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Theory & Procedure, Kinetic Study on the Reaction between Potassium Iodate and Sodium Sulphite Notes | Study Additional Documents & Tests for NEET - NEET

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Objective

Our objective is to study the reaction rate of the reaction between potassium iodate (KIO3) and sodium sulphite (Na2SO3) using starch solution as indicator.

The Theory

The rate of a chemical reaction may depend on the concentration of one or more reactants or it may be independent of the concentration of a given reactant. The rate dependance on the reactant concentration is expressed in an equation called the Rate Law.

For a general reaction of the type,  «math xmlns=¨http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML¨»«mi mathvariant=¨normal¨»xA«/mi»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mo»+«/mo»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mi mathvariant=¨normal¨»yB«/mi»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mo»§#8594;«/mo»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mi mathvariant=¨normal¨»C«/mi»«/math», the rate law can be written as, «math xmlns=¨http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML¨»«mi mathvariant=¨normal¨»Rate«/mi»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mo»=«/mo»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«msup»«mfenced close=¨]¨ open=¨[¨»«mi mathvariant=¨normal¨»A«/mi»«/mfenced»«mi mathvariant=¨normal¨»x«/mi»«/msup»«msup»«mfenced close=¨]¨ open=¨[¨»«mi mathvariant=¨normal¨»B«/mi»«/mfenced»«mi mathvariant=¨normal¨»y«/mi»«/msup»«/math»

Where, K is the rate constant, [A] and [B] are the concentration of the reactants, x and y are the exponents that define how the rate depends on the concentration of individual reactants. The exponents x and y are also referred to as the order of the reaction with respect to a particular reactant. The reaction order for each reactant in the rate law determines how the rate changes as the concentration of the reactant changes. If the order of a reactant is zero, the rate is independent of its concentration.

Reaction between Potassium Iodate and Sodium Sulphite

The effect of concentration of the reactant on the rate of a chemical reaction can be studied by analysing the reaction between potassium iodate and sodium sulphite. In acidic medium, potassium iodate is reduced to iodide by sodium sulphite. The reaction takes place through the following steps.

Step I : Sulphite ions react with potassium iodate producing iodide ions.

«math xmlns=¨http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML¨»«msup»«msub»«mi mathvariant=¨normal¨»IO«/mi»«mn»3«/mn»«/msub»«mo»-«/mo»«/msup»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mo»+«/mo»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mn»2«/mn»«msup»«msub»«mi mathvariant=¨normal¨»SO«/mi»«mn»3«/mn»«/msub»«mrow»«mn»2«/mn»«mo»-«/mo»«/mrow»«/msup»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mo»§#8594;«/mo»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«msup»«mi mathvariant=¨normal¨»I«/mi»«mo»-«/mo»«/msup»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mo»+«/mo»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mn»2«/mn»«msup»«msub»«mi mathvariant=¨normal¨»SO«/mi»«mn»4«/mn»«/msub»«mrow»«mn»2«/mn»«mo»-«/mo»«/mrow»«/msup»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mo».«/mo»«mo».«/mo»«mo».«/mo»«mo».«/mo»«mo»(«/mo»«mi mathvariant=¨normal¨»Slow«/mi»«mo»)«/mo»«/math»

Step II: Iodide ions formed are oxidized to iodine by reaction with more iodate ions.

Theory & Procedure, Kinetic Study on the Reaction between Potassium Iodate and Sodium Sulphite Notes | Study Additional Documents & Tests for NEET - NEET

Step III: Iodine formed in Step II reacts immediately with sulphite ions forming iodide ions.

«math xmlns=¨http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML¨»«msub»«mi mathvariant=¨normal¨»I«/mi»«mn»2«/mn»«/msub»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mo»+«/mo»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«msup»«msub»«mi mathvariant=¨normal¨»SO«/mi»«mn»3«/mn»«/msub»«mrow»«mn»2«/mn»«mo»-«/mo»«/mrow»«/msup»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mo»+«/mo»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«msub»«mi mathvariant=¨normal¨»H«/mi»«mn»2«/mn»«/msub»«mi mathvariant=¨normal¨»O«/mi»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mo»§#8594;«/mo»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«msup»«msub»«mi mathvariant=¨normal¨»SO«/mi»«mn»4«/mn»«/msub»«mrow»«mn»2«/mn»«mo»-«/mo»«/mrow»«/msup»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mo»+«/mo»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mn»2«/mn»«msup»«mi mathvariant=¨normal¨»I«/mi»«mo»-«/mo»«/msup»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mo»+«/mo»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mn»2«/mn»«msup»«mi mathvariant=¨normal¨»H«/mi»«mo»+«/mo»«/msup»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mo».«/mo»«mo».«/mo»«mo».«/mo»«mo»(«/mo»«mi mathvariant=¨normal¨»Very«/mi»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mi mathvariant=¨normal¨»fast«/mi»«mo»)«/mo»«/math»

