Types of Unemployment
Under Employment India
Open Unemployment in India
Frictional Unemployment India
Seasonal Unemployment of India
Causes of unemployment in India
It is obvious that the unemployment situation is grim indeed. It has, therefore, to be tackled with appropriate measures and on an urgent basis. However, before we discussed the ways and means of removing unemployment, it is necessary that we understand the causes that given rise to it. The major causes which have been responsible for the wide spread unemployment can be spelt out as under.
1) Rapid Population Growth:
It is the leading cause of unemployment in Rural India. In India, particularly in rural areas, the population is increasing rapidly. It has adversely affected the unemployment situation largely in two ways. In the first place, the growth of population directly encouraged the unemployment by making large addition to labour force. It is because the rate of job expansion could never have been as high as population growth would have required.
It is true that the increasing labour force requires the creation of new job opportunities at an increasing rate. But in actual practice employment expansion has not been sufficient to match the growth of the labor force, and to reduce the back leg of unemployment. This leads to unemployment situation secondly; the rapid population growth indirectly affected the unemployment situation by reducing the resources for capital formation. Any rise in population, over a large absolute base as in India, implies a large absolute number.
It means large additional expenditure on their rearing up, maintenance, and education. As a consequence, more resources get used up in private consumption such as food, clothing, shelter and son on in public consumption like drinking water, electricity medical and educational facilities. This has reduced the opportunities of diverting a larger proportion of incomes to saving and investment. Thus, population growth has created obstacles in the way of first growth of the economy and retarded the growth of job opportunities.
2) Limited land:
Land is the gift of nature. It is always constant and cannot expand like population growth. Since, India population increasing rapidly, therefore, the land is not sufficient for the growing population. As a result, there is heavy pressure on the land. In rural areas, most of the people depend directly on land for their livelihood. Land is very limited in comparison to population. It creates the unemployment situation for a large number of persons who depend on agriculture in rural areas.
3) Seasonal Agriculture:
In Rural Society agriculture is the only means of employment. However, most of the rural people are engaged directly as well as indirectly in agricultural operation. But, agriculture in India is basically a seasonal affair. It provides employment facilities to the rural people only in a particular season of the year. For example, during the sowing and harvesting period, people are fully employed and the period between the post harvest and before the next sowing they remain unemployed. It has adversely affected their standard of living.
4) Fragmentation of land:
In India, due to the heavy pressure on land of large population results the fragmentation of land. It creates a great obstacle in the part of agriculture. As land is fragmented and agricultural work is being hindered the people who depend on agriculture remain unemployed. This has an adverse effect on the employment situation. It also leads to the poverty of villagers.
5) Backward Method of Agriculture:
The method of agriculture in India is very backward. Till now, the rural farmers followed the old farming methods. As a result, the farmer cannot feed properly many people by the produce of his farm and he is unable to provide his children with proper education or to engage them in any profession. It leads to unemployment problem.
6) Decline of Cottage Industries:
In Rural India, village or cottage industries are the only mans of employment particularly of the landless people. They depend directly on various cottage industries for their livelihood. But, now-a-days, these are adversely affected by the industrialisation process. Actually, it is found that they cannot compete with modern factories in matter or production. As a result of which the village industries suffer a serious loss and gradually closing down. Owing to this, the people who work in there remain unemployed and unable to maintain their livelihood.
7) Defective education:
The day-to-day education is very defective and is confirmed within the class room only. Its main aim is to acquire certificated only. The present educational system is not job oriented, it is degree oriented. It is defective on the ground that is more general then the vocational. Thus, the people who have getting general education are unable to do any work. They are to be called as good for nothing in the ground that they cannot have any job here, they can find the ways of self employment. It leads to unemployment as well as underemployment.
8) Lack of transport and communication:
In India particularly in rural areas, there are no adequate facilities of transport and communication. Owing to this, the village people who are not engaged in agricultural work are remained unemployed. It is because they are unable to start any business for their livelihood and they are confined only within the limited boundary of the village. It is noted that the modern means of transport and communication are the only way to trade and commerce. Since there is lack of transport and communication in rural areas, therefore, it leads to unemployment problem among the villagers.
9) Inadequate Employment Planning:
The employment planning of the government is not adequate in comparison to population growth. In India near about two lakh people are added yearly to our existing population. But the employment opportunities did not increase according to the proportionate rate of population growth. As a consequence, a great difference is visible between the job opportunities and population growth.
On the other hand it is a very difficult task on the part of the Government to provide adequate job facilities to all the people. Besides this, the government also does not take adequate step in this direction. The faulty employment planning of the Government expedites this problem to a great extent. As a result the problem of unemployment is increasing day by day.
