Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev

Chemistry Class 12

NEET : Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev

The document Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev is a part of the NEET Course Chemistry Class 12.
All you need of NEET at this link: NEET

Our Objective

Our objective is to identify the functional groups present in an organic compound through;

  • Tests for Unsaturatuion
  • Tests for Alcoholic Group
  • Tests for Phenolic Group
  • Tests for Aldehydic and Ketonic Groups
  • Tests for Carboxylic Groups
  • Tests for Amino group

The Theory

What is Organic Chemistry?

Organic chemistry is the branch of chemistry that deals with the structure, properties and reactions of compounds that contain carbon. The objects of study in organic chemistry include hydrocarbon, compounds containing carbon and hydrogen and the compositions based on carbon but containing other elements. Organic compound form the basis of earthly life and their range of application is enormous. They are the main constituents of drugs, petrochemicals, paints, food, plastics, explosive materials etc.

What are Hydrocarbons?

Organic compounds contain only carbon and hydrogen are called Hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons can be classified into two:

  • Saturated Hydrocarbons (Alkanes)
  • Unsaturated Hydrocarbons (Alkenes & Alkynes)

Saturated Hydrocarbons (Alkanes)

Hydrocarbons that contain carbon-carbon single bonds are called saturated hydrocarbons. They are also called Paraffins or Aliphatic Hydrocarbons. They may have straight chain, branched or ring structure.

Unsaturated Hydrocarbons (Alkenes & Alkynes)

Hydrocarbons that contain carbon-carbon double bond or triple bond are called unsaturated hydrocarbons.

Alkenes: Aliphatic hydrocarbons that contain carbon-carbon double bond are called alkenes. One σ (sigma) bond and one π (pi) bond constitute a double bond.

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Alkynes: Aliphatic hydrocarbons that contain carbon-carbon triple bond are called alkynes. A triple bond contains one σ (sigma) bond and two π (pi) bonds.

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What does the 'Degree of Unsaturation' mean?

The number of π bonds present in a molecule of an organic compound is termed as the Degree of Unsaturation.

What does derivatives of hydrocarbons or families mean?

The compounds that are derived from hydrocarbons by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms by other atoms or groups of atoms are called derivatives of hydrocarbons or families.

What are functional Groups?

The atom or group of atoms that replaces hydrogen atoms from hydrocarbon are called functional groups. They may be –OH, -COOH, -CO, -CHO, -Cl, -COCl, -COOR etc. Functional groups are responsible for the characteristics of a molecule.

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev
 

Let’s discuss some important functional groups and their identification tests.

Tests for Unsaturation

There are two tests for determining unsaturation in an organic compound.

1. Bromine Test

In this test, the orange-red colour of bromine solution disappears when it is added to an unsaturated organic compound (unsaturated hydrocarbon).

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev

2. Baeyer’s Test (Alkaline KMnO4 Test)

In this test, pink colour of KMnO4 disappears, when alkaline KMnO4 is added to an unsaturated hydrocarbon. The disappearance of pink colour may take place with or without the formation of brown precipitate of MnO2.

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev

Tests for Alcoholic Group

Alcohols are compounds in which the hydroxyl group (-OH) is linked to aliphatic carbon chain or in the side chain of an organic compound. Depending upon the number of hydroxyl group, alcohols are classified as mono (contain only one –OH group), di (contain two –OH groups) and trihydric (contains three –OH groups).

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev

 Alcohols are further classified as primary (1°), secondary (2°) and tertiary (3°) according to the –OH group is attached to the primary, secondary and tertiary carbon atoms respectively.

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev


The alcoholic group can be detected by the following tests:

1. Sodium metal test

Alcohols react with active metals like sodium and liberate hydrogen gas that can be observed in the form of effervescence.

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev

2. Ester test

Alcohols react with carboxylic acids to form fruity smelling compounds called esters. The reaction between alcohol and carboxylic acid is called esterification and is catalysed by an acid such as concentrated sulphuric acid.

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev

3. Ceric ammonium nitrate test

Alcohols reacts with ceric ammonium nitrate to form a red coloured alkoxy cerium (IV) compound.

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev

4. Acetyl chloride test

Alcohols react with acetyl chloride to form esters and gives out hydrogen chloride gas. The hydrogen chloride formed gives white fumes of ammonium chloride with ammonium hydroxide.

