalism.
· To divide the Hindus and Muslims in
Bengal.
· To show the enormous power of the
British Government in doing whatever it liked.
On the same day when the partition came into effect, 16
October 1905, the people of Bengal orgainsed protest meetings and
observed a day of mourning. The whole political life of Bengal
underwent a change. Gandhi wrote that the real awakening in India
took place only after the Partition of Bengal.
The anti-partition movement culminated into
the Swadeshi Movement and spread to other
parts of India.
The aggressive nationalists forced
Dadabhai Naoroji to speak of Swaraj (which
was not a Moderate demand) in the Calcutta
Session of Congress in 1906. They adopted
the resolutions of Boycott and Swadeshi. The
Moderate Congressmen were unhappy.  They
AUROBINDA GHOSH 
DADABHAI NAOROJI 
The methods used by the extremists were:
1. Not cooperating with the British Government by boycotting
government courts, schools and colleges.
2. Promotion of Swadeshi and boycott of foreign goods.
3. Introduction and promotion of national education.
Leaders of the Extremists
The extremists were led by Bala Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat
Rai, Bipinchandra Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak is regarded as the real
founder of the popular anti-British movement in India.
He was known as ‘Lokamanya’.  He attacked the
British through his weeklies The Mahratta and the
Kesari.  He was jailed twice by the British for his
nationalist activities and in 1908 deported to Mandalay
for six years. He set up the Home Rule League in
1916 at Poona and declared “Swaraj is my birth-right
and I will have it.”
Lala Lajpat Rai is popularly known as the
‘Lion of Punjab’. He played an  important role
in the Swadeshi Movement. He founded the Indian
Home Rule League in the US in 1916.  He was
deported to Mandalay on the ground of sedition.
He received fatal injuries while leading a
procession against the Simon Commission and died
on November 17, 1928.
Bipan Chandra Pal began his career as a
moderate and turned an extremist. He played an important role in
the Swadeshi Movement. He preached nationalism through the nook
and corner of Indian by his powerful speeches and writings.
TILAK 
LALA LAJPAT RAI 
Page 3


149 148
3. The economic conditions of the people became worse.
4. The ill-treatment of Indians in South Africa on the basis of
colour of skin.
5. The Russo-Japanese war of 1904-5 in which Japan defeated
the European power Russia. This encouraged Indians to fight
against the European nation, Britain.
6. The immediate cause for the rise of extremism was the
reactionary rule of Lord Curzon:
" He passed the Calcutta Corporation Act, (1899) reducing
the Indian control of this local body.
" The Universities Act (1904) reduced the elected
members in the University bodies. It also reduced the
autonomy of the universities and made them government
departments.
" The Sedition Act and the Official Secrets Act reduced
the freedoms of all people.
" His worst measure was the Partition of Bengal (1905).
Main Objective of Extremists
Their main objective was to attain Swaraj or complete
independence and not just self-government.
Methods of the Extremists
The Extremists had no faith in the British sense of justice and
fair play. They pointed out the forceful means by which the British
had taken control of India. They believed that political rights will
have to be fought for. They had the spirit of self-reliance and self-
determination.
LESSON 15
INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT (1905-1916)
Learning Objectives
Students will come to know
1. The causes for the rise of extremism in the Indian National
Movement.
2. Main objective and methods of extremists.
3. Leaders of extremists such as Tilak, Bipan Chandra Pal and
Lala Lajpat Rai.
4. The impact of the Partition of Bengal on national movement.
5. Swadeshi Movement and the achievements of extremists.
6. The birth of Muslim League.
7. The Home Rule Movement.
The period from 1905 was known as the era of extremism in
the Indian National Movement. The extremists or the aggressive
nationalists believed that success could be achieved through bold
means. The important extremist leaders were Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal
Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh.
Causes for the Rise of Extremism
1. The failure of the Moderates to win any notable success other
than the expansion of the legislative councils by the Indian
Councils Act (1892).
2. The famine and plague of 1896-97 which affected the whole
country and the suffering of the masses.
151 150
Aurobinda Ghosh was another extremist leader and he actively
participated in the Swadeshi Movement. He was also imprisoned.
After his release he settled in the French territory of Pondicherry
and concentrated on spiritual activities.
