TN History Textbook: The Coming of Europeans Notes | Study Must Read (Old & New) NCERTs for IAS Preparation - UPSC

UPSC: TN History Textbook: The Coming of Europeans Notes | Study Must Read (Old & New) NCERTs for IAS Preparation - UPSC

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 Page 1


259 258
the ruler of Calicut. He returned to Portugal in the next year. Pedro
Alvarez Cabral arrived in 1500 and Vasco da Gama also made a
second trip in 1502. They established trading stations at Calicut,
Cannanore and Cochin.
The first governor of the Portuguese in India was Francis de
Almeida. Later in 1509 Albuquerque was made the governor of the
Portuguese territories in India. In 1510, he captured Goa from the
ruler of Bijapur. Thereafter, Goa became the capital of the
Portuguese settlements in India. Albuquerque captured Malacca and
Ceylon. He also built a fort at Calicut. He encouraged his countrymen
to marry Indian women. Albuquerque died in 1515 leaving the
Portuguese as the strongest naval power in India.
The successors of Albuquerque established Portuguese
settlements at Daman, Salsette and Bombay on the west coast and
at San Thome near Madras and Hugli in Bengal on the east coast.
However, the Portuguese power declined in India by the end of the
sixteenth century. They lost all their possessions in India except Goa,
Diu and Daman in the next century.
The Dutch
The Dutch East India Company was established in 1602. The
merchants of this company came to India and established their
settlements at Masulipattinam, Pulicat, Surat, Karaikal,
Nagapattinam, Chinsura and Kasimbazar. In the seventeenth century
they won over the Portuguese and emerged the most dominant power
in European trade in the East. Pulicat was their main centre in India
and later it was replaced by Nagapattinam. In the middle of the
seventeenth century the English began to emerge as a big colonial
power. The Anglo-Dutch rivalry lasted for about seven decades
during which period the Dutch lost their settlements to the British
one by one.
The commercial contacts between India and Europe were
very old via the land route either through the Oxus valley or Syria
or Egypt. But, the new sea route via the Cape
of Good Hope was discovered by Vasco da
Gama in 1498. Thereafter, many trading
companies came to India and established their
trading centres. They entered India as traders
at the outset but by the passage of time
indulged in the politics of India and finally
established their colonies. The commercial
rivalry among the European powers led to
political rivalry. Ultimately, the British
succeeded in establishing their rule India.
The Portuguese
The Portuguese traveler Vasco da Gama reached the port of
Calicut on 17 May 1498 and he was warmly received by Zamorin,
LESSON 23
THE COMING OF EUROPEANS
Learning Objectives
Students will acquire knowledge about
1. The coming of the Portuguese to India.
2. Establishment of the Dutch, French, English and Danish
Trading centres in India.
3. The Anglo-French Rivalry in the Carnatic region.
4. Rise of British power in Bengal.
VASCO DA GAMA 
Page 2


259 258
the ruler of Calicut. He returned to Portugal in the next year. Pedro
Alvarez Cabral arrived in 1500 and Vasco da Gama also made a
second trip in 1502. They established trading stations at Calicut,
Cannanore and Cochin.
The first governor of the Portuguese in India was Francis de
Almeida. Later in 1509 Albuquerque was made the governor of the
Portuguese territories in India. In 1510, he captured Goa from the
ruler of Bijapur. Thereafter, Goa became the capital of the
Portuguese settlements in India. Albuquerque captured Malacca and
Ceylon. He also built a fort at Calicut. He encouraged his countrymen
to marry Indian women. Albuquerque died in 1515 leaving the
Portuguese as the strongest naval power in India.
The successors of Albuquerque established Portuguese
settlements at Daman, Salsette and Bombay on the west coast and
at San Thome near Madras and Hugli in Bengal on the east coast.
However, the Portuguese power declined in India by the end of the
sixteenth century. They lost all their possessions in India except Goa,
Diu and Daman in the next century.
The Dutch
The Dutch East India Company was established in 1602. The
merchants of this company came to India and established their
settlements at Masulipattinam, Pulicat, Surat, Karaikal,
Nagapattinam, Chinsura and Kasimbazar. In the seventeenth century
they won over the Portuguese and emerged the most dominant power
in European trade in the East. Pulicat was their main centre in India
and later it was replaced by Nagapattinam. In the middle of the
seventeenth century the English began to emerge as a big colonial
power. The Anglo-Dutch rivalry lasted for about seven decades
during which period the Dutch lost their settlements to the British
one by one.