How to solve Unemployment Problem in India
We now discuss the following measures that can help us in eradicating the unemployment problem from rural India:
1) Development of Agricultural method:
In rural society, agriculture is the only source of employment of the people. If the method of agriculture has to be modernised and improved, the unemployment problem has to be eradicated. For this several steps should be taken into consideration.
Firstly, holding should be consolidated and made economic. Secondly, methods of agriculture should be improved and as far as possible the farms should be freed from dependence on Nature. Thirdly, system of crops should be planned scientifically and developed sufficiently. If more crops earned it would provide more employment facilities to the rural people. Finally, modern agricultural equipments, good seeds, fertilisers, proper agricultural suggestion and so on should be provided to the rural farmers.
Thus if the agricultural system has to be improved in the above direction, it can afford sufficient employment facilities to the rural people throughout the year.
2) Proper arrangement of irrigation:
A major cause of agricultural unemployment in Rural India is the dependence of cultivation on the rains. Since agriculture is seasonal and depends very much on the rains, therefore, only in a particular season of the year the village people are engaged in agricultural work and in the rest of the year they remain unemployed. Besides, if rains fail, the agricultural work is hindered and it brings about a good deal of unemployment problem among the rural farmers.
Thus, for the eradication of unemployment the methods of irrigation should be made more modern. In rural areas proper arrangements of irrigation should be made through minor and major projects. As a consequence, the rural people are able to do agricultural work throughout the year by using water in their lands.
3) Increasing the Cultivable land:
Now-a-days, due to the rapid population growth, there is heavy pressure on land in rural areas. The cultivable land is not sufficient to provide food as well as employment facilities to all the people. Therefore, it is essential to increase cultivable land in the rural areas.
In this context, barren land should be made fertile by scientific methods. Much sandy, rocky and grass lands can be converted into cultivable lands by applying modern scientific techniques. As a result rural people are much engaged in agricultural work and this would remove unemployment problem in rural areas.
4) Reconstruction of Cottage Industries:
For the removing of unemployment problem in Rural Society, the various new cottage industries should be established and the old are also reconstructed. In order to provide employment opportunities to the landless people in the village, it is essential that various cottage industries should also develop.
The cottage industries like dairy farming, poultry farming, furniture making, basket making, bee keeping, weaving, tailoring, match stick making and so on afford large employment facilities to the rural people and help in eradication unemployment problem from Rural India to a considerable extent.
5) Development of transport and Communication:
In order to create the employment atmosphere in rural areas, it is essential on the part of the Govt. To develop the means of transport and communication to a large extent. It is true that unemployment problem can minimise only when the transport and communication systems are developed properly in rural areas. Because, the educated rural people who are not interested in agricultural work have to engage themselves in different occupations relating to business through transport.
Besides, the development of communication helps the surplus population of Rural Society to move different places in search of employment.
To assist the economically weaker sections of the rural society.
Scheme of Maharashtra
For rural employment
Program for Trainingrural youth for self employment.
All-round development of the rural poor through
a program of asset endowment for self
To provide profitable employment opportunities
to the rural poor.
For providing employment to landless farmers
Self-employment to the
To provide financial and technical assistance for
Urban Poor (SEPUP)
through provision of subsidy and bank credit.
For providing employment to rural unemployed.
Nehru Rozgar Yojana
To provide wages employment after arranging
the basic facilities for poor people in the urban
areas where population is less than one lakh.
To provide employment of at least 100 days in a
year in village.
To provide gainful employment to urban
unemployed and under employed poor through
Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY)
self employment or wage employment.
For eliminating rural poverty and unemployment
and promoting self employment.
Employment guarantee in most poor distt.
To provide atleast 100 days wage employment
Employment Guarantee Scheme
in rural areas.
To provide wage employment and food security
and also to create durable
economic ans social assets.
To give food thrugh wage employment in the
drought affected areas in eight states. Wages
are paid by the state governments partly in cash
and partly in foodgrains.
To create a right based framework for wage
employment programmes and makes the
bound to provide
employment to those who seek it.
To generate employment opportunities in rural
as well as urban areas through setting up of
Employment Generation: 11th Plan Viewpoint
It calls for elimination of distorting fiscal incentives which foster capital intensity; infrastructure investment; removal of distortions that hinder competition, prevent entry and discourage graduation from unorganized to organized status; and greater emphasis on vocational training and skill development to improve employability of youth.
As Village and Small Scale Enterprises (VSE) will have to provide most of the new employment during the Eleventh Plan, the Approach Paper also calls for redressing the problems faced by VSE units and home based workers, particularly women, such as non-availability of timely and adequate credit, unreliable or absence of power supply, requirement of permission from a number of government agencies and burden of multiple inspections.
India Women Labour
Child Labour in India