Partition of Bengal and the Rise of Extremism
The partition of Bengal in 1905 provided a spark for the rise of
extremism in the Indian National Movement.
Curzon’s real motives were:
· To break the growing strength of
Bengali nationalism since Bengal was
the base of Indian nationalism.
· To divide the Hindus and Muslims in
Bengal.
· To show the enormous power of the
British Government in doing whatever it liked.
On the same day when the partition came into effect, 16
October 1905, the people of Bengal orgainsed protest meetings and
observed a day of mourning. The whole political life of Bengal
underwent a change. Gandhi wrote that the real awakening in India
took place only after the Partition of Bengal.
The anti-partition movement culminated into
the Swadeshi Movement and spread to other
parts of India.
The aggressive nationalists forced
Dadabhai Naoroji to speak of Swaraj (which
was not a Moderate demand) in the Calcutta
Session of Congress in 1906. They adopted
the resolutions of Boycott and Swadeshi. The
Moderate Congressmen were unhappy.  They
AUROBINDA GHOSH 
DADABHAI NAOROJI 
The methods used by the extremists were:
1. Not cooperating with the British Government by boycotting
government courts, schools and colleges.
2. Promotion of Swadeshi and boycott of foreign goods.
3. Introduction and promotion of national education.
Leaders of the Extremists
The extremists were led by Bala Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat
Rai, Bipinchandra Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak is regarded as the real
founder of the popular anti-British movement in India.
He was known as ‘Lokamanya’.  He attacked the
British through his weeklies The Mahratta and the
Kesari.  He was jailed twice by the British for his
nationalist activities and in 1908 deported to Mandalay
for six years. He set up the Home Rule League in
1916 at Poona and declared “Swaraj is my birth-right
and I will have it.”
Lala Lajpat Rai is popularly known as the
‘Lion of Punjab’. He played an  important role
in the Swadeshi Movement. He founded the Indian
Home Rule League in the US in 1916.  He was
deported to Mandalay on the ground of sedition.
He received fatal injuries while leading a
procession against the Simon Commission and died
on November 17, 1928.
Bipan Chandra Pal began his career as a
moderate and turned an extremist. He played an important role in
the Swadeshi Movement. He preached nationalism through the nook
and corner of Indian by his powerful speeches and writings.
TILAK 
LALA LAJPAT RAI 
153 152
Formation of the Muslim League (1906)
In December 1906, Muslim delegates from all over India met
at Dacca for the Muslim Educational Conference. Taking advantage
of this occasion, Nawab Salimullah of Dacca proposed the setting
up of an organisation to look after the Muslim interests.  The proposal
was accepted. The All-India Muslim League was finally set up on
December 30, 1906. Like the Indian National Congress, they conducted
annual sessions and put their demands to the British government.
Initially, they enjoyed the support of the British. Their first
achievement was the separate electorates for the Muslims in the
Minto-Morley reforms.
The Lucknow Pact (1916)
During the 1916 Congress session at Lucknow two major events
occurred. The divided Congress became united. An understanding
for joint action against the British was reached between the Congress
and the Muslim League and it was called the Lucknow Pact. The
signing of the Lucknow Pact by the Congress and the Muslim League
in 1916 marked an important step in the Hindu-Muslim unity.
The Home Rule Movement (1916)
Two Home Rule Leagues were established, one by B.G. Tilak
at Poona in April 1916 and the other by Mrs. Annie Besant at Madras
in September 1916. The aim of the Movement was to get self-
government for India within the British Empire. It believed freedom
was the natural right of all nations. Moreover, the leaders of the
Home Movement thought that India’s resources were not being used
for her needs.
The two Leagues cooperated with each other as well with the
Congress and the Muslim League in putting their demand for home
rule. While Tilak’s Movement concentrated on Maharashtra, Annie
wanted Swaraj to be achieved through constitutional methods. The
differences led to a split in the Congress at the Surat session in 1907.
This is popularly known as the famous Surat Split. The extremists
came out of the Congress led by Tilak and others.
Swadeshi Movement
The Swadeshi Movement involved programmes like the boycott
of government service, courts, schools and colleges and of foreign
goods, promotion of Swadeshi goods, Promotion of National Education
through the establishment of national schools and colleges. It was
both a political and economic movement.
