UPSC  >  UPSC Previous Year Question Papers and Video Analysis  >  UPSC Mains Essay Question Paper Solutions - 2017

UPSC Mains Essay Question Paper Solutions - 2017 Notes | Study UPSC Previous Year Question Papers and Video Analysis - UPSC

Document Description: UPSC Mains Essay Question Paper Solutions - 2017 for UPSC 2022 is part of UPSC Previous Year Question Papers and Video Analysis preparation. The notes and questions for UPSC Mains Essay Question Paper Solutions - 2017 have been prepared according to the UPSC exam syllabus. Information about UPSC Mains Essay Question Paper Solutions - 2017 covers topics like 1. Farming Has Lost the Ability to Be a Source of Subsistence for Majority of Farmers in India., 2. Impact of the New Economic Measures on Fiscal Ties Between the Union and States in India , 3. Destiny of A Nation is Shaped in Its Classrooms, 4. Has the Non-Alignment Movement Lost Its Significance in The Multipolar World?, 5. Joy is the Simplest Form of Gratitude, 6. Fulfillment of 'New Women' in India A Myth, 7. We May Brave Human Laws but Cannot Resist Natural Laws, 8. ‘Social Media’ is Inherently a Selfish Medium and UPSC Mains Essay Question Paper Solutions - 2017 Example, for UPSC 2022 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises and tests below for UPSC Mains Essay Question Paper Solutions - 2017.

Introduction of UPSC Mains Essay Question Paper Solutions - 2017 in English is available as part of our UPSC Previous Year Question Papers and Video Analysis for UPSC & UPSC Mains Essay Question Paper Solutions - 2017 in Hindi for UPSC Previous Year Question Papers and Video Analysis course. Download more important topics related with notes, lectures and mock test series for UPSC Exam by signing up for free. UPSC: UPSC Mains Essay Question Paper Solutions - 2017 Notes | Study UPSC Previous Year Question Papers and Video Analysis - UPSC
Table of contents
1. Farming Has Lost the Ability to Be a Source of Subsistence for Majority of Farmers in India.
2. Impact of the New Economic Measures on Fiscal Ties Between the Union and States in India 
3. Destiny of A Nation is Shaped in Its Classrooms
4. Has the Non-Alignment Movement Lost Its Significance in The Multipolar World?
5. Joy is the Simplest Form of Gratitude
6. Fulfillment of 'New Women' in India A Myth
7. We May Brave Human Laws but Cannot Resist Natural Laws
8. ‘Social Media’ is Inherently a Selfish Medium
1 Crore+ students have signed up on EduRev. Have you?