When sulphite ions are completely consumed, the liberated iodine would react with starch solution, to give a blue colour. So this reaction can be monitored by adding a known but limited volume of sodium sulphite solution and starch solution. This is an example of Iodine Clock Reaction, as the rate of reaction is estimated by the time taken for the appearance of blue colour. The faster the reaction, the shorter the time required for the blue colour to appear. Adding dilute solution of potassium iodate, decreases the concentration that decreases the rate of reaction. Conversely increasing the concentration of the reactant increases the rate of reaction.

The following graphs show that the rate of the reaction is directly depends on the concentration of potassium iodate.

Theory & Procedure, Kinetic Study on the Reaction between Potassium Iodate and Sodium Sulphite Notes | Study Additional Documents & Tests for NEET - NEET

Learning Outcomes

  • Students understand the terms, rate law, iodine clock reaction etc.
  • Strudents understand the chemistry behind the reaction between potassium iodate and sodium sulphite.
  • Students acquire the skill to perform the experiment in the reals lab, once they understand the different steps.

Materials Required

Theory & Procedure, Kinetic Study on the Reaction between Potassium Iodate and Sodium Sulphite Notes | Study Additional Documents & Tests for NEET - NEET

Procedure

Real Lab Procedure

  • Take four 250ml conical flasks and label them as A, B, C and D.
  • Add 2ml, 4ml, 6ml, and 8ml of 0.01 M potassium iodate (KIO3) solution to the flasks A, B, C and D.
  • Add 10ml of 1M H2SO4 to each flask.
  • Add water to bring the volume of the solution to 100ml in each flask.
  • Add 5ml of starch solution to each flask.
  • Add 10ml of 0.005 M sodium sulphite (Na2SO3) solution to each flask and start the stop watch immediately.
  • Note the time when the blue colour just appears.
  • Repeat the above 2 steps with the solutions of flasks B, C and D and note the time required in each case when the blue colour first appears.

Simulator Procedure (as performed through the Online Labs)

  • You can select the volume of potassium iodate (KIO3) solution using the slider.
  • Drag the conical flask containing 0.01 M potassium iodate (KIO3) solution to the measuring jar to measure the solution.
  • Drag the measuring jar to the conical flask to pour the solution in it.
  • Drag the bottle to the measuring jar to measure 10ml 1 M sulphuric acid.
  • Drag the measuring jar to the conical flask to pour sulphuric acid in it.
  • Drag the beaker to the measuring jar to measure distilled water.
  • Drag the measuring jar to the conical flask to pour water in it.
  • Drag the bottle to the measuring jar to measure 5 ml starch solution.
  • Drag the measuring jar to the conical flask to pour the starch solution in it.
  • Drag the bottle to the measuring jar to measure 10 ml 0.005 M sodium sulphite (Na2SO3) solution.
  • Drag the measuring jar to the conical flask to pour sodium sulphite solution in it.
  • You can get the time taken for the appearance of blue colour from the stopwatch.
  • You can use the embedded worksheet to enter the values.
  • You can plot a graph using the worksheet.
  • To redo the experiment, click the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Observation

Flask

0.01 M KIO3 (ml)
1 M H2SO4
Water
Starch solution
0.005 M Na2SO3 (ml)
Time (t) for the appearance of blue colour (s)
 A
 2
 10
 88
5
10
 
 B
4
 10
 86
 5
 10
 
 C
 6
 10
 84
 5
 10
 
 D
 8
 10
 82
 5
 10
 


Conclusion

  • The rate of reaction increases with increase in concentration of potassium iodate.

Precautions

  • Always use a freshly prepared solution of sodium  sulphite because it is easily oxidised by air.
  • Concentration of KIO3 solution should be higher than the concentration of sodium sulphote solution.
  • Use a freshly prepared starch solution.
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