The commercial contacts between India and Europe were
very old via the land route either through the Oxus valley or Syria
or Egypt. But, the new sea route via the Cape
of Good Hope was discovered by Vasco da
Gama in 1498. Thereafter, many trading
companies came to India and established their
trading centres. They entered India as traders
at the outset but by the passage of time
indulged in the politics of India and finally
established their colonies. The commercial
rivalry among the European powers led to
political rivalry. Ultimately, the British
succeeded in establishing their rule India.
The Portuguese
The Portuguese traveler Vasco da Gama reached the port of
Calicut on 17 May 1498 and he was warmly received by Zamorin,
LESSON 23
THE COMING OF EUROPEANS
Learning Objectives
Students will acquire knowledge about
1. The coming of the Portuguese to India.
2. Establishment of the Dutch, French, English and Danish
Trading centres in India.
3. The Anglo-French Rivalry in the Carnatic region.
4. Rise of British power in Bengal.
VASCO DA GAMA 
261 260
The Danes
Denmark also established trade settlements in India. Their
settlement at Tranquebar was founded in 1620. Another important
Danish settlement in India was Serampore in Bengal. Serampore
was their headquarters in India. They failed to strengthen themselves
in India and they sold all their settlement in India to the British in
1845.
Anglo-French Rivalry
In the beginning of the eighteenth century, the English and the
French were competing with each other to establish their supremacy
in India. Both of them used the political turmoil prevalent in India as
a result of the decline of the Mughal Empire in their favour and
indulged in internal politics. The Anglo-French rivalry in India was
manifest in the Carnatic region and in Bengal.
The Carnatic Wars
The downfall of the Mughal Empire led to the independence
of Deccan under Nizam-ul-Mulk. The Carnatic region also formed
part of the Nizam’s dominion. The ruler of
the Carnatic accepted the suzerainty of the
Nizam. In 1740, the Austrian War of
Succession broke out in Europe. In that war
England and France were in the opposite
camps. They came into conflict in India also.
The French governor of Pondicherry,
Dupleix opened attack on the English in
1746 and thus began the First Carnatic War
(1746-1748). The English sought help from the Nawab of Carnatic,
Anwar Uddin. But the French concluded a treaty with his rival
Chanda Sahib. The English army crushed a defeat on the French in
the Battle of Adyar, near Madras. In the meantime, the Treaty of
DUPLEIX 
The English
The English East India Company was established in 1600 and
the Charter was issued by Queen Elizabeth of England. Captain
Hawkins arrived at the royal court of Jahangir in 1609 to seek
permission to establish English trading centre at Surat. But it was
refused by the Mughal Emperor due to Portuguese pressure. Later
in 1612, Jahangir issued a farman (permission letter) to the English
and they established a trading factory at Surat in 1613.
Sir Thomas Roe came to India as ambassador of James I, the
king of England to the Mughal court in 1615. He obtained permission
from Jahangir to establish English trading factories in different parts
of India.
The English established their factories at Agra, Ahmadabad,
Baroda and Broach by 1619. The English East India Company
acquired Bombay from Charles II, the then king of England. In 1639,
Francis Day founded the city of Madras where the Fort St. George
was built. In 1690, an English factory was established at a place
called Sutanuti by Job Charnock. Later it developed into the city of
Calcutta where Fort William was built. Later, Calcutta became the
capital of British India. Thus Bombay, Madras, Calcutta became
three presidency towns of the English settlements in India.
The French
The French East India Company was formed in 1664 by
Colbert, a Minister under Louis XIV. The first French factory in
India was established at Surat by Francis Caron. Later, Maracara
set up a factory at Masulipattinam. Francois Martin founded
Pondicherry in 1673. Other French factories in India were
Chandranagore, Mahe and Karaikal. Francois Martin was the first
governor of Pondicherry, the headquarters of the French possessions
in India.
Page 3


259 258
the ruler of Calicut. He returned to Portugal in the next year. Pedro
Alvarez Cabral arrived in 1500 and Vasco da Gama also made a
second trip in 1502. They established trading stations at Calicut,
Cannanore and Cochin.
The first governor of the Portuguese in India was Francis de
Almeida. Later in 1509 Albuquerque was made the governor of the
Portuguese territories in India. In 1510, he captured Goa from the
ruler of Bijapur. Thereafter, Goa became the capital of the
Portuguese settlements in India. Albuquerque captured Malacca and
Ceylon. He also built a fort at Calicut. He encouraged his countrymen
to marry Indian women. Albuquerque died in 1515 leaving the
Portuguese as the strongest naval power in India.
The successors of Albuquerque established Portuguese
settlements at Daman, Salsette and Bombay on the west coast and
at San Thome near Madras and Hugli in Bengal on the east coast.
However, the Portuguese power declined in India by the end of the
sixteenth century. They lost all their possessions in India except Goa,
Diu and Daman in the next century.