1. Farming Has Lost the Ability to Be a Source of Subsistence for Majority of Farmers in India.

  • Agriculture has lost its potential to be the livelihood of many farmers in India There is only one culture in India and that is Agriculture - Sardar Patel Sardar Patel's above statement tells us how important agriculture is in India. Even today, more than 5 percent of our workforce is employed in Agriculture. One of those farmers, Chotelal of Bundelkhand in the Parliamentary constituency, owns only 2 acre of land to support himself but his crop failure, crop failure and local Mahajan loaned him out, and he decided to commit suicide. 
  • This type of news is now very common across the country be it Vidharbha, TN or Rajasthan. Even well-meaning Punjab and Haryana farmers face an unprecedented challenge of farming India has been an agricultural country in ancient times and our civilizations spread to river valleys such as the Indus and Ganga because of the fertile landscape, and even our many festivals and agricultural practices. Agriculture was the livelihood of the majority of the population that lasted until the Middle Ages in Britain.
  • In British times policies such as permanent settlement, oppressive Jamindari, neglect of land development left Indian farmers in disarray, and village hunger became commonplace. So in our national organization, Gandhiji and other leaders talked about land reform, for the poor farmers the Swaraj became a symbol of the end of misery, to gain rights on their land. in a few provinces such as Kerela and WB. Although after the Green revolution, India became self-sufficient in food production, high yielding seeds and widespread irrigation schemes enabled farmers to now produce more than 270 tons of grain, which is less successful for our farmers.
  • But the irony is that the green revolution could not spread throughout India and the divisions between the provinces are clearly visible. The small and medium farmers who make up more than 80% of the total farmers were unable to take advantage of the new technology and their agricultural livelihoods were constantly disrupted. Now in 2018, on the one hand a program like Amul that has lifted many out of poverty stands as the story of success on the other hand that exacerbates domestic grief shows a different story all together.
  • When we examine the reason for the loss of subsistence farming, the first thing that comes to mind is, very poor production; after high input costs farmers are unable to increase production as needed. Lack of irrigation (more than 50% of rainfall), subdivision, overuse of fertilizers, deforestation, lack of marketing space, lack of storage facilities. are reasons among many others After 1991, we have not been able to draw our agricultural people into production and we have not been able to provide adequate human assistance, which is also a major reason why agriculture is over-employed, and can not be a livelihood.
  • Although governments since independence have worked hard to improve the agricultural sector, Jai Jawan's motto, Jai Kisan, is proof that Kissan (Farmers) was always at the centre of the country's politics. Many schemes such as the Kisan credit card scheme, irrigation projects (Bhakra nangal, Sardar Sarovar dam) Commercial reforms such as APMC law and plant insurance schemes have played their part. In 2022, when India celebrates 75 years of independence, the government will take Sankalp (Resolution) to double the income of farmers, this needs to be achieved to increase the number of rural people, especially small and medium scale farmers in need.
  • The government has taken many steps such as PM Krishi Vikas Yojna, PM Fasal Bima Yojna, Parampragat Krishi Vikas Yojna, Soil Health Card, Farmer Investment, Social Security Schemes such as Atal pension Yojna. These are the steps that lead to the right path. How can agriculture be a lucrative business for farmers, there are two first and long-term ways we need to attract our rural people from the agricultural sector to manufacturing, global knowledge suggests (for example, China) that agriculture cannot provide half of our jobs. population and the second part of the approach to making a living for farmers through agricultural development. Accurate farming, organic farming, every drop of the crop is now at a very low level.
  • As famous as the real finance minister in India is Monsoon, because our agriculture depends on rainforests, and the challenge of climate change, drought and floods became the most common occurrence and the most affected farmers were the farmers. Drought and floods leave farmers without problems and power, we need to provide a pillow for this. PM Fasal bima yojna is a good step in this. And this sustainable farming is a way forward, especially for small and medium scale farmers. With the use of bio fertilizers, climate-wise agriculture is becoming increasingly popular.
  • Farmers can use solar water pumps, this will not only help reduce carbon emissions but will also give farmers the freedom to use the pump themselves and not for the occupant of the power house. There are huge social costs involved, if farmers are in distress, in recent years we have seen agricultural officials in all countries demanding bookings, such as Maratha in Maharashtra, Patidars in Gujarat, Jats in Haryana. In 2017, in Mandsaur (MP) some farmers died while protesting the collapse of the price of their produce, which led to the movement of many farmers in the country.
  • Farmers are the main bank for the votes of political parties and no political party wants to see them in trouble, but a solution like the withdrawal of farmers' loans will not last long, a long-term long-term policy is needed. Farmers who are not entrepreneurs, do not have the capacity to cope with the variability in the price of their produce, but due to the large numbers of middle-aged men their product does not receive a fair pay. There is a need to change the practices of APMC to facilitate the sale of farm products in the open market.
  • A small amount of support needs to be extended to additional crops such as oilseeds, Pulses and even onions and milk. Buffer stock needs to be screened, our import and export policies for farm products need to be in line with local product estimates so that farmers do not have to face the challenge of buying cheap goods. E-Nam has great potential to transform the farm market sector but the results are yet to be seen. In addition to the cold storage areas, warehouses, food processing facilities are where the future lies.
  • They will create job opportunities for rural youth to reduce the burden on agriculture to earn a living As the Swananathan commission recommended that the MSP should be at least twice the amount invested in the farm, the government should take action. Bhavantar Yojna in Madhya Pradesh (Price difference) of Pulses and other oil seeds need to be studied and should be used in other provinces. India presented its case at the WTO ministerial meeting in Argentina 2017, regarding our stock issues and farm subsidy issues.
  • We need to feed millions of people through our national nutrition programs like PDS, MDM are needed. Although Indian farmers need to be prepared for a global challenge. The scene of the film Mother India where Lala from the village takes all the family grain carelessly, that situation should not be in the modern era, when we eat Chapati or Rice at our restaurant someone works hard on the farms to produce it, we all have to commit to our farmers to feed 1.3bn people. 
  • Farming is the culture of India so it should always be, but the farmers involved in it need to have a good life, when we think of the farmer the image of an old man putting a palm on his head cursing its end should not come to our minds. By 2022, farmers' incomes should double, as small and medium farmers need to be debt-free. New India will not be a reality until our farmers do not get a stable income. The needs of rural areas affect all sectors of the economy, so comprehensive long-term strategies need to be implemented without further delays to make our farmers happy.

2. Impact of the New Economic Measures on Fiscal Ties Between the Union and States in India 

  • Fiscal federalism deals with the separation of resources and functions between different spheres of government and has been instrumental in addressing the horizontal and vertical aspects of financial relations between the spheres of government. While horizontal financial relationships attempt to address regional inequalities and ensure horizontal financial competition, direct financial relationships attempt to address financial inequalities between different spheres of government.
  • The history of Fiscal Federalism in India dates back to the Indian Government Act of 1919 which provided for the division of revenue between the Institute and the provinces while the Indian Government Act of 1935 established a clear distinction between Institutional and regional subjects. 

Fiscal Federalism in Independent India 

  • After India gained its Independence, the Indian constitution determined the formation of a federal government and defined the financial relations between the Institute and the States. 
  • Ensure the distribution of power through an intermediate, state and co-operative list that separates tax revenue and costs between the Institute and the regions. The Constitution Amendment Act, 1956 empowered countries to levy sales tax under the Medium Sales Act 1956. The Constitution also provided for the distribution of tax revenues between institutions and districts and the allocation between provinces on the recommendation of the Financial Commission. 
  • The power of taxation and the transfer of revenue between the institution and the provinces is governed by a list of constitutional articles such as Article 268 -271. This in-house tax system has become stronger and has been amended from time to time according to the requirements. e.g. 80th Amendment Constitution of 2000 to change the tax system between the Institutional & State Amendment and the 88th of 2003, introduced the service tax to be collected and allocated to institutions and districts (Article 268-A). And an interim constitutional body such as the Inter State Council has also been used to assess and resolve financial relations between the institution and the state through consensus.
  • In addition to the provisions of the constitution, the Central Government also established a Planning Commission which was an unauthorized delegation of state powers to plan the country's economy and the transfer of provincial revenue in the form of voluntary assistance. Transfers and transfers to the provinces mainly involving regional distribution of taxes, grants and provincial loans. 
  • However, fiscal federalism in India suffers from a number of problems. The division of financial resources between the provinces and the institution is complex and has made countries financially dependent on the institution. Moreover with the introduction of LPG policy since 1991 there have been changes, the government's obligation to focus on ensuring the basic needs of its citizens. But the post-reform era also saw an increase in income inequality between regions which created regional inequalities and central government programs failed to ensure much needed services.
  • Consistent with the bias between aid grants, the vertical transfer of funds has become controversial. The current government has introduced a series of reforms to address the problems. 