The Swadeshi Movement was a great success. In Bengal, even
the landlords joined the movement. The women and students took to
picketing. Students refused using books made of foreign paper.
The government adopted several tough measures. It passed
several Acts to crush the movement. The Swadeshi volunteers were
beaten badly. The cry of Bande Mataram was forbidden. Schools
and colleges were warned not to allow their students to take part in
the movement or else their, aid would be stopped. Some Indian
government employees lost their jobs. Extremist leaders Bala
Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai, Bipin Chandra Pal and Aurobindo
Ghosh were imprisoned and deported.
Achievements of Extremists
The achievements of extremists can be summed up as follows:
1. They were the first to demand Swaraj as a matter of birth
right.
2. They involved the masses in the freedom struggle and
broadened the social base of the National Movement.
3. They were the first to organize an all-India political movement,
viz. the Swadeshi Movement.
Page 4


149 148
3. The economic conditions of the people became worse.
4. The ill-treatment of Indians in South Africa on the basis of
colour of skin.
5. The Russo-Japanese war of 1904-5 in which Japan defeated
the European power Russia. This encouraged Indians to fight
against the European nation, Britain.
6. The immediate cause for the rise of extremism was the
reactionary rule of Lord Curzon:
" He passed the Calcutta Corporation Act, (1899) reducing
the Indian control of this local body.
" The Universities Act (1904) reduced the elected
members in the University bodies. It also reduced the
autonomy of the universities and made them government
departments.
" The Sedition Act and the Official Secrets Act reduced
the freedoms of all people.
" His worst measure was the Partition of Bengal (1905).
Main Objective of Extremists
Their main objective was to attain Swaraj or complete
independence and not just self-government.
Methods of the Extremists
The Extremists had no faith in the British sense of justice and
fair play. They pointed out the forceful means by which the British
had taken control of India. They believed that political rights will
have to be fought for. They had the spirit of self-reliance and self-
determination.
LESSON 15
INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT (1905-1916)
Learning Objectives
Students will come to know
1. The causes for the rise of extremism in the Indian National
Movement.
2. Main objective and methods of extremists.
3. Leaders of extremists such as Tilak, Bipan Chandra Pal and
Lala Lajpat Rai.
4. The impact of the Partition of Bengal on national movement.
5. Swadeshi Movement and the achievements of extremists.
6. The birth of Muslim League.
7. The Home Rule Movement.
The period from 1905 was known as the era of extremism in
the Indian National Movement. The extremists or the aggressive
nationalists believed that success could be achieved through bold
means. The important extremist leaders were Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal
Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh.
Causes for the Rise of Extremism
1. The failure of the Moderates to win any notable success other
than the expansion of the legislative councils by the Indian
Councils Act (1892).
2. The famine and plague of 1896-97 which affected the whole
country and the suffering of the masses.
151 150
Aurobinda Ghosh was another extremist leader and he actively
participated in the Swadeshi Movement. He was also imprisoned.
After his release he settled in the French territory of Pondicherry
and concentrated on spiritual activities.
Partition of Bengal and the Rise of Extremism
The partition of Bengal in 1905 provided a spark for the rise of
extremism in the Indian National Movement.
Curzon’s real motives were:
· To break the growing strength of
Bengali nationalism since Bengal was
the base of Indian nationalism.
· To divide the Hindus and Muslims in
Bengal.
· To show the enormous power of the
British Government in doing whatever it liked.
On the same day when the partition came into effect, 16
October 1905, the people of Bengal orgainsed protest meetings and
observed a day of mourning. The whole political life of Bengal
underwent a change. Gandhi wrote that the real awakening in India
took place only after the Partition of Bengal.
The anti-partition movement culminated into
the Swadeshi Movement and spread to other
parts of India.
The aggressive nationalists forced
Dadabhai Naoroji to speak of Swaraj (which
was not a Moderate demand) in the Calcutta
Session of Congress in 1906. They adopted
the resolutions of Boycott and Swadeshi. The
Moderate Congressmen were unhappy.  They
AUROBINDA GHOSH 
DADABHAI NAOROJI 
The methods used by the extremists were:
1. Not cooperating with the British Government by boycotting
government courts, schools and colleges.