The Dutch
The Dutch East India Company was established in 1602. The
merchants of this company came to India and established their
settlements at Masulipattinam, Pulicat, Surat, Karaikal,
Nagapattinam, Chinsura and Kasimbazar. In the seventeenth century
they won over the Portuguese and emerged the most dominant power
in European trade in the East. Pulicat was their main centre in India
and later it was replaced by Nagapattinam. In the middle of the
seventeenth century the English began to emerge as a big colonial
power. The Anglo-Dutch rivalry lasted for about seven decades
during which period the Dutch lost their settlements to the British
one by one.
The commercial contacts between India and Europe were
very old via the land route either through the Oxus valley or Syria
or Egypt. But, the new sea route via the Cape
of Good Hope was discovered by Vasco da
Gama in 1498. Thereafter, many trading
companies came to India and established their
trading centres. They entered India as traders
at the outset but by the passage of time
indulged in the politics of India and finally
established their colonies. The commercial
rivalry among the European powers led to
political rivalry. Ultimately, the British
succeeded in establishing their rule India.
The Portuguese
The Portuguese traveler Vasco da Gama reached the port of
Calicut on 17 May 1498 and he was warmly received by Zamorin,
LESSON 23
THE COMING OF EUROPEANS
Learning Objectives
Students will acquire knowledge about
1. The coming of the Portuguese to India.
2. Establishment of the Dutch, French, English and Danish
Trading centres in India.
3. The Anglo-French Rivalry in the Carnatic region.
4. Rise of British power in Bengal.
VASCO DA GAMA 
261 260
The Danes
Denmark also established trade settlements in India. Their
settlement at Tranquebar was founded in 1620. Another important
Danish settlement in India was Serampore in Bengal. Serampore
was their headquarters in India. They failed to strengthen themselves
in India and they sold all their settlement in India to the British in
1845.
Anglo-French Rivalry
In the beginning of the eighteenth century, the English and the
French were competing with each other to establish their supremacy
in India. Both of them used the political turmoil prevalent in India as
a result of the decline of the Mughal Empire in their favour and
indulged in internal politics. The Anglo-French rivalry in India was
manifest in the Carnatic region and in Bengal.
The Carnatic Wars
The downfall of the Mughal Empire led to the independence
of Deccan under Nizam-ul-Mulk. The Carnatic region also formed
part of the Nizam’s dominion. The ruler of
the Carnatic accepted the suzerainty of the
Nizam. In 1740, the Austrian War of
Succession broke out in Europe. In that war
England and France were in the opposite
camps. They came into conflict in India also.
The French governor of Pondicherry,
Dupleix opened attack on the English in
1746 and thus began the First Carnatic War
(1746-1748). The English sought help from the Nawab of Carnatic,
Anwar Uddin. But the French concluded a treaty with his rival
Chanda Sahib. The English army crushed a defeat on the French in
the Battle of Adyar, near Madras. In the meantime, the Treaty of
DUPLEIX 
The English
The English East India Company was established in 1600 and
the Charter was issued by Queen Elizabeth of England. Captain
Hawkins arrived at the royal court of Jahangir in 1609 to seek
permission to establish English trading centre at Surat. But it was
refused by the Mughal Emperor due to Portuguese pressure. Later
in 1612, Jahangir issued a farman (permission letter) to the English
and they established a trading factory at Surat in 1613.
Sir Thomas Roe came to India as ambassador of James I, the
king of England to the Mughal court in 1615. He obtained permission
from Jahangir to establish English trading factories in different parts
of India.
The English established their factories at Agra, Ahmadabad,
Baroda and Broach by 1619. The English East India Company
acquired Bombay from Charles II, the then king of England. In 1639,
Francis Day founded the city of Madras where the Fort St. George
was built. In 1690, an English factory was established at a place
called Sutanuti by Job Charnock. Later it developed into the city of
Calcutta where Fort William was built. Later, Calcutta became the
capital of British India. Thus Bombay, Madras, Calcutta became
three presidency towns of the English settlements in India.
The French
The French East India Company was formed in 1664 by
Colbert, a Minister under Louis XIV. The first French factory in
India was established at Surat by Francis Caron. Later, Maracara
set up a factory at Masulipattinam. Francois Martin founded
Pondicherry in 1673. Other French factories in India were
Chandranagore, Mahe and Karaikal. Francois Martin was the first
governor of Pondicherry, the headquarters of the French possessions
in India.
263 262
3. French had support only in the Deccan but the English had a
strong base in Bengal.
4. English had three important ports – Calcutta, Bombay and
Madras but French had only Pondicherry.