Some recent changes 

  • NITI Aayog has replaced the Planning Commission A country like India needs not only financial integration to meet the needs of government but also federalism that works together to address some of the most complex problems. 
  • However, the planning process remained the same as when the Planning Commission was established which continued with the top-down approach and one size fits all formulas. In addition the state did not have a direct say in the policy planning of the planning commission. As a result the programs have failed to address the problems of various regions in the country. 
  • The planning commission was therefore replaced by NITI Aayog in order to foster a spirit of solidarity in India through effective involvement of all provincial governments and continuous systematic and supportive programs and countries, recognizing that strong governments make a strong nation. It focuses on the redistribution approach and recommends the allocation of provincial resources based on their diverse needs and reduces institutional bias towards allocating funds to provinces.
  • Approval of the recommendation of the 14th Finance Commission Previously the share of tax transfers from the center to the provinces remained at 32% a and a few provinces complained about the abuse of the fund. 14 FC recommendations have been included to increase this allocation to 42%. The adoption of these recommendations has not only enabled provinces to access financial services but also ensured for the first time that public spending is a provincial authority and a force to influence their financial and governmental decisions.
  • In addition the recommendations ensure a good amount of money transfer from the local government to local roads and the clarity of the flow of funds in them. 

Central redesign of programs sponsored by Central 

  • Medium-funded schemes include a number of state education areas that are critical to achieving national development goals. These programs are implemented by the national government based on the guidelines of the Union Government. However the CSS number often overlapped with each other and its rigidity and intermediate inclination prevented it from addressing regional needs. 
  • The Union government has reduced the CSS from 66 umbrella schemes to 28. Reducing programs with increasing spending helps the government to deal with a number of areas effectively without relying on a base. And flexibility has been focused on these programs to allow the national government to design them according to their needs in order to improve their efficiency. Allowing state-owned enterprises to borrow directly from ODA partners. Infrastructure development is key to resolving regional inequalities but institutional control over finances and inadequate allocation has delayed its development. 
  • Recently provincial governments were allowed to borrow directly from the official development partners of the two countries such as JICA for the implementation of key infrastructure programs. Foreign lending is less likely to affect the medium-term social welfare grant. 

Property and Service Tax 

  • The duplication of central and provincial taxes has hindered the development of the national market. Provision of Goods and Services Tax creates a Pan India market through different indirect taxes through the same taxes for different categories of goods throughout India. 
  • Tax reforms led to the creation of a GST council comprising members from the Union and the provincial government when they all decided on GST values. The council gives a loud voice to the provinces as the Union Government has only one third of the voices in the council. It is the first time that regions have had a say in determining middle taxes. 

Making money with schemes like Make in India 

  • Introducing cash withdrawals to eliminate black money collected as cash. According to the IT department it has shown growth in tax collection and an increase in tax base. Increased tax revenue makes more money for provincial transfers. 
  • Monetization is in line with the Jan Dhan Scheme and promotes investment and legitimacy. The government has introduced the Make in India program to establish production units in India. Establishing provincial production units will boost GDP and create jobs in the provinces.

Problems and challenges 

  • Although the aforementioned changes really give a lot of independence when they say and suffer from a few flipsides. The change of the Planning Commission by NITI Aayog dispels incentives in the form of better provincial grant programs. The adoption of the recommendations of the 14th financial commission eliminates the backlog grants. 
  • So poor districts like Bihar who received the bulk of the fund suffer from losses. Although GST offers significant international coverage it negatively affects its independence in determining the taxes that fall on the national list. And previously he said fixed tax rates take over spending and revenue requirements which may not be possible now as a result of which some states may lose out. And it is currently the centre and most of the provinces are governed by a single political party. If there is a change of state in the middle and the provinces in the coming conflict may arise. 
  • A large number of provinces turning to additional commercial borrowing will make it difficult to meet the objectives of the Finance deficit. Strategies like Make in India are likely to benefit the developed world The provinces and the poorest provinces will continue to fall behind. 

Conclusion 

  • The changes taken by the government are commendable in providing the financial independence of the provincial governments and will help to reduce regional inequality. 
  • However, the Union government needs to be resolute in addressing the lack of funding in the area of luxury and assessing regional inequalities. In addition it should also encourage governments on financial performance to maintain a spirit of competition between the provinces.