2. Promotion of Swadeshi and boycott of foreign goods.
3. Introduction and promotion of national education.
Leaders of the Extremists
The extremists were led by Bala Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat
Rai, Bipinchandra Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak is regarded as the real
founder of the popular anti-British movement in India.
He was known as ‘Lokamanya’.  He attacked the
British through his weeklies The Mahratta and the
Kesari.  He was jailed twice by the British for his
nationalist activities and in 1908 deported to Mandalay
for six years. He set up the Home Rule League in
1916 at Poona and declared “Swaraj is my birth-right
and I will have it.”
Lala Lajpat Rai is popularly known as the
‘Lion of Punjab’. He played an  important role
in the Swadeshi Movement. He founded the Indian
Home Rule League in the US in 1916.  He was
deported to Mandalay on the ground of sedition.
He received fatal injuries while leading a
procession against the Simon Commission and died
on November 17, 1928.
Bipan Chandra Pal began his career as a
moderate and turned an extremist. He played an important role in
the Swadeshi Movement. He preached nationalism through the nook
and corner of Indian by his powerful speeches and writings.
TILAK 
LALA LAJPAT RAI 
153 152
Formation of the Muslim League (1906)
In December 1906, Muslim delegates from all over India met
at Dacca for the Muslim Educational Conference. Taking advantage
of this occasion, Nawab Salimullah of Dacca proposed the setting
up of an organisation to look after the Muslim interests.  The proposal
was accepted. The All-India Muslim League was finally set up on
December 30, 1906. Like the Indian National Congress, they conducted
annual sessions and put their demands to the British government.
Initially, they enjoyed the support of the British. Their first
achievement was the separate electorates for the Muslims in the
Minto-Morley reforms.
The Lucknow Pact (1916)
During the 1916 Congress session at Lucknow two major events
occurred. The divided Congress became united. An understanding
for joint action against the British was reached between the Congress
and the Muslim League and it was called the Lucknow Pact. The
signing of the Lucknow Pact by the Congress and the Muslim League
in 1916 marked an important step in the Hindu-Muslim unity.
The Home Rule Movement (1916)
Two Home Rule Leagues were established, one by B.G. Tilak
at Poona in April 1916 and the other by Mrs. Annie Besant at Madras
in September 1916. The aim of the Movement was to get self-
government for India within the British Empire. It believed freedom
was the natural right of all nations. Moreover, the leaders of the
Home Movement thought that India’s resources were not being used
for her needs.
The two Leagues cooperated with each other as well with the
Congress and the Muslim League in putting their demand for home
rule. While Tilak’s Movement concentrated on Maharashtra, Annie
wanted Swaraj to be achieved through constitutional methods. The
differences led to a split in the Congress at the Surat session in 1907.
This is popularly known as the famous Surat Split. The extremists
came out of the Congress led by Tilak and others.
Swadeshi Movement
The Swadeshi Movement involved programmes like the boycott
of government service, courts, schools and colleges and of foreign
goods, promotion of Swadeshi goods, Promotion of National Education
through the establishment of national schools and colleges. It was
both a political and economic movement.
The Swadeshi Movement was a great success. In Bengal, even
the landlords joined the movement. The women and students took to
picketing. Students refused using books made of foreign paper.
The government adopted several tough measures. It passed
several Acts to crush the movement. The Swadeshi volunteers were
beaten badly. The cry of Bande Mataram was forbidden. Schools
and colleges were warned not to allow their students to take part in
the movement or else their, aid would be stopped. Some Indian
government employees lost their jobs. Extremist leaders Bala
Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai, Bipin Chandra Pal and Aurobindo
Ghosh were imprisoned and deported.
Achievements of Extremists
The achievements of extremists can be summed up as follows:
1. They were the first to demand Swaraj as a matter of birth
right.
2. They involved the masses in the freedom struggle and
broadened the social base of the National Movement.
3. They were the first to organize an all-India political movement,
viz. the Swadeshi Movement.
155 154
Learning Outcome
After studying this lesson, the student will understand that
1. The policies of the British government such as the Partition
of Bengal contributed to the rise of extremists.