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev

5. Iodoform test

This test is given by acetaldehyde, all methyl ketones and all alcohols containing CH3-CH-OH group. When alcohol is warmed with sodium hydroxide solution and iodine, a yellow precipitate of iodoform is formed.

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev

Tests for Phenolic group

Phenols are compounds containing a hydroxyl group attached to an aromatic ring. The simplest phenol is C6H5OH that is solid in winter and liquid in summer. Phenols are generally colourless but are coloured when it comes in contact with air due to oxidation. Other examples of phenols are: o-cresol, m-cresol, p-cresol, quinol, catechol, resorcinol etc.

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev

The phenolic group can be detected by the following tests:

1. Litmus test

Phenol is a weak acid, it gives red colour with litmus paper. The dissociation of phenol in water is represented as follows:

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev

2. Ferric chloride test

Phenol reacts with ferric ions to form violet coloured complex.

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev

3. Liebermann’s test

When phenol is treated with sodium nitrite in the presence of concentrated sulphuric acid, deep blue or green colour is produced. The blue or green colour changes to red or brown colour on treatment with water. The red colour is due to the formation of indophenol. The red colour again changes to blue or green by the addition of strong alkali. The blue or green colour is due to the formation of indophenols anion.

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev

4. Phthalein Dye test

Phenol on heating with phthaleic anhydride in the presence of sulphuric acid produces phenolphthalein, which is colourless. Phenolphthalein gives pink colour on treating with alkali.

Tests for Aldehydic and Ketonic Groups

Aldehydes and Ketones are compounds containing carbonyl group. Carbonyl group consisting of a carbon atom bonded to oxygen atom by a double bond.

In Aldehydes the carbonyl carbon is attached to atleast one hydrogen atom and to a carbon containing group (aliphatic or aromatic radical). Formaldehyde is an exception, in which carbonyl group is attached to two hydrogen atoms.

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev

But in ketones the carbonyl carbon is attached to two aliphatic or aromatic groups.

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev

Carbonyl groups in aldehydes and ketones are identified by the following tests:

1. 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine test (2,4-DNP test)

2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine can be used to qualitatively detect the carbonyl group of an eldehyde or ketone. A positive result is indicated by the formation of an yellow or orange-red precipitate of 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazone.

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev

2. Sodium bisulphite test

Most aldehydes and ketones give bisulphate addition product with sodium bisulphate, which is white crystalline in nature.

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev

Note: Acetone phenone and benzophenone do not give this test.

Differentiating tests for aldehydes

The major difference between aldehydes and ketones is that an aldehyde is readily oxidised to carboxylic acid whereas ketones cannot be oxidised easily. This difference forms the basis of the tests for distinguishing aldehydes and ketones.

The following are the tests for aldehydes but not for ketones:

1. Schiff’s Test

Aldehydes give pink or magenta colour with Schiff’s reagent.

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev

 

Note: With benzaldehyde the pink colour developes slowly.

2. Tollen’s Test

Tollen’s reagent is ammoniacal silver nitrate. Aldehydes react with Tollen’s reagent to form elemental silver, accumulated onto the inner surface of the reaction vessel, producing silver mirror on the inner surface of the vessel.

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev

3. Fehling’s Test

This is an important test to distinguish aldehydes from ketones. The reagents used in this test are Fehling’s solution A and Fehling’s solution B. Fehling’s solution A is an aqueous solution of copper sulphate and Fehling’s solution B is a clear solution of sodium potassium tartrate (Rochelle salt) and strong alkali (usually NaOH).

The final Fehling’s solution is obtained by mixing equal volmes of both Fehling’s solution A and Fehling’s solution B that has a deep blue colour. In Fehling’s solution, copper (II) ions form a complex with tartrate ions in alkali. Aldehydes reduces the Cu(II) ions in the fehling’s solution to red precipitate of cuprous oxide(copper (I) oxide).

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev

Note: Benzaldehyde may or may not give this test as the reaction is very slowly.

Differentiating tests for Ketones

The following tests are given by ketones but not by aldehydes:

1. m-dinitrobenzene Test

Ketones react with m-dinitrobenzene to give a violet colouration.

2. Sodium nitroprusside Test

The anion of the keton formed by a alkali reacts with nitroprusside ion to form a red coloured complex.