3. Destiny of A Nation is Shaped in Its Classrooms

  • The President of the People, Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, is greatly missed by all. With his pioneering role in the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), and the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), Drs. Kalam has given India alone a gift with a wealth of strategic assets and equally important benefits in the forefront. Coming from a poor fishing family, one might wonder if Drs. The classroom is often called the temple of education, and rightly so. It is in these classrooms that young minds are trained, nurtured and developed to transform into a high-level personality.
  • People who can lead, transform or develop a nation. All nations need nation-builders - teachers, doctors, engineers, scientists, and so on. And every nation builder is expected to have certain descriptive qualities like rational thinking, analytical understanding, tolerance, and so on. As these factors become more focused on formal education, classes become more important in this aspect of nation building. Another important group of nation builders is the political class, whose classes are still slightly different.
  • These classes are centers of Law (e.g. the Parliament of India, Japan’s Diet), where the country’s Constitution is widely used as a textbook. Simply put, the Legislatures refer to the Constitution for enactment, and shape the destiny of their nations in these institutions. However, not all destines are built in classrooms. For example, consider Mahatma Gandhi's involvement in the Indian liberation struggle. His tragic incident at a South African railway station made him aware of the widespread racism and injustice.
  • Therefore, he devised a good strategy for Satyagraha, and the rest, as we all know, is history. Elsewhere in the world and a few years below the line, a historic agreement shaped the nation's destiny. This was the Treaty of Versailles, and the nation was Germany. The treaty created so much pressure on the defeated parties (including Germany), that a strong wave of nationalism emerged. The result was that dictators like Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, held leadership positions, and their nations were apparently set in World War II. The Unfortunate World War ended with another tragedy - the nuclear bomb of Japan.
  • Although the event was indescribably tragic, it pushed Japan into unprecedented technological revolutions, setbacks, and the determination and determination among its citizens to revive the economy. the lost national glory. That Japan has proven its worth and achieved its goals is by no means a figment of anyone's imagination. A few years under the Japanese bombing, India gained independence, and two years later, India's Constitution was adopted. The Constitution, which describes the destiny of our nation, was shaped primarily by the Indian Government Act of 1935, and various other Constitutions (such as those of the USA, Canada, UK), and the collective knowledge of our liberation struggle. leaders.
  • Over the years, various other events and events have also shaped the destiny of our nation. One such incident was the Balance of Payment (BoP) crisis in 1991, which involved a severe financial deficit in our economy. The result was that India had to open up its global trade market, through the reforms of the LPG (Liberalization-Globalization-Privatization). Thus, our economy changed forever from being a socialist to a mixed one, and gradually becoming a capitalist. And it all continues to happen because India has been able to successfully manage its pieces of democracy.
  • But not all countries are successful enough. Military domination has been in the Indian subcontinent and surrounding areas for a long time, building Myanmar to Thailand, and so on. Our closest neighbor Pakistan is notorious in this context - it is often said that the fate of Pakistan was built at military headquarters in Rawalpindi. The results undermine democracy, export terrorism, and so on. To make matters worse, China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is expected to drag Pakistan into a huge debt crisis, and slow down its progress. At present, various sectarian and social conflicts are raging in Pakistan.
  • Civil strife has shaped the future of many nations - conflicts may move from sectarianism to religion or even sectarianism. Other notable examples include the Arab Spring in the Middle East, the Jasmine Revolution, the LTTE revolution in Sri Lanka, or even the Israeli-Palestinian conflict on the issue. All these events have been linked to the future of their nations - the Tamils continue to demand their Constitutional Rights in Sri Lanka, the Palestinians continue to fight against Israel for their nationality, and so on.
  • However, some smaller nations are embroiled in warfare of epic proportions. These small tribes are regions and tribes on small islands, threatened by global warming and rising sea levels. Their war of survival is one of great and powerful economies, collectively creating this natural scourge. In other words, the destinies of these nations are being shaped in other parts of the world, and beyond their control. Thankfully, the Paris Climate Accord wants to reverse this trend. However, the US withdrawal from the treaty, a country that produces the highest levels of pollution, poses a threat.
  • Other nations must work hard to close this gap. In fact, the role of the class is limited to developing personality and disseminating specific knowledge. Although the nation is led by these very people, but in this world of increasing communication and plurality, not much of its fate is defined by itself. In addition, various events (political, economic, social) also have a responsibility to change the state of the country and to shape its destiny. These events can be limited to the classroom or limited.

4. Has the Non-Alignment Movement Lost Its Significance in The Multipolar World?

  • In the second half of the last century, the world was largely divided into two rival camps - the Communist nations under the Soviet camp, and the capitalist nations under the American camp. From space travel to the Olympics, their competition was so intense that during the Cuban missile disaster, the Third World War seemed inevitable. This was during the Cold War.
  • In addition to the two rivals, the Cold War also produced the Non-Alignment Movement (NAM) - a coalition of countries that thought they had not joined any of these blocs, instead appealing to the superpowers to end their rivalries and maintain peace. and order in the world. It is noteworthy that the NAM was led by the leaders of India, Indonesia, Egypt and the former Yugoslavia, among others, the so-called third world countries.
  • With the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War in the last decade of the century, the world has changed dramatically since then. This also looks at the question of the suitability of NAM in modern times.
  • What drove the NAM out were rivals, and what drove these camps was the difference between the Communist economy and the capitalist economy. The mixed economic model of modern times, however, has blurred these differences, and very few countries today seem to have a total of socialism, or vice versa. . Even something that drives this kind of mixed economy supports this risk.
  • This feature is the global trade and the increase in intermediate communication. Modern economies are so intertwined, that they seem to literally support the saying ‘if goods do not cross borders, the bullets will pass’. Technology has played an important role in the globalization of businesses, capital and other assets. In this context of greater coherence in economic sectors, NAM loses its purpose, and that is why it is so important. However, one major factor in this controversy, perhaps the absence of bipolar disorder.
  • The mighty Soviet Union was replaced by the weaker Russia. This has led to an illegal world, which has been ruled by the USA for a long time. However, recent developments in global politics reflect the USA's withdrawal from its leadership roles, which are likely to be replaced by the BRICS economy (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa), as well as other leading economies such as Japan, the European Union, and so on. . This represents a multipolar world, where many energy blocks operate simultaneously, instead of the old bipoles. In this context, NAM loses its mission (as these are not opposing poles), its members (as many members, like India, are poles themselves), and hence, its value. In addition, NAM peacekeeping objectives can be achieved by powerful international institutions of the day.
  • These institutions include the United Nations (UN) and its various agencies, the Bretton Woods Institutes (World Bank, IMF), and so on. Their functions are closely linked to the maintenance of international peace and security, through international norms and standards (eg UNCLOS), and to the socio-economic development of all (eg: Sustainable Development Goals). It may be noted here that with the limited growth of the South Block states, and with greater involvement, these institutions have gained connections, and become stronger over the years. In this case, NAM loses its value as its goals are largely achieved through these institutions.
  • In addition, many of the new and exciting challenges we are currently facing, very different from the ones we faced during the Cold War. Such challenges may include climate change and the effects of global warming, terrorism, refugee problems, and more. Although not directly linked, NAM may lose its significance in the face of these challenges, as these require extensive international attention, resources, integration and merit.
  • So far, we have received a glimpse of NAM's growing insignificance. But NAM is not working yet. In fact, it finds new relationships in this world with many dolls.
  • So far, we have received a glimpse of NAM's growing insignificance. But NAM is not working yet. In fact, it finds new relationships in this world with many dolls.
  • In all, the one pole is increasingly assertive, not following international standards, running a collapsing economy with other nations, and trying to emerge as a superpower. That stake is China. To equate such a strong China, nations with the same democratic ideals (USA, India, Japan and Australia) have recently embraced the concept of 'Quad'. While there is no immediate threat of power camps and existing rivals, but the same will not be completely eliminated. Under such circumstances, NAM may be renewed and used by a new group of nations. But that is about to happen. At the same time, the need for NAM is huge.
  • Real geopolitics reflects the rise of Right-Wing politics and successive protections. Other examples include the Brexit event, the election of US President Donald Trump for defense reasons, and so on. These events, if left unchecked, have the potential to turn back time and bring about a period of closure of market economies. And with the removal of market dependence, strategic divisions between nations may increase, and restore NAM's demand.
  • Despite this direct influence, NAM has also played a negative role. The very idea of a united front for a more prosperous and prosperous world could be mimicked by achieving a world without nuclear weapons. For example, ICAN (the NGO that won the Nobel Peace Prize, 2017) could be placed as a forum for government agencies, on NAM lines. This would put even more pressure on the nuclear arsenals, as did NAM on power blocks, to destroy their nuclear arsenals. Additional benefits can also be found in exposing and dismantling a nuclear disarmament network, a large number of chemical weapons (preventing attacks similar to the recent Sarin gas attack in Syria), and so on.
  • In short, Incompatibility, the idea of drawing a middle ground between two extremes, which leads to peace and tranquility. The old movement may hold the balance, or lose it altogether, but this view will remain intact.