2. The aims and methods of extremists were different from the
moderates.
3. The Swadeshi Movement became a popular movement with
its boycott of government schools and colleges.
4. The Muslims were initially supported by the British.
5. The importance of the Home Rule Movement.
6. The activities of the revolutionaries in the cause of Indian
nationalism.
Besant’s Movement covered the rest of the country.  The Home
Rule Movement had brought a new life in the national movement.
There was a revival of Swadeshi. Women joined in larger numbers.
On 20 August 1917, Montague, the Secretary of State in
England, made a declaration in the Parliament of England on British
Government’s policy towards future political reforms in India. He
promised the gradual development of self-governing institutions in
India. This August Declaration led to the end of the Home Rule
Movement.
Revolutionary Movements
In the first half of the 20th century, revolutionary groups sprang
up mainly in Bengal, Maharashtra, Punjab and Madras. The
revolutionaries were not satisfied with the methods of both the
moderates and extremists. Hence, they started many revolutionary
secret organizations. In Bengal Anusilan Samiti and Jugantar were
established. In Maharashtra Savarkar brothers had set up Abhinava
Bharat. In the Madras Presidency, Bharathmatha Association was
started by Nilakanta Bramachari.
In Punjab Ajit Singh set up a secret society to spread
revolutionary ideas among the youth. In London, at India House,
Shyamji Krishna Verma gathered young Indian nationalists like Madan
Lal Dhingra, Savarkar, V.V.S. Iyer and T.S.S.Rajan. Lala Hardyal
set up the ‘Ghadar Party’ in USA to organise revolutionary activities
from outside India.
Page 5


149 148
3. The economic conditions of the people became worse.
4. The ill-treatment of Indians in South Africa on the basis of
colour of skin.
5. The Russo-Japanese war of 1904-5 in which Japan defeated
the European power Russia. This encouraged Indians to fight
against the European nation, Britain.
6. The immediate cause for the rise of extremism was the
reactionary rule of Lord Curzon:
" He passed the Calcutta Corporation Act, (1899) reducing
the Indian control of this local body.
" The Universities Act (1904) reduced the elected
members in the University bodies. It also reduced the
autonomy of the universities and made them government
departments.
" The Sedition Act and the Official Secrets Act reduced
the freedoms of all people.
" His worst measure was the Partition of Bengal (1905).
Main Objective of Extremists
Their main objective was to attain Swaraj or complete
independence and not just self-government.
Methods of the Extremists
The Extremists had no faith in the British sense of justice and
fair play. They pointed out the forceful means by which the British
had taken control of India. They believed that political rights will
have to be fought for. They had the spirit of self-reliance and self-
determination.
LESSON 15
INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT (1905-1916)
Learning Objectives
Students will come to know
1. The causes for the rise of extremism in the Indian National
Movement.
2. Main objective and methods of extremists.
3. Leaders of extremists such as Tilak, Bipan Chandra Pal and
Lala Lajpat Rai.
4. The impact of the Partition of Bengal on national movement.
5. Swadeshi Movement and the achievements of extremists.
6. The birth of Muslim League.
7. The Home Rule Movement.
The period from 1905 was known as the era of extremism in
the Indian National Movement. The extremists or the aggressive
nationalists believed that success could be achieved through bold
means. The important extremist leaders were Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal
Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh.
Causes for the Rise of Extremism
1. The failure of the Moderates to win any notable success other
than the expansion of the legislative councils by the Indian
Councils Act (1892).
2. The famine and plague of 1896-97 which affected the whole
country and the suffering of the masses.
151 150
Aurobinda Ghosh was another extremist leader and he actively
participated in the Swadeshi Movement. He was also imprisoned.
After his release he settled in the French territory of Pondicherry
and concentrated on spiritual activities.
Partition of Bengal and the Rise of Extremism
The partition of Bengal in 1905 provided a spark for the rise of
extremism in the Indian National Movement.
Curzon’s real motives were:
· To break the growing strength of
Bengali nationalism since Bengal was
the base of Indian nationalism.
· To divide the Hindus and Muslims in
Bengal.
· To show the enormous power of the
British Government in doing whatever it liked.