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev

Tests for Carboxylic group

Carboxylic acids are organic compounds containing carboxyl functional group. It is of two types aliphatic and aromatic. Aliphatic acids are soluble in water where as aromatic acids are sparingly soluble in water. Formic acid and acetic acid are the simplest aliphatic acid and benzoic acid is the simplest aromatic acid. Formic acid and acetic acid are liquids. Carboxylic acids such as benzoic acid, oxalic acid, phthalic acid, tartaric acid etc are colourless crystalline solids.

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev

The following tests can be used to identify carboxylic acids:

1. Litmus Test

Carboxylic acid turns blue litmus red. The hydroxyl group in carboxylic is far more acidic than that in alcohol.  The dissociation of carboxylic acid is represented as:

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev

2. Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate Test

Carboxylic acids reacts with sodium hydrogen carbonate to produce carbon dioxide gas which can be seen in the form of a brisk effervescence.

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev

3. Ester Test

Carboxylic acid reacts with alcohol in presence of conc. sulphuric acid to form ester that is identified by the presence of a fruity smell.

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev

Tests for Amines

Amines are derivatives of ammonia in which one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by alkyl or aryl groups.

When one of the three hydrogen atoms is replaced by alkyl or aryl group, primary amine is formed. It is generally represented as RNH2.

When two of the three hydrogen atoms are replaced by alkyl or aryl group, secondary anime is formed. It is generally represented as R2NH.

When all the three hydrogen atoms are replaced by alkyl or aryl substituents, tertiary amine is formed. It is generally represented as R3N.

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev

1. Solubility Test

Amines are basic in nature and dissolves in mineral acids.

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev

2. Litmus Test

Amines are basic in nature and turns red litmus blue.

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev

3. Carbylamines Test

When primary amine is treated with alcoholic potassium hydroxide and chloroform, an offensive smelling isocyanide is formed.

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev

4. Azo-Dye Test

This test is given by aromatic primary amines. Aromatic primary amines react with nitrous acid to form diazonium salts. These diazonium salts undergo coupling reaction with β-naphthol to form orange coloured azo dye.

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev 

Distinguishing tests for Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Amines

1. Nitrous acid Test

Primary aliphatic amines react with nitrous acid to produce nitrogen gas which is seen as bubbles.

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev

Secondary amines react with nitrous acid to form a yellow oily nitrosoamine.

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev

Tertiary amines react with nitrous acid to form soluble nitrite salts.

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev

2. Hinsberg Test

The reactions of primary, secondary and tertiary amines are as follows.

Theory & Procedure, Tests for the Functional Groups NEET Notes | EduRev 

Real Lab Procedure

Tests for Unsaturation

Experiment
Procedure
Observation
Inference
Bromine Test
Dissolve a little of the given organic compound in about 2 ml of distilled water in a test tube and add few drops of bromine water to it and shake well.
Disappearance of orange-red colour of bromine.
Compound is unsaturated.
No disappearance of orange-red colour.
Compound is saturated.
Baeyer's Test (Alkaline KMnO4 Test)
Dissolve a little of the given organic compound in about 2 ml of distilled water in a test tube and add few drops of alkaline solution of KMnO4 to it and shake well.
Disappearance of pink colour of KMnO4.
Compound is unsaturated.
No disappearance of pink colour of KMnO4.
Compound is saturated.


Tests for Alcoholic Group

Experiment
Procedure
Observation
Inference
Sodium metal Test


 
Take about 1 ml of the given liquid in a dry test tube, add about 1gram of anhydrous calcium sulphate and shake well to remove water. Filter the liquid into another clean dry test tube and add a small piece of sodium metal.
Brisk effervescence is produced.
Brisk effervescence is due to the evolution of hydrogen gas indicating the presence of alcoholic group.
Ester Test
Take about 1 ml of the give liquid in a clean dry test tube, add about 1 ml glacial acetic acid and 2-3 drops of conc. sulphuric acid. Warm the mixture on a water bath for about 10 minutes. Pour it into about 20 ml of cold water taken in a beaker and smell.
A fruity smell is produced.
Presence of alcoholic group.
Ceric ammonium nitrate Test
Take about 1 ml of the given liquid in a clean dry test tube and add few drops of ceric ammonium nitrate reagent and shake it well.
Pink or red colour is developed.
Presence of alcoholic group.
Acetyl chloride Test
Take about 2 ml of the given liquid in a clean dry test tube, add 1 g of anhydrous calcium sulphate and shake well to remove water. Filter the liquid into another clean dry test tube and to the filtrate, add 2-3 drops of acetyl chloride. Shake the test tube well and bring a glass rod dipped in ammonium hydroxide solution near the mouth of the test tube.
White fumes are produced.
Presence of alcoholic group.


