Vijayanagar-Bahmani Conflict and Krishnadeva Raya
- It started on a large scale in 1367 A.D. during the reign of Bukka-I.
- Clash of interests in three areas : (i) The Tungabhadra doab (ii) Krishna-Godavari delta (iii) and in the Marathwada country.
- The Vijayanagar empire embarked a policy of expansion towards eastern sea coast under Harihara-II.
- It was responsible for the alliance of the Bahamani kingdom with Warangal and which was a major factor in the inability of Vijayanagar empire to overrun Tungabhadra doab.
- The reign of Devaraya-I began with a renewed fight for the Tungabhadra doab.
- He was able to inflict shattering defeat on Firuz Shah and annexed entire territory upto the mouth of the Krishna.
- Devaraya-II was the greatest ruler of the Sangam dynasty.
- In order to strengthen his army, he inducted more Muslims in his army.
- There was confusion in the Vijayanagar empire after the death of Devaraya-II
- He had to face an invasion led by the Bahmani sultan Ahmad-I in the Raichur Doab, but the actual outcome of this battle is a matter of controversy.
- However, the fact that the Bahmani sultan shifted his capital from Gaulbarga to Bidar, which was more secure, leads to an assumption that Devaraya gained some success.
- After some time, the throne was usurped by the king’s minister, Saluva Narasimha.
- Tuluva Krishnadeva Raya is considered as the greatest of all the Vijayanagar rulers, for his military as well as other achievements. (Informations
Points To Be Remembered
- Kaivinaikuddi was the hired labour.
- Like the Hoysalas, the ruler of Vijayanagar had a carefully organized military department called Kandachara udner the control of the dandanayaka.
- A detailed land survey and assessment was conducted during the reign of Krishnadeva Raya.
- The system of sharing of agricultural income between the landlord and tenant is varam.
- Kuttagai was the lease system of cultivation.
- Carpenters enjoyed a high status in Vijayanagar society.
- Ship were built at Calicut.
- Gold coins were largely in circulation.
- The finest specimens of the painting of the Vijayanagar period have been found from Lepakshi.
- Devaraya-II defeated the Sri Lankan troops and forced Sri Lanka to pay tribute to the Vijayanagar empire.
- Vijayanagar state recognized prostitution.
- Ornaments were the most popular items of luxury goods.
- Stick play was known as Kolattam.
- The kings of Vijayanagar were said to rule on behalf of Virupaksha, who was a Shaivite deity.
about Krishnadeva Raya will be given separately)
- Krishnadeva Raya’s death was followed by struggle for succession among his realtions.
- After the eventful reigns of Achyutadeva and Venkata, Sadasiva Raya ascended the throne.
- But the real power, during the reign of all of them, lay in the hands of Rama Raya, who was a son-in-law of Krishnadeva Raya.
- Rama Raya was able to play off the various Muslim powers against one another.
- He entered into a commercial treaty with the Portuguese whereby the supply of horses to the Bijapur ruler was stopped.
- In a series of wars he completely defeated the Bijapur ruler.
- He then allied himself with the Bijapur ruler to inflict humiliating defeats on Golconda and Ahmadnagar.
- However, ultimately his enemies combined to inflict a crushing defeat on Vijayanagar at Banihatti, near Talikota in 1565 A.D.
- This battle is also known as the battle of Rakshashatangadi.
Points To Be Remembered
- At the initiative of Vidhyaranya Sangama brothers return to the fold of Hinduism from Islam.
- Gangadevi was the author of “Madhuravijayam” which deals with Kampana’s conquest of Madurai during the reign of Bukka-I
- Yusuf Adil Shahi was killed by Krishnadeva Raya in the Battle of Kovilkonda.
- Muhammad Adilshah built the Gol Gumbaj at Bijapur.
- Mahmud Gawan was the Vakil as well as the wazir of Muhammad Shah-III, the Bahmani Sultan.
- Some of the quarter Varahas of Deva Raya-II describe him as the ‘Gajabentkara’.
- According to Domingo Paes, ‘Devadasis’ held a highly respectable position in the Vijayanagar society.
- Military chiefs of Vijayanagar empire was called Nayaks.
- Black pepper was widely exported from Vijayanagar empire.
Points to be remembered
- Kalipendra was the founder of the Gajapati dynasty of Orissa.
- Under the‘Nayakar system’ Nayakas or Palegars were granted `Amaram’ in lieu of salaries in return for their services to the state.
- Kaikkolas were an influential community of weavers living around temple precincts.
- The community of acrobats was called dombaras.
- Venkata II-shifted his headquarters to Chandragiri.
- During this period Calicut was the most important post on the Malabar coast.
- The besabaga or the sale of human beings was not unknown.
- The tottiyans or kambalattas were originally shepherds and became petty Paraigars in the south.
- Reddis were responsible for the material prosperity of the land.
- This battle is generally considered to mark the end of the great age of Vijayanagar.
- After the battle, the kingdom lingered on for almost one hundred years under the Aravidu dynasty.
- “He is the most learned and perfect king that could possibly be....He is a great ruler and a man of great justice”—Domingo Paes.
- He defeated the rebellious chief of Ummattur, the Gajapati king Prataprudra of Orissa, the Adil Shahi sultan Yusuf Adil and his son Ismail Adil and so on.
- By his successive conquests, the whole of the Raichur doab passed into the hands of Vijayanagar.
- He successfully invaded Gulbarga and Bidar and restored the puppet Bahamani sultan to the throne.
- To commemorate this act of restoration of the Bahamani monarchy, he assumed the title of Kavanarajya Sthopanacharya.
- He concluded a series of treatise with the Portuguese.
- His relations with the Portuguese were governed by two factors:
(i) Common enmity with Bijapur and (ii) the supply of imported horses by the Portuguese to Vijayanagar.
- His political ideas are contained in his Telegu work Amuktamalayada.
- As a great patron of literature, he was known as Abhinava Bhoja.
- For Telegu it was an age of great poets and eight of them known as Ashta Diggajas adorned the court of Krishnadeva Raya.
- Among these poets Peddana was personally honoured by the emperor for his proficiency in Sanskrit and Telegu.
- He is honoured as Andhra Pitamaha.
- He founded a town Nagalpur near Vijayanagar.