5. Difference of opinion between the French Generals.
6. England’s victory in the European wars decided the destiny
of the French in India.
Establishment of British Power in Bengal
Bengal remained one of the fertile and wealthy regions of India.
The English ascendancy in Bengal proved to be the basis for the
expansion of English rule in India. The
conflict between the Nawab of Bengal,
Siraj-ud-Daula and the English led to the
Battle of Plassey held on 23 June 1757.
Robert Clive, the Commander of the British
troops emerged victorious by defeating the
Nawab’s army. The easy English victory
was due to the treachery of Mir Jabar, the
Commander of Nawab’s army. However,
the victory of the British in the Battle of
Plassey marked the foundation of the British
rule in India.
In 1764, the English once again defeated the combined forces
of the Nawab of Oudh, the Mughal Emperor and the Nawab of
Bengal in the Battle of Buxar. The English military superiority was
decisively established. In 1765, Robert Clive was appointed as the
Governor of Bengal. In the same year, the Treaty of Allahabad was
concluded by which the Mughal Emperor granted the Diwani rights
to the English East India Company. Thus the British power in India
was thoroughly established.
 
Robert Clive
Aix-la-Chappelle was concluded in 1748 to end the Austrian
Succession War. Thus the First Carnatic War came to an end.
But the English and French continued to take opposite sides
in the internal politics of India. This had resulted in the Second
Carnatic War (1749-1754). Dupleix supported the cause of Muzafar
Jang, who wanted to become the Nizam of Hyderabad and Chanda
Sahib, an aspirant for the throne of Arcot. The troops of these three
defeated Anwar Uddin, who was with the British in the First Carnatic
War, and killed him in the Battle of Ambur in 1749. After this victory ,
Muzafar Jung became the Nizam and Chanda Sahib the Nawab of
Arcot. Muhammad Ali, son of Anwar Uddin escaped to
Tiruchirappalli. The English sent troops in support of him. In the
meantime, the British commander Robert Clive captured Arcot. He
also inflicted a severe defeat on the French at Kaveripakkam.
Chanda Sahib was captured and beheaded in Tanjore. Meanwhile
Dupleix was replaced by Godeheu as the French governor. The
war came to an end by the Treaty of Pondicherry in 1754.
The outbreak of the Seven Years War (1756-1763) in Europe
led to the Third Carnatic War (1758-1763). Count de Lally was
the commander of the French troops. The British General Sir Eyre
Coote defeated him at Wandiwash in 1760. In the next year,
Pondicherry was captured and destroyed by the British troops. The
Seven Years War came to an end by the Treaty of Paris in1763.
The Third Carnatic War also ended. The French agreed to confine
its activities in Pondicherry, Karaikkal, Mahe and Yenam. Thus the
Anglo-French rivalry came to a close with British success and French
failure.
The causes for the French failure can be summed up as follows:
1. Commercial and naval superiority of the English.
2. Lack of support from the French government.
Page 4


259 258
the ruler of Calicut. He returned to Portugal in the next year. Pedro
Alvarez Cabral arrived in 1500 and Vasco da Gama also made a
second trip in 1502. They established trading stations at Calicut,
Cannanore and Cochin.
The first governor of the Portuguese in India was Francis de
Almeida. Later in 1509 Albuquerque was made the governor of the
Portuguese territories in India. In 1510, he captured Goa from the
ruler of Bijapur. Thereafter, Goa became the capital of the
Portuguese settlements in India. Albuquerque captured Malacca and
Ceylon. He also built a fort at Calicut. He encouraged his countrymen
to marry Indian women. Albuquerque died in 1515 leaving the
Portuguese as the strongest naval power in India.
The successors of Albuquerque established Portuguese
settlements at Daman, Salsette and Bombay on the west coast and
at San Thome near Madras and Hugli in Bengal on the east coast.
However, the Portuguese power declined in India by the end of the
sixteenth century. They lost all their possessions in India except Goa,
Diu and Daman in the next century.
The Dutch
The Dutch East India Company was established in 1602. The
merchants of this company came to India and established their
settlements at Masulipattinam, Pulicat, Surat, Karaikal,
Nagapattinam, Chinsura and Kasimbazar. In the seventeenth century
they won over the Portuguese and emerged the most dominant power
in European trade in the East. Pulicat was their main centre in India
and later it was replaced by Nagapattinam. In the middle of the
seventeenth century the English began to emerge as a big colonial
power. The Anglo-Dutch rivalry lasted for about seven decades
during which period the Dutch lost their settlements to the British
one by one.