Distinguishing Tests for Primary, Secondary and tertiary Alcohols

Experiment
Procedure
Observation
Inference
 Lucas Test
Take about 1 ml of dry alcohol in a clean dry test tube and add 8-10 drops of Lucas reagent. Shake the mixture well.
If cloudiness appears immediately.
Presence of tertiary alcohol.
If cloudiness appears within five minutes.
Presence of secondary alcohol.
If cloudiness appears only upon heating.
Presence of primary alcohol.


Tests for Phenolic Group

Experiment
Procedure
Observation
Inference
Litmus Test
Place a drop of the given liquid (or a crystal if solid) on a moist blue litmus paper.
Blue litmus turns to red.
Presence of phenoilc group.
Ferric chloride Test
Take about 1 ml of neutral ferric chloride solution in a clean test tube and add 2-3 drops of the given liquid (or crystal is solid).
Violet colour is seen.
Presence of phenolic group.
Liebermann’s Test
Take a small quantity of sodium nitrite in a clean dry test tube and add about 1 ml of the given liquid (or crystal if solid). Heat the test tube very gently for half a minute and allow it to cool. Then add about 1 ml of conc. sulphuric acid and shake the test tube to mix the contents.
A deep blue or green colouration is seen.
Presence of phenolic group.
Add distilled water carefully to the test tube.
Colour turns to red.
Add excess of sodium hydroxide solution to the test tube.
Deep blue or green colour appears.
Phthalein Dye Test
Take 1 ml of the given liquid in a clean dry test tube (or crystal if solid) and add 1-2 drops of conc. sulphuric acid. Heat the test tube for about 1 minute in an oil bath. Cool and pour the reaction mixture carefully into a beaker containing 15 ml of dil. sodium hydroxide solution.
Pink colour is seen.
 
Presence of phenolic group.


Tests for Aldehydic and Ketonic Groups

Experiment
Procedure
Observation
Inference
2,4-Dintrophenyl hydrazine Test
Take a small quantity of the given compound in a clean dry test tube, add rectified spirit until the compound just dissolves. Now add few drops of 2, 4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine solution. Cork the test tube, shake the mixture and allow it to stand for 5 minutes.
Yellow or orange precipitate is formed.
Presence of carbonyl group.
Sodium bisulphite Test
Take about 2 ml of saturated solution of sodium bisulphite in a clean test tube and add a small quantity of the given compound. Cork the test tube, shake and leave it for 15-20 minutes.
White crystalline precipitate is formed.
Presence of carbonyl group.


Differentiating Tests for Aldehydes

Experiment
Procedure
Observation
Inference
Schiff’s Test
Dissolve a small quantity of the given compound in a clean test tube and add about 1 ml of Schiff’s reagent and shake it well.
Pink colour is seen.
Presence of aldehydic group is confirmed.
Tollen’s Test (Silver mirror test)
Take about 1 ml of silver nitrate solution in a clean test tube and add 2-3 ml of dilute NaOH solution. A brown precipitate of silver oxide forms. Now add dilute ammonia solution dropwise until the brown precipitate of silver oxide just dissolves. To this add 3-4 drops of the given liquid (or 0.1 g if solid) and warm the test tube on a water bath for about 5 minutes.
Shining silver mirror is formed.
Presence of aldehydic group is confirmed.
Fehling’s Test
Take 1 ml each of Fehling’s solution A and B in a test tube. Add 4-5 drops of the given organic liquid (or 0.2g if solid) and warm the test in a water bath for 4-5 minutes.
Red precipitate is formed.
Presence of aldehydic group is confirmed.


Differentiating Tests for Ketones

Experiment
Procedure
Observation
Inference
m-Dinitrobenzene Test
Take a small quantity of the given compound in a clean test tube and add about 0.1g of finely powdered m-dinitrobenzene. Now add about 1 ml of dilute sodium hydroxide solution and shake it well.
Violet colour is formed which slowly fades away.
Presence of ketonic group is confirmed.
Sodium nitroprusside Test 
Dissolve a small quantity of sodium nitroprusside in about 1 ml of distilled water in a clean test tube and then add a small quantity of the given compound. Shake the test tube well and add sodium hydroxide solution dropwise.
Red colouration.
Presence of ketonic group is confirmed.


