Drainage System - Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev

Geography for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims

UPSC : Drainage System - Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev

The document Drainage System - Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev is a part of the UPSC Course Geography for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims.
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Drainage System
On the basis of the origin of the rivers, Indian river systems can be classified as:
1. Himalayan Rivers
2. Peninsular Rivers

Drainage System - Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRevIndian RiversDrainage System - Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev


HIMALAYAN RIVER SYSTEM

It comprises of the following 3 major river system:

1. The Indus river system

2. The Ganga river system

3. The Brahmaputra river system

1. The Indus river system

  • It has a total length of 2880 km (1114 km in India).
  • It originates from a glacier near Bokhar Chu in kailash Mountain range in Tibet region and finally falls into Arabian Sea near karachi.
  • In tibet, it is known as “Singi khamban”
  • In Jammu and Kashmir, its Himalayan tributaries are: Zanskar, Dras, Gartang, Shyok, Shigar, Nubra, Gilgit, etc.

Drainage System - Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev

Its most important tributaries, which join Indus at various places, are:

  • Jhelum (725 km),
  • Chenab (1800 km),
  • Ravi (720 km),
  • Beas (470 km) &
  • Sutlej (1050 km).

These rivers join Indus at Mithankot.Drainage System - Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev


2. The Ganga river system

  • It is 2525 km long; of which 110 km flows in Uttarakhand, 1450 km in UP, 445 km in Bihar and 520 km in West Bengal.
  • The Ganga is constituted of two main rivers – Bhagirthi and Alaknanda, which combine at Devprayag to form Ganga.
  • Before Alaknanda meets Bhagirthi at Devprayag, Mandakini meets Alaknanda at Rudraprayag.

Drainage System - Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev

Sources: Bhagirthi from Gaumukh, Alaknanda from Badrinath, Mandakini from Kedarnath (all from Uttarakhand).

  • The river finally falls into Bay of  Bengal near the Sagar Island.
  • Yamuna is the important tributary of Ganga

Apart from Yamuna, other tributaries of Ganga are:

  • Ghaghra (1080 km),
  • Son (780 km),
  • Gandak (425 km),
  • Kosi (730 km),
  • Gomti (805 km),
  • Damodar (541 km).
  • Kosi is infamous as ‘Sorrow of Bihar’, while Damodar gets the name ‘Sorrow of Bengal’ as these cause floods in these regions.
  • Hooghli is a distributary of Ganga flowing through Kolkata.
  • Yamuna (1375 km) is its most important tributary (on right bank).
  • It rises at the Yamunotri glacier in Uttarakhand.
  • It runs parallel to Ganga for 800km and joins it at Allahabad.

Important tributaries of Yamuna are:

  • Chambal (1050 km),
  • Sind,
  • Betwa (480 km) and Ken

Ghaghra (1080 km)

  • Originates from the glacier of Mapchachungo
  • It is joined by kali river
  • It meets Ganga at Chhapra

Gandak (425 km)

  • Rises in Nepal Himalayas
  • Enters the Ganga plain in Champaran
  • Joins Ganga at Sonpur near Patna

Kosi (730 km)

  • Its source is to the north of Mount Everest in Tibet

Ramganga 

  • Rise in Garhwal hills
  • Joins Ganga near kannauj

Damodar (541 km)

  • Rises in Chhotanagpur plateau
  • Flows in a rift valley & finally joins river Hugli

Chambal 

  • A tributary of Yamuna
  • Rises near Mhow in Malwa plateau, M.P
  • Famous for its badland topography

Son (780 km)

  • A tributary of Ganga
  • Originates from Amarkantak plateau
  • Joins Ganga near Patna

3. The Brahmaputra River system

  • It has a total length of 2900 km.
  • It rises in Tibet (from Chemayungdung glacier) near Mansarovar lake, where it is called Tsangpo,
  • It enters the Indian territory (in Arunachal Pradesh) under the name Dihang.
  • Its important tributaries are: Subansiri, Kameng, Dhansiri, Manas, Teesta.
  • In Bangladesh, Brahmaputra is known by the name of Jamuna while Ganga gets the name Padma.
  • Their combined stream is known as Padma only.
  • Meghna is the most important distributory before it enters the Bay of Bengal.
  • The combined stream of Ganga and Brahmaputra forms the biggest delta in the world, the Sundarbans (58,752 sq. km).
  • On Brahmaputra is the river island, Majuli in Assam, the biggest river island in the world.

PENINSULAR RIVERS
Drainage System - Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev

Mahanadi River (858 km)

  • Rises in Raipur distt. in Chhatisgarh.
  • Main tributaries: lb, Seonath, Hasdo, Mand, Jonk, Tel, etc.

Godavari River (1465 km)

  • Also called Vriddha Ganga or Dakshina Ganga.
  • It is the longest peninsular river.
  • Rises in Nasik.
  • Main tributaries: Manjra, Penganga, Wardha, Indravati, Wainganga, Sabari, etc.

Krishana river

  • Rises in Western Ghats near Mahabaleshwar.
  • Main tributaries: Koyna, Dudhganga, Panchganga, Malprabha, Ghatprabha, Bhima, Tungabhadra, Musi, etc.

Swarnarekha River (395 km) and Brahmani (705 km)

  • Rises from Ranchi Plateau.

Cauvery River (805 km)

  • It is the largest peninsular river (maximum amount of water).
  • Infact, it is the only peninsular river which flows almost throughout the year.
  • Known as the ‘Ganga of the South’.
  • It rises from the Brahmagir range of Western Ghats.
  • Main tributaries: Hemavati, Lokpawni, Shimsa.

Narmada River (1057 km) 

  • Rises in Amarkantak Plateau and flows into Gulf of Khambat.
  • It flows in a rift valley between Vindhya & Satpura.
  • It forms the famous Dhuan Dhar Falls near Jabalpur.
  • Main tributaries: Hiran, Burhner, Banjar, Shar, Shakkar, Tawa, etc.

Tapti River (724 km)

  • Rises from Betul distt in MP
  • Main tributaries: Purna, Betul, Arunavati, Ganjal, etc.

Mahi River (560 km)

  • Rises from Vindhyas in MP

Luni River (450 km) 

  • Rises from Aravailis.
  • It is finally lost in the marshy grounds at the head of the Rann of Kuchchh.

Shravati

  • Sharavati is a west flowing river of the Sahyadris.
  • It forms the famous Jog or Gersoppa or Mahatma Gandhi Falls (289 m), which is the highest waterfall in India.
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