The commercial contacts between India and Europe were
very old via the land route either through the Oxus valley or Syria
or Egypt. But, the new sea route via the Cape
of Good Hope was discovered by Vasco da
Gama in 1498. Thereafter, many trading
companies came to India and established their
trading centres. They entered India as traders
at the outset but by the passage of time
indulged in the politics of India and finally
established their colonies. The commercial
rivalry among the European powers led to
political rivalry. Ultimately, the British
succeeded in establishing their rule India.
The Portuguese
The Portuguese traveler Vasco da Gama reached the port of
Calicut on 17 May 1498 and he was warmly received by Zamorin,
LESSON 23
THE COMING OF EUROPEANS
Learning Objectives
Students will acquire knowledge about
1. The coming of the Portuguese to India.
2. Establishment of the Dutch, French, English and Danish
Trading centres in India.
3. The Anglo-French Rivalry in the Carnatic region.
4. Rise of British power in Bengal.
VASCO DA GAMA 
261 260
The Danes
Denmark also established trade settlements in India. Their
settlement at Tranquebar was founded in 1620. Another important
Danish settlement in India was Serampore in Bengal. Serampore
was their headquarters in India. They failed to strengthen themselves
in India and they sold all their settlement in India to the British in
1845.
Anglo-French Rivalry
In the beginning of the eighteenth century, the English and the
French were competing with each other to establish their supremacy
in India. Both of them used the political turmoil prevalent in India as
a result of the decline of the Mughal Empire in their favour and
indulged in internal politics. The Anglo-French rivalry in India was
manifest in the Carnatic region and in Bengal.
The Carnatic Wars
The downfall of the Mughal Empire led to the independence
of Deccan under Nizam-ul-Mulk. The Carnatic region also formed
part of the Nizam’s dominion. The ruler of
the Carnatic accepted the suzerainty of the
Nizam. In 1740, the Austrian War of
Succession broke out in Europe. In that war
England and France were in the opposite
camps. They came into conflict in India also.
The French governor of Pondicherry,
Dupleix opened attack on the English in
1746 and thus began the First Carnatic War
(1746-1748). The English sought help from the Nawab of Carnatic,
Anwar Uddin. But the French concluded a treaty with his rival
Chanda Sahib. The English army crushed a defeat on the French in
the Battle of Adyar, near Madras. In the meantime, the Treaty of
DUPLEIX 
The English
The English East India Company was established in 1600 and
the Charter was issued by Queen Elizabeth of England. Captain
Hawkins arrived at the royal court of Jahangir in 1609 to seek
permission to establish English trading centre at Surat. But it was
refused by the Mughal Emperor due to Portuguese pressure. Later
in 1612, Jahangir issued a farman (permission letter) to the English
and they established a trading factory at Surat in 1613.
Sir Thomas Roe came to India as ambassador of James I, the
king of England to the Mughal court in 1615. He obtained permission
from Jahangir to establish English trading factories in different parts
of India.
The English established their factories at Agra, Ahmadabad,
Baroda and Broach by 1619. The English East India Company
acquired Bombay from Charles II, the then king of England. In 1639,
Francis Day founded the city of Madras where the Fort St. George
was built. In 1690, an English factory was established at a place
called Sutanuti by Job Charnock. Later it developed into the city of
Calcutta where Fort William was built. Later, Calcutta became the
capital of British India. Thus Bombay, Madras, Calcutta became
three presidency towns of the English settlements in India.
The French
The French East India Company was formed in 1664 by
Colbert, a Minister under Louis XIV. The first French factory in
India was established at Surat by Francis Caron. Later, Maracara
set up a factory at Masulipattinam. Francois Martin founded
Pondicherry in 1673. Other French factories in India were
Chandranagore, Mahe and Karaikal. Francois Martin was the first
governor of Pondicherry, the headquarters of the French possessions
in India.
263 262
3. French had support only in the Deccan but the English had a
strong base in Bengal.
4. English had three important ports – Calcutta, Bombay and
Madras but French had only Pondicherry.
5. Difference of opinion between the French Generals.
6. England’s victory in the European wars decided the destiny
of the French in India.
Establishment of British Power in Bengal
Bengal remained one of the fertile and wealthy regions of India.
The English ascendancy in Bengal proved to be the basis for the
expansion of English rule in India. The
conflict between the Nawab of Bengal,
Siraj-ud-Daula and the English led to the
Battle of Plassey held on 23 June 1757.
Robert Clive, the Commander of the British
troops emerged victorious by defeating the
Nawab’s army. The easy English victory
was due to the treachery of Mir Jabar, the
Commander of Nawab’s army. However,
the victory of the British in the Battle of
Plassey marked the foundation of the British
rule in India.