Tests for Carboxylic Group

Experiment
Procedure
Observation
Inference
Litmus Test
Place a drop of the given liquid (or a crystal if solid) on a moist blue litmus paper. 
Blue litmus turns to red.
Presence of carboxylic group.
Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate Test
Take 1 ml of the given organic compound in a test tube and add a pinch of sodium bicarbonate to it.
Brisk effervescence is observed.
Presence of carboxylic group.
Ester Test
Take a small quantity of the given organic compound in a clean test tube, add 1 ml of ethyl alcohol and 1-2 drops of conc. sulphuric acid into it. Heat the reaction mixture on a water bath for about 5 minutes. Pour the mixture into a beaker containing water.
You get a fruity smell.
Presence of carboxylic group.


Tests for Amino Group

Experiment
Procedure
Observation
Inference
Solubility Test
Take a small quantity of the given compound in a clean test tube and add 2-3 ml of dil.HCl and shake the test tube well.
Compound is soluble in dil.HCl.
Compound may be amine.
Litmus Test
Place a drop of the given liquid (or a pinch of solid) on a moist red litmus paper.
Red litmus turns to blue.
Compound may be amine.
Carbylamines Test
Take a small quantity of solid KOH in a clean dry test tube and add about 2 ml of ethanol. Warm the test tube until the pellets dissolve. To this add a few drops of chloroform and small amount of the given compound and warm gently.
An offensive smell is produced.
Presence of primary amine.
Azo-Dye Test
Take three test tubes A, B and C. In test tube A, dissolve a small quantity of the compound in 2 ml of HCl. In test tube B, prepare an aqueous solution of sodium nitrite. In test tube C, dissolve a small quantity of β-naphthol in dilute sodium hydroxide. Place all the three test tubes in an ice bath. Now add sodium nitrite solution into test tube A and the resulting solution is added to test tube C.
Formation of a red or orange dye.
Presence of aromatic primary amine is confirmed.


Distinguishing Tests for Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Amines

Experiment
Procedure
observation
Inference
Nitrous acid Test
Make a solution of about 1 g of sodium nitrite in about 5 ml distilled water in a test tube and cool it in an ice bath. In a separate test tube, dissolve a small quantity of the given compound in about 1 ml of conc. sulphuric acid and cool this also in ice bath. Mix both the solutions.
Bubbles of nitrogen gas.
Presence of primary aliphatic amine.
Formation of a yellow oily layer.
Presence of secondary amine.
No visible change.
Presence of tertiary amine.
Hinsberg Test
Take a small quantity of the given compound in a clean test tube, add about 2 ml of 25% NaOH, 2 ml of water and 1 ml of benzene sulphonyl chloride. Shake the mixture for about 10 minutes and then cool under tap water and note the formation of precipitate. Treat the precipitate with 2 ml of conc.HCl.
No precipitate (clear solution). On addition of conc. HCl, insoluble material is seen.
Presence of primary amine.
Precipitate is formed in the test tube. It does not dissolve in conc. HCl.
Presence of secondary amine.
Precipitate is formed in the test tube. It dissolves in conc. HCl.
Presence of tertiary amine.


Simulator Procedure (as performed through the Online Labs)

You can select the type from ‘Select the type’ drop down list.

Unsaturation

  • You can select the test from ‘Select the test’ drop down list.

Bromine Water Test

  • Drag the dropper to test tube A to add bromine water to the saturated compound.
  • Drag test tube A to shake it well.
  • You can see that bromine water does not decolourise.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • Drag the dropper to test tube B to add bromine water to the unsaturated compound.
  • Drag test tube B to shake it well.
  • You can see the decolourisation of bromine water.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Baeyer’s Test

  • Drag the dropper to test tube A to add alkaline potassium permanganate to the saturated compound.
  • Drag test tube A to shake it well.
  • You can see that potassium permanganate solution does not decolourise.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • Drag the dropper to test tube B to add alkaline potassium permanganate to the unsaturated compound.
  • Drag test tube B to shake it well.
  • You can see the decolourisation of potassium permanganate solution.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Functional group

  • You can select the functional group from ‘Select the functional group’ drop down list.

Alcohols

  • You can select the test from ‘Select the test’ drop down list.