5. Joy is the Simplest Form of Gratitude

  • From ancient times, many philosophers have argued that the goal of life should be to live a happy and satisfying life. However, both have been very ambiguous in human efforts. One of India's neighboring countries has even tried to measure the International Happiness of its people.
  • Happiness (happiness) like all other human emotions is highly dependent and relative. A famous writer wrote that he wept over shoes until he saw a man without legs. The human nature of the pursuit of progress and development from the present state has been a major factor in our great development. However, when people are blinded by the desire for prominence and give up our inner self this very thing becomes dangerous to our health. Buddhism preaches that the desire (driving for want / possessions) is the cause of all suffering.
  • A moment of positive reflection and a bright side of everything we have been given can end us with joy. Bill Bryson in his book “A Brief History of All Things” takes the reader by welcoming him into the present. Bill Bryson reminds the reader of how lucky he is to live and tries to give an idea of all the challenges that could have hindered the student's presence. Statistically, the opportunity for anyone to attend is astounding. The presence of each individual is miraculous, but few appreciate it. 
  • One should not only thank his parents, but also the entire genealogy of the ancestors as well as the cosmic power that helped and facilitated their existence. Bill Bryson takes the issue to a very small degree thanks to the atoms at work and makes us even though we don’t know what he contributes to it.
  • Happiness should be reduced from that invisible emotional state to that which is perceived as social success. Few today enjoy a little time with their friends. The rapid penetration of electronic gadgets and communication platforms into our lives has made us live independent lives. Recent research has suggested that the more time people spend on social media, the more likely they are to become depressed. Special exposure to information makes one feel like everyone else is doing better and increases the feeling of being left out.
  • The interconnected world of today has kept us content with the basic necessities of life. There is always a feeling of longing for something, to wish something better. It can be mobile, like a car, there is always some news and other popular and attractive things. This prevents the discovery of satisfaction. An unconditional mind is restless and cannot find happiness. The grass is always green on the other side (read cars are always attractive to other things).
  • When a person takes a moment to appreciate things, the list is amazing and endless. Trapped in the mud of time, we have no time to stop and stare, or a moment to leave. Karl Marx was able to capture the feeling that people were being brought down as “joy in the wheel” with his view of isolation.
  • Marx analyzed the modern life-style and concluded that people were alienated from their work and thus unhappy. Although this theory is well-known for its interpretation and meaning, the philosophical message of Mercian literature is profound. Marx believed that the unhappiness of the people increased as a result of this. He compared the urban life of isolation to that of rural life where people had time to pause and meditate and share time with each other and concluded that modernity and technology have done more harm than good. 
  • Today few of us are grateful, if any, they have. People have a tendency to take everything for granted. A famous poet wrote that today we know the value of everything but the value of nothing. Nowadays everything comes with a price tag. The provision of economic value has reduced everything to a simplified number that has been simplified. When Bentham wrote that “the greatest happiness of all” was to be put first, he equated happiness with wealth and money. The capitalist world we share today traces its roots to its materialistic philosophies. It is not surprising, then, that today we often make the mistake of price as a value and underestimate the value of many precious things including love, care and affection.
  • Children easily take for granted the love that their parents pour out for them. They seldom express appreciation for the way their parents provide for them. Although it is the parents' responsibility to provide for their children, the unselfish love they show for their children is often unnoticed and seldom appreciated. The growing number of old age home is partly due to the adoption of this feeling of gratitude and happiness.
  • Patents raise their children from birth to adulthood and continue to do so throughout their lives. But when children need to care for their parents as they grow older, many of them are forced to live in nursing homes, depriving them of love and happiness. Children forget to say thank you to their parents when it is their turn to care for aging parents. If we wonder why this is becoming so common, it is because children do not show gratitude to their parents.
  • They fail to find joy in living with their parents in their later years and in strengthening the sacred bond with them. We have harmed the mother earth at an unimaginable rate and eradicated many natural resources and wiped out many beautiful species. The question is, why does a person forget to show gratitude to his supplier for getting more than what he asked for, for his good life. The answer is, a person forgets to give back to the person who gave him more than he asked for. In pursuing his own selfish ambitions, he forgot the basic laws of nature and that is why his life was in vain in this process.
  • We all live stressful lives, where every moment is important and no one has free time. However, if so much is done with such accuracy, why do we fail so often. Why do we tend to be unreasonable in our pursuit? It is a clear indication that a person is not happy or that he or she has not learned to enjoy the results. When we bring a flowering plant and place it in the corner of our house just looking at the flowers every morning, we only see the outer beauty of the flower.
  • Suppose we are growing a flower that produces a flower every day with water and manure and we see a flower blooming every day, the feeling of happiness is different. In the second context, there is a sense of ‘joy’ and happiness, because here the joy is doubled and the gratitude that we show for the flowering plant. Expressing gratitude does not mean giving back or repaying financially. It simply means being grateful for what we have received, with humility and kindness.
  • From ancient times the Indian philosophy (darma, karna, artha, and moksha) has preached the rigidity of the pursuit of man by his works and the pleasure of the pursuit of wealth and happiness.
  • Perhaps, more than ever before, we need to pay attention to the need for this ancient counsel and practice balance in our lives. We must use the 'quick and slow thinking' approach to understand and learn to be more grateful and happier in our lives. Let's not just live for life. Carpe diem.