In 1764, the English once again defeated the combined forces
of the Nawab of Oudh, the Mughal Emperor and the Nawab of
Bengal in the Battle of Buxar. The English military superiority was
decisively established. In 1765, Robert Clive was appointed as the
Governor of Bengal. In the same year, the Treaty of Allahabad was
concluded by which the Mughal Emperor granted the Diwani rights
to the English East India Company. Thus the British power in India
was thoroughly established.
 
Robert Clive
Aix-la-Chappelle was concluded in 1748 to end the Austrian
Succession War. Thus the First Carnatic War came to an end.
But the English and French continued to take opposite sides
in the internal politics of India. This had resulted in the Second
Carnatic War (1749-1754). Dupleix supported the cause of Muzafar
Jang, who wanted to become the Nizam of Hyderabad and Chanda
Sahib, an aspirant for the throne of Arcot. The troops of these three
defeated Anwar Uddin, who was with the British in the First Carnatic
War, and killed him in the Battle of Ambur in 1749. After this victory ,
Muzafar Jung became the Nizam and Chanda Sahib the Nawab of
Arcot. Muhammad Ali, son of Anwar Uddin escaped to
Tiruchirappalli. The English sent troops in support of him. In the
meantime, the British commander Robert Clive captured Arcot. He
also inflicted a severe defeat on the French at Kaveripakkam.
Chanda Sahib was captured and beheaded in Tanjore. Meanwhile
Dupleix was replaced by Godeheu as the French governor. The
war came to an end by the Treaty of Pondicherry in 1754.
The outbreak of the Seven Years War (1756-1763) in Europe
led to the Third Carnatic War (1758-1763). Count de Lally was
the commander of the French troops. The British General Sir Eyre
Coote defeated him at Wandiwash in 1760. In the next year,
Pondicherry was captured and destroyed by the British troops. The
Seven Years War came to an end by the Treaty of Paris in1763.
The Third Carnatic War also ended. The French agreed to confine
its activities in Pondicherry, Karaikkal, Mahe and Yenam. Thus the
Anglo-French rivalry came to a close with British success and French
failure.
The causes for the French failure can be summed up as follows:
1. Commercial and naval superiority of the English.
2. Lack of support from the French government.
265 264
MODEL QUESTIONS
I. Choose the correct answer.
1. The first Portuguese governor in India
(a) Vasco da Gama (b) Almaida
(c) Albuquerque (d) Francois Martin
2. The Battle of Plassey took place in
(a) 1767 (b) 1757
(c) 1764 (d) 1747
II. Fill in the blanks.
1. Captain Hawkins arrived at the royal court of…….
2. Serampur was a ….. settlement.
3. The Treaty of Paris led to end of ……..Carnatic War.
III. Match the following.
1. Job Charnock a) Tranquebar
2. The Danes b) Calcutta
3. Francis Day c) Pondicherry
4. Francois Martin d) Madras
IV. Find out the correct statement. One statement alone is
right.
a) The Austrian Succession War led to Third Carnatic War.
b) The Seven Years War led to the Second Carnatic War.
c) Robert Clive won the Battle of Plassey.
d) The French were eliminated from Bengal due to the Carnatic
Wars.
Learning Outcome
After learning this lesson the students will be able to explain
1. Growth and decline of Portuguese power in India.
2. Dutch, English, French and Danish settlements in India.
3. Anglo-French Rivalry and the three Carnatic wars.
4. Growth of British Power in Bengal and the Battle of
Plassey.
Page 5


259 258
the ruler of Calicut. He returned to Portugal in the next year. Pedro
Alvarez Cabral arrived in 1500 and Vasco da Gama also made a
second trip in 1502. They established trading stations at Calicut,
Cannanore and Cochin.
The first governor of the Portuguese in India was Francis de
Almeida. Later in 1509 Albuquerque was made the governor of the
Portuguese territories in India. In 1510, he captured Goa from the
ruler of Bijapur. Thereafter, Goa became the capital of the
Portuguese settlements in India. Albuquerque captured Malacca and
Ceylon. He also built a fort at Calicut. He encouraged his countrymen
to marry Indian women. Albuquerque died in 1515 leaving the
Portuguese as the strongest naval power in India.
The successors of Albuquerque established Portuguese
settlements at Daman, Salsette and Bombay on the west coast and
at San Thome near Madras and Hugli in Bengal on the east coast.
However, the Portuguese power declined in India by the end of the
sixteenth century. They lost all their possessions in India except Goa,
Diu and Daman in the next century.