Sodium Metal Test

  • Drag the spatula to test tube A to add anhydrous calcium sulphate to the sample.
  • Drag test tube A to shake it well and remove the moisture content in the sample.
  • Drag test tube A to test tube B to filter contents of A into B through the funnel and filter paper.
  • Click on the ‘Next’ button to go to the next process.
  • Drag the forceps to the bottle containing sodium metal to take a small piece of metal. .
  • Drag the forceps to the filter paper to place the sodium metal on the filter paper.
  • Drag the other filter paper to the filter paper containing sodium metal to press the sodium metal with the paper to dry it.
  • Drag the forceps to the filter paper to take the dry piece of sodium.
  • Drag the forceps to the test tube to put the dry piece of sodium into the sample.
  • You can see the formation of brisk effervescence inside the test tube.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Ester Test    

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add glacial acetic acid to the sample.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add Conc. sulphuric acid to the sample.
  • Click on the ‘Next’ button to go to the next process.
  • Drag the test tube to the beaker to place it in the water bath.
  • Click on the switch of the hot plate to heat the water bath.
  • Wait for 10 minutes to heat the contents of the test tube.
  • Drag the test tube to the small beaker to pour the contents of the test tube into the cold water.
  • A fruity smell is produced.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Ceric Ammonium Nitrate Test

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add ceric ammonium nitrate solution to the sample.
  • Drag the test tube to shake it well.
  • You can see the formation of red colour in the test tube.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Acetyl chloride test

  • Drag the spatula to test tube A to add anhydrous calcium sulphate to the sample.
  • Drag test tube A to shake it well and remove the moisture content in the sample.
  • Drag test tube A to test tube B to filter contents of A into B through the funnel and filter paper.
  • Click on the ‘Next’ button to go to the next process.
  • Drag the dropper to test tube B to drop acetyl chloride into the sample.
  • Drag test tube B to shake it well.
  • Drag the glass rod to the bottle to dip it in ammonium hydroxide solution and drag it again to test tube B to hold it over the mouth of the test tube.
  • You can see the formation of white fumes from the glass rod.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Iodoform Test

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to drop 1% iodine solution into the sample.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to drop dil. sodium hydroxide solution into the sample.
  • Click on the ‘Next’ button to go to the next process.
  • Drag the test tube to the beaker to place it in the water bath.
  • Click on the switch of the hot plate to heat the water bath.
  • Wait for 10 minutes to heat the contents of the test tube.
  • You can see the formation of a yellow precipitate in the test tube.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Lucas Test

  • Drag the dropper to test tube A to drop Lucas reagent into tertiary alcohol.
  • Drag test tube A to shake it well.
  • You can see the immediate formation of cloudiness in the test tube.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • Drag the dropper to test tube B to drop Lucas reagent into secondary alcohol.
  • Drag test tube B to shake it well for 5 minutes.
  • You can see the formation of cloudiness in the test tube after 5 minutes.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube C to drop Lucas reagent into a primary alcohol.
  • Drag test tube C to shake it well and place it over the Bunsen burner.
  • Click on the knob of the burner to turn it on and heat the contents of test tube C.
  • You can see the formation of cloudiness in the test tube after heating.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.
  • Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.
  • Phenols
  • You can select the test form ‘Select the test’ drop down list.
  • Litmus test
  • Drag the dropper to the moist blue litmus paper to drop the sample on it.
  • You can see that the blue litmus turns red.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Ferric Chloride Test

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to drop the sample into neutral ferric chloride solution.
  • Drag the test tube to shake it well.
  • You can see the formation of violet colour in the test tube.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Liebermann’s Test

  • Drag the spatula to the test tube to add sodium nitrite into the sample.
  • Click on the knob of the burner to turn it on.
  • Drag the test tube over the Bunsen burner to heat the contents of the test tube.
  • Wait for 10 minutes to cool the contents of the test tube.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to drop Conc. sulphuric acid into it.
  • Drag the test tube to the canvas area to shake it well.
  • You can see the formation of a deep blue or green colour.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • Click on the ‘Next’ button to go to the next process.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to drop distilled water into the contents of the test tube.
  • You can see that the colour changes to deep red.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to drop excess sodium hydroxide solution into the contents of the test tube.
  • You can see that the colour changes to deep blue or green.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Phthalein Dye Test

  • Drag the spatula to the test tube to add phthalic anhydride into the sample.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to drop Conc. sulphuric acid into the sample.
  • Click on the ‘Next’ button to go to the next process.
  • Drag the test tube to the beaker to place it in the oil bath.
  • Click on the switch of the hot plate to heat the oil bath.
  • Wait for 10 minutes to heat the contents of the test tube.
  • Drag the test tube to the rack to return it.
  • Wait for 10 minutes to cool the contents of the test tube.
  • Drag the test tube to the small beaker to pour the contents of the test tube into the sodium hydroxide solution.
  • You can see that a pink colour has developed in the beaker.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Aldehydes

  • You can select the test form ‘Select the test’ drop down list.