6. Fulfillment of 'New Women' in India A Myth

  • The fulfillment of the ‘new woman’ in India is a myth The concept of young women describes a woman who is different from previous generations, especially one who challenges or rejects the traditional roles of wife, mother, or homemaker, and who represents women's independence and equality with men. It became famous by some writers in the twentieth century after the emergence of independent and educated women expressing independence and isolation in Europe and the United States. 
  • The era of globalization had a profound effect on Indian society. India was also influenced by this concept and there were a few examples of Indian women who despised their traditional roles and continued to study professions such as economic, scientific, social and political fields thus proving their equality with men. For examples: Rukhmabai (among India's first female doctors), Kiran Bedi (First IPS Woman & now Puducherry Governor), Kiran Mazumadar Shaw (businessman), Mitali Raj (Women's Cricketer ), Tessy Thomas (Missile Indian Woman). However, the number of such women is very small.
  • Reports from several organizations indicate otherwise. India dropped 24 places and was ranked 108th in the World Economic Forum's Gender Gap report on poor health and economic participation for women. India remains a patriarchal state with a patriarchal sense and opportunities for women in a number of ways continue to be limited and restricted to this day. Women's economic participation continues to decline.
  • According to World Bank data the average participation of women in men remains unchanged for the period 2000-2016. A large number of women participating were involved in low-paying jobs to provide family support. When the family situation improves, women often quit their jobs. Homework, childcare etc. it is still regarded as a women's role with a small contribution to male members. As a result women have to carry double the burden of household and office work which often forces them to give up their jobs and responsibilities.
  • Payment for gender-based discrimination, promotions, etc. makes women less active in the workplace. According to the Monster India Survey the average income of women is 27% lower than that of men. On average 66% of women's work in India is unpaid, compared to 12% of men. He teaches a man; he teaches a man. He teaches a woman; he teaches the generation. -Brigham Young Education is one of the most important areas in the advancement of women. India has made significant strides in reducing gender inequality in education where Girls achieve almost equal equality with boys in primary and secondary education with an average of 1.03 & 0.94 girls and boys respectively.
  • Yet girls are still lagging behind boys in reaching the level of education. Research shows that school-age girls are more likely to do household chores than boys, regardless of age or urban status. Although the number of women receiving higher education has increased, their gender ratio in tertiary institutions remains high depending on their male counterparts due to a few social and cultural factors such as higher education costs, girls' choice of marriage and lobola savings. etc.
  • Girls lagging behind in higher education and their homework responsibilities lead to entrepreneurship by developing their skills and knowledge and reducing market opportunities for them. The social fabric of the nation is also a barrier to women's advancement in other fields. Women continue to be vulnerable in society. The latest incident of murder of a young professional in Chennai, various murders and rapes of women at the MNC headquarters in Pune etc. highlights the vulnerability of women in India.
  • About 300 cases of acid attacks occur in India every year. Many women have to deal with evening ridicule, bullying, and bullying when they are not at home. Many offices have not yet implemented policies against sexual harassment of women. A large number of women choose to remain silent about sexual harassment for fear of social stigma and humiliation. Women are treated differently because of their lifestyle such as dressing up, going to parties etc. and they are guilty in the event that they face any form abuse.
  • Poor public safety and social attitudes degrade women and prevent them from going outside the home environment. Life is a treasure. A healthy body makes a person live a healthy life. Yet the state of health continues to deteriorate in India especially the w.r.t. for women. India has been successful in reducing maternal mortality rates but India's MMR at 174 is still very high between the BRICS and many other countries in the world.
  • There are still 5 women dying in India due to birth defects. According to UNICEF a third of Indian women of childbearing age are malnourished and have a low BMI. Studies show that about 59% of women have anemia in India. Anemia reduces labor productivity in women, causes weakness and is the leading cause of maternal mortality in India. Social and regional inequalities also make this issue a challenge There have been a few examples of women being able to make decisions and a social figure. e.g. Our current Foreign Minister Sushma Swaraj. 
  • However, women's participation in public life and decision-making is still undermined and not respected in India. The current Parliament is made up of about 10% of women in both Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. Women participating in state circles continue to decline by about 8%. The proportion of women in senior positions in companies remains low. Even at women's levels the power to make decisions is limited. A girl’s love of marriage especially outside of her class is criticized by her parents and she is very stressed that she gets married as their choice. Many cases of girls committing suicide due to severe marital pressure from their parents are being criticized.
  • In many families women continue to play a vital role while husbands continue to play a key role in family affairs. Social evils such as lobola, female genital mutilation, and infanticide continue in India. There are many reported cases of mothers refusing to accept a baby girl for fear of family members. Even well-educated and leading women are being harassed by usury, and their salaries are being taken away. 
  • According to the United Nations Population Fund Report, nearly two thirds of all married Indian women are victims of domestic violence. However a large number of women prefer peace and such cases are not reported due to social discrimination and a lack of empathy among the authorities. 
  • The needs of young women have been freedom and equality but the socio-economic conditions in India have forced them to be women there. The country is deeply troubled by its growth. Gender-based discrimination has cost about 4% of India’s growth over the past 10 years. The nation has taken a number of steps to empower women like SABLA, DAAN, Mission Poorna Shakti, Beti Bachao Beti Padhao etc. but much remains to be done. 
  • There is a need to eradicate patriarchal tendencies from society through awareness programs, the mandatory allocation of women to Parliament and meetings, the provision of better protection for women through better policing, the mapping of vulnerable areas to make women safer and able to explore areas beyond their traditional roles.