On the same day when the partition came into effect, 16
October 1905, the people of Bengal orgainsed protest meetings and
observed a day of mourning. The whole political life of Bengal
underwent a change. Gandhi wrote that the real awakening in India
took place only after the Partition of Bengal.
The anti-partition movement culminated into
the Swadeshi Movement and spread to other
parts of India.
The aggressive nationalists forced
Dadabhai Naoroji to speak of Swaraj (which
was not a Moderate demand) in the Calcutta
Session of Congress in 1906. They adopted
the resolutions of Boycott and Swadeshi. The
Moderate Congressmen were unhappy.  They
AUROBINDA GHOSH 
DADABHAI NAOROJI 
The methods used by the extremists were:
1. Not cooperating with the British Government by boycotting
government courts, schools and colleges.
2. Promotion of Swadeshi and boycott of foreign goods.
3. Introduction and promotion of national education.
Leaders of the Extremists
The extremists were led by Bala Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat
Rai, Bipinchandra Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak is regarded as the real
founder of the popular anti-British movement in India.
He was known as ‘Lokamanya’.  He attacked the
British through his weeklies The Mahratta and the
Kesari.  He was jailed twice by the British for his
nationalist activities and in 1908 deported to Mandalay
for six years. He set up the Home Rule League in
1916 at Poona and declared “Swaraj is my birth-right
and I will have it.”
Lala Lajpat Rai is popularly known as the
‘Lion of Punjab’. He played an  important role
in the Swadeshi Movement. He founded the Indian
Home Rule League in the US in 1916.  He was
deported to Mandalay on the ground of sedition.
He received fatal injuries while leading a
procession against the Simon Commission and died
on November 17, 1928.
Bipan Chandra Pal began his career as a
moderate and turned an extremist. He played an important role in
the Swadeshi Movement. He preached nationalism through the nook
and corner of Indian by his powerful speeches and writings.
TILAK 
LALA LAJPAT RAI 
153 152
Formation of the Muslim League (1906)
In December 1906, Muslim delegates from all over India met
at Dacca for the Muslim Educational Conference. Taking advantage
of this occasion, Nawab Salimullah of Dacca proposed the setting
up of an organisation to look after the Muslim interests.  The proposal
was accepted. The All-India Muslim League was finally set up on
December 30, 1906. Like the Indian National Congress, they conducted
annual sessions and put their demands to the British government.
Initially, they enjoyed the support of the British. Their first
achievement was the separate electorates for the Muslims in the
Minto-Morley reforms.
The Lucknow Pact (1916)
During the 1916 Congress session at Lucknow two major events
occurred. The divided Congress became united. An understanding
for joint action against the British was reached between the Congress
and the Muslim League and it was called the Lucknow Pact. The
signing of the Lucknow Pact by the Congress and the Muslim League
in 1916 marked an important step in the Hindu-Muslim unity.
The Home Rule Movement (1916)
Two Home Rule Leagues were established, one by B.G. Tilak
at Poona in April 1916 and the other by Mrs. Annie Besant at Madras
in September 1916. The aim of the Movement was to get self-
government for India within the British Empire. It believed freedom
was the natural right of all nations. Moreover, the leaders of the
Home Movement thought that India’s resources were not being used
for her needs.
The two Leagues cooperated with each other as well with the
Congress and the Muslim League in putting their demand for home
rule. While Tilak’s Movement concentrated on Maharashtra, Annie
wanted Swaraj to be achieved through constitutional methods. The
differences led to a split in the Congress at the Surat session in 1907.
This is popularly known as the famous Surat Split. The extremists
came out of the Congress led by Tilak and others.
Swadeshi Movement
The Swadeshi Movement involved programmes like the boycott
of government service, courts, schools and colleges and of foreign
goods, promotion of Swadeshi goods, Promotion of National Education
through the establishment of national schools and colleges. It was
both a political and economic movement.
The Swadeshi Movement was a great success. In Bengal, even
the landlords joined the movement. The women and students took to
picketing. Students refused using books made of foreign paper.