The Dutch
The Dutch East India Company was established in 1602. The
merchants of this company came to India and established their
settlements at Masulipattinam, Pulicat, Surat, Karaikal,
Nagapattinam, Chinsura and Kasimbazar. In the seventeenth century
they won over the Portuguese and emerged the most dominant power
in European trade in the East. Pulicat was their main centre in India
and later it was replaced by Nagapattinam. In the middle of the
seventeenth century the English began to emerge as a big colonial
power. The Anglo-Dutch rivalry lasted for about seven decades
during which period the Dutch lost their settlements to the British
one by one.
The commercial contacts between India and Europe were
very old via the land route either through the Oxus valley or Syria
or Egypt. But, the new sea route via the Cape
of Good Hope was discovered by Vasco da
Gama in 1498. Thereafter, many trading
companies came to India and established their
trading centres. They entered India as traders
at the outset but by the passage of time
indulged in the politics of India and finally
established their colonies. The commercial
rivalry among the European powers led to
political rivalry. Ultimately, the British
succeeded in establishing their rule India.
The Portuguese
The Portuguese traveler Vasco da Gama reached the port of
Calicut on 17 May 1498 and he was warmly received by Zamorin,
LESSON 23
THE COMING OF EUROPEANS
Learning Objectives
Students will acquire knowledge about
1. The coming of the Portuguese to India.
2. Establishment of the Dutch, French, English and Danish
Trading centres in India.
3. The Anglo-French Rivalry in the Carnatic region.
4. Rise of British power in Bengal.
VASCO DA GAMA 
261 260
The Danes
Denmark also established trade settlements in India. Their
settlement at Tranquebar was founded in 1620. Another important
Danish settlement in India was Serampore in Bengal. Serampore
was their headquarters in India. They failed to strengthen themselves
in India and they sold all their settlement in India to the British in
1845.
Anglo-French Rivalry
In the beginning of the eighteenth century, the English and the
French were competing with each other to establish their supremacy
in India. Both of them used the political turmoil prevalent in India as
a result of the decline of the Mughal Empire in their favour and
indulged in internal politics. The Anglo-French rivalry in India was
manifest in the Carnatic region and in Bengal.
The Carnatic Wars
The downfall of the Mughal Empire led to the independence
of Deccan under Nizam-ul-Mulk. The Carnatic region also formed
part of the Nizam’s dominion. The ruler of
the Carnatic accepted the suzerainty of the
Nizam. In 1740, the Austrian War of
Succession broke out in Europe. In that war
England and France were in the opposite
camps. They came into conflict in India also.
The French governor of Pondicherry,
Dupleix opened attack on the English in
1746 and thus began the First Carnatic War
(1746-1748). The English sought help from the Nawab of Carnatic,
Anwar Uddin. But the French concluded a treaty with his rival
Chanda Sahib. The English army crushed a defeat on the French in
the Battle of Adyar, near Madras. In the meantime, the Treaty of
DUPLEIX 
The English
The English East India Company was established in 1600 and
the Charter was issued by Queen Elizabeth of England. Captain
Hawkins arrived at the royal court of Jahangir in 1609 to seek
permission to establish English trading centre at Surat. But it was
refused by the Mughal Emperor due to Portuguese pressure. Later
in 1612, Jahangir issued a farman (permission letter) to the English
and they established a trading factory at Surat in 1613.
Sir Thomas Roe came to India as ambassador of James I, the
king of England to the Mughal court in 1615. He obtained permission
from Jahangir to establish English trading factories in different parts
of India.
The English established their factories at Agra, Ahmadabad,
Baroda and Broach by 1619. The English East India Company
acquired Bombay from Charles II, the then king of England. In 1639,
Francis Day founded the city of Madras where the Fort St. George
was built. In 1690, an English factory was established at a place
called Sutanuti by Job Charnock. Later it developed into the city of
Calcutta where Fort William was built. Later, Calcutta became the
capital of British India. Thus Bombay, Madras, Calcutta became
three presidency towns of the English settlements in India.
The French
The French East India Company was formed in 1664 by
Colbert, a Minister under Louis XIV. The first French factory in
India was established at Surat by Francis Caron. Later, Maracara
set up a factory at Masulipattinam. Francois Martin founded
Pondicherry in 1673. Other French factories in India were
Chandranagore, Mahe and Karaikal. Francois Martin was the first
governor of Pondicherry, the headquarters of the French possessions
in India.
263 262
3. French had support only in the Deccan but the English had a
strong base in Bengal.
4. English had three important ports – Calcutta, Bombay and
Madras but French had only Pondicherry.
5. Difference of opinion between the French Generals.
6. England’s victory in the European wars decided the destiny
of the French in India.
Establishment of British Power in Bengal
Bengal remained one of the fertile and wealthy regions of India.