7. We May Brave Human Laws but Cannot Resist Natural Laws

  • The Big Bang, as it is known today, created the universe 14 billion years ago. Nearly nine billion years later, our solar system, including our beautiful planet, was created. These are known as cosmic phenomena involving many things such as supernova explosion, neutron star collapse, Gravitational-wave generation, and much more. Can we as individuals keep in step the natural laws that govern the behavior of these heavenly bodies?
  • The question is like an ant trying to resist an elephant. Both are impossible, and humorous. Even if we reduce the scale from cosmic events to cosmic movements, such as the rotation and rotation of planets, the movement of galaxies, or the tectonic forces within the planets, the analogy remains the same.
  • Tectonic forces, which cause tectonic plates to move, may cause earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions. These can then cause more damage, more than anything we can resist or control. The past few events bear witness to this fact, such as the Krakatoa eruption, the 2008 tsunami, or the recent Nepal earthquake. The sad part is that natural disasters like these, are not limited to tectonic power.
  • Disasters may be the result of unpredictable weather events and, like hurricanes, incessant rains causing floods, or even droughts, in that sense. Although with advancing technology, we can minimize the negative effects of these disasters, but to cope with them completely, is beyond us. Even one of the most developed countries, the USA, has found it extremely difficult to cope with the recent hurricane Harvey. Not to mention the natural disaster, we cannot resist the laws of nature that benefit us.
  • Take biogeochemical cycles - water cycle, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, etc. - for example. It is true that we are increasingly interfering in these cycles by making natural people (e.g. deforestation, clustering, solid waste, etc.), but we cannot completely resist this. These cycles are vital to the very existence of the biosphere, and the less we complicate this, the better our chances of survival.
  • Speaking of the biosphere (the circle where life is located), each part has its own unique characteristics, and it has a different role to play. Even with the increase in anthropogenic stress, the laws governing the biosphere cannot be completely challenged. This is because we are part and parcel of the biosphere, and the day we fully resist its operation, can be the day closest to our day of destruction.
  • Human laws, on the other hand, speak volumes about social and orderliness. These laws are constantly being broken, which is reflected in the growing crime and criminal responsibility, worldwide. In India alone, dozens of criminal and civil cases are pending before the Justice Department.
  • So it is clear that we can be brave against human laws, but we cannot resist the laws of nature. But the main point is whether this statement is true or false. In the above section, this statement has been declared true. For the part below, it might be a thought.
  • Technological advancement has enabled us to not only argue but also change the laws of nature, in many respects. Take genetics as an example - we can mutate genes and mutate them in a very short time, which could take thousands of years naturally. As a result, we have created animals, plants, and altered traits.
  • Then comes gravity technology, which is easily taken for granted today. The products of this technology are airplanes, spacecraft, drones, etc., which violate the natural laws of gravity.
  • In this context, cloud-led rain can be cited as an example of contempt for the laws of natural rainfall. However, such dominance over the laws of nature extends to all important sectors and, as knowledge, for example.
  • Consciousness is lost at death, and mankind has been able to preserve the surviving remnant from the time of the Pharaohs of ancient Egypt. Recent advances in this field allow the use of cryogenic technology (cold at very low temperatures) to prevent decay. Going forward, we have even learned to develop new knowledge, albeit in the early stages, through Artificial Intelligence (AI). Outstanding examples include Google Assistant, Apple Secret, and so on. So, on the one hand, we preserve what is left after we have lost consciousness, and on the other hand, we are making new consciousness - both equally contrary to the laws of nature. Who knows if one day we can even combine these two things - like making new insights into mortal fossils, perhaps.
  • To a lesser extent, birth, growth, fertility and death of the form of life (including human beings), are governed by many laws of nature, such as the survival of the most powerful or the competition for survival. However, advances in health technology and various socio-economic barriers have been strongly opposed to these laws, which are reflected in declining mortality rates, increasing life expectancy, and more.
  • Even the natural laws of fertility and fertility are challenged to some degree, by same-sex relationships. It is good to point out here that this is a sensitive issue, and should be based on the opinion of one person, or the law of the land. But in the end, it despises the natural reproductive roles of man and woman. Right or wrong, it is outside the scope of this article.
  • In fact, we are constantly moving forward in opposing or controlling the laws of nature. It is good for certain things, such as increasing life expectancy, gravity technology, and so on. But over-regulating the laws of nature, no matter how small, may not produce results in time. however, it is also true that many laws of nature are beyond our control.
  • One outstanding example of this is the law of Karma, which states that we get what we do for others.