The government adopted several tough measures. It passed
several Acts to crush the movement. The Swadeshi volunteers were
beaten badly. The cry of Bande Mataram was forbidden. Schools
and colleges were warned not to allow their students to take part in
the movement or else their, aid would be stopped. Some Indian
government employees lost their jobs. Extremist leaders Bala
Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai, Bipin Chandra Pal and Aurobindo
Ghosh were imprisoned and deported.
Achievements of Extremists
The achievements of extremists can be summed up as follows:
1. They were the first to demand Swaraj as a matter of birth
right.
2. They involved the masses in the freedom struggle and
broadened the social base of the National Movement.
3. They were the first to organize an all-India political movement,
viz. the Swadeshi Movement.
155 154
Learning Outcome
After studying this lesson, the student will understand that
1. The policies of the British government such as the Partition
of Bengal contributed to the rise of extremists.
2. The aims and methods of extremists were different from the
moderates.
3. The Swadeshi Movement became a popular movement with
its boycott of government schools and colleges.
4. The Muslims were initially supported by the British.
5. The importance of the Home Rule Movement.
6. The activities of the revolutionaries in the cause of Indian
nationalism.
Besant’s Movement covered the rest of the country.  The Home
Rule Movement had brought a new life in the national movement.
There was a revival of Swadeshi. Women joined in larger numbers.
On 20 August 1917, Montague, the Secretary of State in
England, made a declaration in the Parliament of England on British
Government’s policy towards future political reforms in India. He
promised the gradual development of self-governing institutions in
India. This August Declaration led to the end of the Home Rule
Movement.
Revolutionary Movements
In the first half of the 20th century, revolutionary groups sprang
up mainly in Bengal, Maharashtra, Punjab and Madras. The
revolutionaries were not satisfied with the methods of both the
moderates and extremists. Hence, they started many revolutionary
secret organizations. In Bengal Anusilan Samiti and Jugantar were
established. In Maharashtra Savarkar brothers had set up Abhinava
Bharat. In the Madras Presidency, Bharathmatha Association was
started by Nilakanta Bramachari.
In Punjab Ajit Singh set up a secret society to spread
revolutionary ideas among the youth. In London, at India House,
Shyamji Krishna Verma gathered young Indian nationalists like Madan
Lal Dhingra, Savarkar, V.V.S. Iyer and T.S.S.Rajan. Lala Hardyal
set up the ‘Ghadar Party’ in USA to organise revolutionary activities
from outside India.
157 156
d) The extremists wanted to achieve Swaraj through the
constitutional means.
e) The differences between the moderates and extremists led to
the split in the Congress at Lucknow.
V. State whether the following statements are True or False.
1. The immediate cause for the rise of extremism was the
reactionary rule of Lord Curzon.
2. The extremists were the first to demand Swaraj as a matter
of birth right.
3. The All India Muslim League was set up in 1905.
VI. Write short notes (Any three points).
1. Partition of Bengal.
2. Surat Split.
3. Muslim League.
4. Lucknow Pact.
VII. Answer briefly (100 words).
1. Write a note on the rise of extremism in the Indian National
Movement.
2. Bring out the importance of the Swadeshi Movement.
3. Explain the role of the Home Rule Movement in the Freedom
Struggle.
VIII. Answer in detail (200 words).
1. Discuss the important events in the Indian National Movement
from 1905 to 1916.
MODEL QUESTIONS
I. Choose the correct answer.
1. Which among the following is not a cause for the rise of
extremism?
(a) Ilbert Bill (b) Calcutta Corporation Act
(c) The Universities Act (d) Partition of Bengal
2. The Muslim League was founded in
(a) 1906 (b) 1909
(c) 1916 (d) 1926
II. Fill in the blanks.
1. The “Surat Split” in the Indian National Congress took place in
the year …..
2. Mrs. Annie Besant established the Home Rule League at …..
3. Barathamatha Association was started by ……
III. Match the following.
1. Kesari a. Maharashtra
2. Lion of Punjab b. Muslim League
3. Salimulla Khan c. Lala Har Dayal
4. Ghadar Party d. B.G. Tilak
5. Abhinav Bharat e. Lala Lajpat Rai
IV. Find out the correct statement. One statement alone is correct.
a) The extremists were led by Gokhale.
b) The extremists had no faith in the British sense of justice.
c) The extremists believed in the principle of ahimsa.
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