Schiff’s Test

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add Schiff’s reagent into the sample.
  • Drag the test tube to the canvas area to shake it well.
  • You can see the formation of pink colour in the test tube.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Tollen’s Test

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to drop silver nitrate solution into it.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add dil. sodium hydroxide solution to silver nitrate solution.
  • You can see the formation of a brown precipitate in the test tube.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add dil. ammonia solution to the brown precipitate.
  • You can see that the brown precipitate dissolves in dil. ammonia.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add the sample to it.
  • Click on the ‘Next’ button to go to the next process.
  • Drag the test tube to the beaker to place it in the water bath.
  • Click on the switch of the hot plate to heat the water bath.
  • Wait for 10 minutes to heat the contents of the test tube.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Fehling’s Test

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to drop Fehling’s solution A into the sample.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to drop Fehling’s solution B into the sample.
  • Click on the ‘Next’ button to go to the next process.
  • Drag the test tube to the beaker to place it in the water bath.
  • Click on the switch of the hot plate to heat the water bath.
  • Wait for some time to heat the contents of the test tube.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.
  • Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.
  • 2,4 – Dinitrophenylhydrazine Test
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add rectified spirit into the sample.
  • Drag the test tube to shake it well.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add 2,4–dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent to the sample.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.
  • Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.
  • Sodium Bisulphite Test
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to drop saturated solution of sodium bisulphite into the sample.
  • Drag the cork to the test tube to close the test tube with it.
  • Drag the test tube to shake it well.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Ketones

  • You can select the test form ‘Select the test’ drop down list.

2,4–Dinitrophenylhydrazine Test

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add rectified spirit to the sample.
  • Drag the test tube to shake it well.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add 2,4–dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent into the sample.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Sodium Bisulphite Test

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to drop saturated solution of sodium bisulphite into the sample.
  • Drag the cork to the test tube to close the test tube with it.
  • Drag the test tube to shake it well.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

m-dinitrobenzene Test

  • Drag the spatula to the test tube to add m-dinitrobenzene to the sample.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add dil. sodium hydroxide to it.
  • You can see that a violet colour is developed in the test tube.
  • Drag the test tube to shake it well.
  • You can see that the violet colour slowly fades away.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Sodium Nitroprusside Test

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add sodium nitroprusside solution to the sample.
  • Drag the test tube to shake it well.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to drop sodium hydroxide solution into it.
  • You can see the formation of a red colouration.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Carboxylic Acids

  • You can select the test form ‘Select the test’ drop down list.

Litmus Test

  • Drag the dropper to the moist blue litmus paper to drop the sample on it.
  • You can see that the blue litmus turns red.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate Test

  • Drag the spatula to the test tube to add sodium bicarbonate to the sample.
  • You can see the evolution of brisk effervescence in the test tube.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Ester Test

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add ethyl alcohol into the sample.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add conc. sulphuric acid into the sample.
  • Click on the ‘Next’ button to go to the next process.
  • Drag the test tube to the beaker to place it in the water bath.
  • Click on the switch of the hot plate to heat the water bath.
  • Wait for 10 minutes to heat the contents of the test tube.
  • Drag the test tube to the small beaker to pour the contents of the test tube into the cold water.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Amines

  • You can select the test form ‘Select the test’ drop down list.

Solubility Test

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add dil. HCl into the sample.
  • Drag the test tube to shake it well.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Litmus Test

  • Drag the dropper to the moist red litmus paper to drop the sample on it.
  • You can see that the red litmus turns to blue.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Carbylamines Test

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add ethanol to potassium hydroxide.
  • Click on the knob of the burner to turn it on.
  • Drag the test tube over the burner to warm the contents of the test tube.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add chloroform to it.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to drop the sample into it.
  • Click on the knob of the burner to turn it on.
  • Drag the test tube over the burner to warm its contents for 10 minutes.
  • An offensive smelling compound is produced.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Azo Dye Test

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube A to add dil. hydrochloric acid to the sample.
  • Drag test tube A to shake it well and dissolve the sample in dil. HCl.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube C to add dil. sodium hydroxide to the β-naphthol.
  • Drag test tube C to shake it well and dissolve β-naphthol in dil.NaOH.
  • Click on the ‘Next’ button to go to the next process.
  • Drag test tubes A, B and C to place them in ice bath.
  • Wait for 10 minutes to cool the solutions.
  • Drag the test tubes to the test tube rack to place them in the rack.
  • Drag test tube B to test tube A to pour sodium nitrite solution into the sample.
  • Drag test tube A to test tube C to pour the resulting solution into alkaline solution of β-naphthol.
  • You can see a scarlet red coloured compound in the test tube.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.
  • Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Nitrous Acid Test

  • You can select the amine form ‘Select the amine’ drop down list.