8. ‘Social Media’ is Inherently a Selfish Medium

  • With the exception of the few souls of the nobles who feed on the rugged Himalayas (or elsewhere), mankind in general has a society, and it is impossible to live alone. What binds us to this social cohesion involves a multitude of things such as the need for communication, the need for help (or help, in that case), and so on. Social cohesion and communication have changed dramatically over time, from body language only in paleolithic times, to the development of various vernacular languages, and now to social media.
  • A social network can be defined as a technology-based platform that connects people over a network (such as the Internet), and helps them connect, share media, and so on. Other outstanding examples of this forum include Facebook, Twitter, and so on. The social media platform has its share of praise and criticism; one important criticism is that it is a place of selfishness by nature. Not surprisingly, the way it is used by most people, confirms this statement. Most people use social media to relax in the real world, to have fun, and to rejuvenate (obviously).
  • The average user logs in, browses a few media content, interacts with a few people, feels happy and relaxed, and achieves his goal. Such personal interest represents the smallest view of the whole arena, and it can rightly be considered a selfish motive. On the other hand, it is also a selfish motive that keeps the average user attached to social media. This reason is for the companies running the show. Various useful features are added from time to time, which keeps the average user attractive in the area; ephemism of an attractive insect in the light of a burning candle.
  • As a result, companies are earning billions of dollars, and they are pursuing their business interests. Various other features use the social media platform to further their own interests. Take the political stage for example - political parties are increasingly using this platform to further their party's propaganda. The aim is to bind more people, and to increase the foundations of their group. While there is no immediate damage from it, it does represent a selfish motive for using social media. However, another similar type of burglary is more likely to cause serious harm to humans.
  • This feature is all about teen exposure to scary clothing. Terrorists are increasingly using social media to spread their ideas, make users appear strong (especially teenagers), and entice them with their clothes. These workers may play various roles, such as planning a wolf's attack, or smuggling arms and counterfeit money, among others. These evil and selfish intentions should be criticized and resolved, by all stakeholders including law enforcement agencies, parents, and the like. However, even these immunized participants are motivated by the selfish motives of some actors.
  • Take the cybersecurity element as an example - cybercriminals are increasingly attacking the social media with all sorts of phishing scams, malware, ransomware, and more. Their sole purpose is to gain access to the data; the data could be financial, political, administrative, or sensitive internationally (such as Russia's interference in the 2016 US presidential election). The data then serves the selfish interests of the character (actors). From the above passage, it can be concluded that the social network is a selfish place, serving only selfish and petty interests. But social media is a big factor, for example, and it can't be limited to such a small amount of usage alone.
  • To prove it, the section below shows a wide range of social media usage, which is large, unselfish. Let's start with 'media' on social media - with extended connectivity and digital access, anyone can be a journalist. That is, anyone can report any incident (or news), as well as physical evidence, to the general public; mainstream media can follow suit. While the news may offer personal interest, the very feature of empowering every user through social media, gives you a selfless touch. This also introduces another purpose of self-sacrifice - mass communication and communication.
  • Social networking allows for unprecedented communication, at various levels and participants. It also enhances access to information, thus allowing one to make informed decisions. Such connections also provide a window for small businesses, with very limited investment (such as home-cooked recipes for example). Since these benefits cover the entire user base, and are not intended by any group or individual, these are naturally not selfish in nature. At another level, the social media platform allows social media campaigns and generates widespread support for a legitimate cause.
  • Although such initiatives may be started by a few, they often involve a wide range of people, thus making them less self-centered. Some of the most prominent social media campaigns recently include that of neutrality, anti-sexual harassment (#MeToo campaign), and so on. Going forward, some spillover features also highlight the unselfish character of the social media platform. Take on various Research and Development (R&D) projects that companies use to maintain their competitive advantages. 
  • Although initially driven by selfish motives centered on profit, these projects greatly benefit mankind with new technologies that simplify our lives - geo-tagging, face recognition and other important examples. The Government of India is currently embarking on a project to mark the various assets created through the MGNREGA program; a really unselfish step. Speaking of government, the telephone of governance, social media has greatly enhanced electronic governance and its three key pillars - accessibility, transparency and accountability.
  • Currently, in India any user can even contact the services directly, and resolve their legal issues. Since this feature benefits the entire population, it can rightly be considered unselfish. However, in our local context, social media projects have mixed ideas. While it is true that more paper (and therefore trees) are stored due to the increase in the number of internet users, but more e-waste is also produced in this process. Here, the first element (of saving trees) may be considered unselfish as it benefits mankind as a whole.
  • However, the second factor may be selfish motives, driven by lucrative advertising on all social media platforms, and the development of a throwaway culture. That is, the business community benefits from this work, at the expense of the environment. In fact, social media is not selfish. It all depends on how we use it. Although it can naturally be used by a certain group (or person) for selfish reasons, it can also be a situation in which a person sometimes uses it for selfish motives, while at the same time volunteering. 
  • So it really depends on how we use it. In this context, it can be said that social networks are increasingly leading mankind toward materialism, and they are moving away from the path of spiritual growth. Therefore, it is time to learn to put the habit behind us and to direct our actions in a way that gives meaning and purpose to our lives.
The document UPSC Mains Essay Question Paper Solutions - 2017 Notes | Study UPSC Previous Year Question Papers and Video Analysis - UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course UPSC Previous Year Question Papers and Video Analysis.
All you need of UPSC at this link: UPSC
Download as PDF

How to Prepare for UPSC

Read our guide to prepare for UPSC which is created by Toppers & the best Teachers

Download free EduRev App

Track your progress, build streaks, highlight & save important lessons and more!

Related Searches

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

video lectures

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

Important questions

,

pdf

,

UPSC Mains Essay Question Paper Solutions - 2017 Notes | Study UPSC Previous Year Question Papers and Video Analysis - UPSC

,

ppt

,

study material

,

past year papers

,

Free

,

MCQs

,

Objective type Questions

,

Exam

,

mock tests for examination

,

Extra Questions

,

Summary

,

UPSC Mains Essay Question Paper Solutions - 2017 Notes | Study UPSC Previous Year Question Papers and Video Analysis - UPSC

,

UPSC Mains Essay Question Paper Solutions - 2017 Notes | Study UPSC Previous Year Question Papers and Video Analysis - UPSC

,

Viva Questions

,

Sample Paper

,

Semester Notes

,

practice quizzes

;