The English ascendancy in Bengal proved to be the basis for the
expansion of English rule in India. The
conflict between the Nawab of Bengal,
Siraj-ud-Daula and the English led to the
Battle of Plassey held on 23 June 1757.
Robert Clive, the Commander of the British
troops emerged victorious by defeating the
Nawab’s army. The easy English victory
was due to the treachery of Mir Jabar, the
Commander of Nawab’s army. However,
the victory of the British in the Battle of
Plassey marked the foundation of the British
rule in India.
In 1764, the English once again defeated the combined forces
of the Nawab of Oudh, the Mughal Emperor and the Nawab of
Bengal in the Battle of Buxar. The English military superiority was
decisively established. In 1765, Robert Clive was appointed as the
Governor of Bengal. In the same year, the Treaty of Allahabad was
concluded by which the Mughal Emperor granted the Diwani rights
to the English East India Company. Thus the British power in India
was thoroughly established.
 
Robert Clive
Aix-la-Chappelle was concluded in 1748 to end the Austrian
Succession War. Thus the First Carnatic War came to an end.
But the English and French continued to take opposite sides
in the internal politics of India. This had resulted in the Second
Carnatic War (1749-1754). Dupleix supported the cause of Muzafar
Jang, who wanted to become the Nizam of Hyderabad and Chanda
Sahib, an aspirant for the throne of Arcot. The troops of these three
defeated Anwar Uddin, who was with the British in the First Carnatic
War, and killed him in the Battle of Ambur in 1749. After this victory ,
Muzafar Jung became the Nizam and Chanda Sahib the Nawab of
Arcot. Muhammad Ali, son of Anwar Uddin escaped to
Tiruchirappalli. The English sent troops in support of him. In the
meantime, the British commander Robert Clive captured Arcot. He
also inflicted a severe defeat on the French at Kaveripakkam.
Chanda Sahib was captured and beheaded in Tanjore. Meanwhile
Dupleix was replaced by Godeheu as the French governor. The
war came to an end by the Treaty of Pondicherry in 1754.
The outbreak of the Seven Years War (1756-1763) in Europe
led to the Third Carnatic War (1758-1763). Count de Lally was
the commander of the French troops. The British General Sir Eyre
Coote defeated him at Wandiwash in 1760. In the next year,
Pondicherry was captured and destroyed by the British troops. The
Seven Years War came to an end by the Treaty of Paris in1763.
The Third Carnatic War also ended. The French agreed to confine
its activities in Pondicherry, Karaikkal, Mahe and Yenam. Thus the
Anglo-French rivalry came to a close with British success and French
failure.
The causes for the French failure can be summed up as follows:
1. Commercial and naval superiority of the English.
2. Lack of support from the French government.
265 264
MODEL QUESTIONS
I. Choose the correct answer.
1. The first Portuguese governor in India
(a) Vasco da Gama (b) Almaida
(c) Albuquerque (d) Francois Martin
2. The Battle of Plassey took place in
(a) 1767 (b) 1757
(c) 1764 (d) 1747
II. Fill in the blanks.
1. Captain Hawkins arrived at the royal court of…….
2. Serampur was a ….. settlement.
3. The Treaty of Paris led to end of ……..Carnatic War.
III. Match the following.
1. Job Charnock a) Tranquebar
2. The Danes b) Calcutta
3. Francis Day c) Pondicherry
4. Francois Martin d) Madras
IV. Find out the correct statement. One statement alone is
right.
a) The Austrian Succession War led to Third Carnatic War.
b) The Seven Years War led to the Second Carnatic War.
c) Robert Clive won the Battle of Plassey.
d) The French were eliminated from Bengal due to the Carnatic
Wars.
Learning Outcome
After learning this lesson the students will be able to explain
1. Growth and decline of Portuguese power in India.
2. Dutch, English, French and Danish settlements in India.
3. Anglo-French Rivalry and the three Carnatic wars.
4. Growth of British Power in Bengal and the Battle of
Plassey.
267 266
V. State whether the following statements are True or
False.
1. Sir Thomas Roe came to India as ambassador of Charles II.
2. Dupleix was replaced by Godeheu as the French governor.
VI. Write short notes (Any three points).
1. Vasco Da Gama
2. Albuquerque
3. Dutch settlements in India
4. Battle of Plassey
VII. Answer briefly (100 words).
1. Trace the rise and fall of Portuguese power in India.
2. Write a note on the rise of British power in Bengal.
VIII. Answer in detail (200 words).
1. Give an account of the Anglo-French rivalry in India.
TIME LINE
From 1500 A.D to 1600 A.D.
1 Unit !"!10 Years
1500
1510 - The Portuguese Captured Goa
1520
1530 - Death of Babur
1526 - First Battle of Panipat
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