Primary Amines

  • Drag the dropper to test tube A to add Conc. HCl to primary amine.
  • Drag the spatula to test tube B to add sodium nitrite to distilled water.
  • Drag test tube A to shake it well and dissolve the compound in Conc. HCl.
  • Drag test tube B to shake it well and dissolve sodium nitrite.
  • Click on the ‘Next’ button to go to the next process.
  • Drag test tubes A and B to place them in the ice bath.
  • Wait for 10 minutes to cool the solutions.
  • Drag the test tubes to the test tube rack to place them in the rack.
  • Drag test tube B to test tube A to pour sodium nitrite solution into primary amine.
  • You can see the evolution of gas bubbles in the test tube.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Secondary Amines

  • Drag the dropper to test tube A to add Conc. HCl to secondary amine.
  • Drag the spatula to test tube B to add sodium nitrite to distilled water.
  • Drag test tube A to shake the test tube well and dissolve the compound in Conc. HCl.
  • Drag test tube B to shake the test tube well and dissolve sodium nitrite.
  • Click on the ‘Next’ button to go to the next process.
  • Drag test tubes A and B to place them in the ice bath.
  • Wait for 10 minutes to cool the solutions.
  • Drag the test tubes to the test tube rack to return them.
  • Drag test tube B to test tube A to pour sodium nitrite solution into secondary amine.
  • You can see the formation of a yellow oily layer in the test tube.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Tertiary Amines

  • Drag the dropper to test tube A to add Conc. HCl to tertiary amine.
  • Drag the spatula to test tube B to add sodium nitrite to distilled water.
  • Drag test tube A to shake the test tube well and dissolve the compound in Conc. HCl.
  • Drag test tube B to shake it well and dissolve sodium nitrite.
  • Click on the ‘Next’ button to go to the next process.
  • Drag test tubes A and B to place them in ice bath.
  • Wait for 10 minutes to cool the solutions.
  • Drag the test tubes to the test tube rack to return them.
  • Drag test tube B to test tube A to pour sodium nitrite solution into tertiary amine.
  • You cannot see any characteristics changes in the test tube.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Hinsberg Test

  • You can select the amine form ‘Select the amine’ drop down list.

Primary Amine

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add 25% sodium hydroxide solution to primary amine.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add water to the test tube.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add benzene sulphonyl chloride to the test tube.
  • Drag the test tube to shake it well.
  • Click on the ‘Next’ button to go to the next process.
  • Drag the test tube to the beaker to place it in the beaker containing water.
  • Wait for 10 minutes to cool the contents of the test tube.
  • Drag the test tube to the test tube rack to return it.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add Conc. hydrochloric acid to it.
  • You can see the formation of a white precipitate in the test tube.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Secondary Amine

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add 25% sodium hydroxide solution into secondary amine.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add water to the test tube.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add benzene sulphonyl chloride to the test tube.
  • Drag the test tube to shake it well.
  • Click on the ‘Next’ button to go to the next process.
  • Drag the test tube to the beaker to place it in the beaker containing water.
  • Wait for 10 minutes to cool the contents of the test tube.
  • You can see the formation of a white precipitate in the test tube.
  • Drag the test tube to the test tube rack to return it.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add Conc. hydrochloric acid to it.
  • You cannot see any characteristics changes in the test tube.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Tertiary Amine

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add 25% sodium hydroxide solution to tertiary amine.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add water to the test tube.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add benzene sulphonyl chloride to the test tube.
  • Drag the test tube to shake it well.
  • Click on the ‘Next’ button to go to the next process.
  • Drag the test tube to the beaker to place it in the beaker containing water.
  • Wait for 10 minutes to cool the contents of the test tube.
  • You can see the formation of a white precipitate in the test tube.
  • Drag the test tube to the test tube rack to return it.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add Conc. hydrochloric acid to it.
  • You can see that the white precipitate dissolves.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions

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