Microbes in Human Welfare 1 - From Past 28 Years Questions NEET Notes | EduRev

NEET: Microbes in Human Welfare 1 - From Past 28 Years Questions NEET Notes | EduRev

The document Microbes in Human Welfare 1 - From Past 28 Years Questions NEET Notes | EduRev is a part of the NEET Course Biology 31 Years NEET Chapterwise Solved Papers.
All you need of NEET at this link: NEET

Q1. Match List - I with List - II         [NEET 2021]

Choose the correct answer from the options given below.

Correct Answer is Option (C)

Examples of acid producers are Aspergillus niger (a fungus) of citric acid, Acetobacter aceti (a bacterium) of acetic acid; Clostridium butylicum (a bacterium) of butyric acid and Lactobacillus (a bacterium) of lactic acid.


Q2. Which of the following is put into Anaerobic sludge digester for further sewage treatment?         [NEET 2020]

(a) Effluents of primary treatment
(b) Activated sludge
(c) Primary sludge
(d) Floating debris

Correct Answer is Option (B)

Major portion of activated sludge is pumped into large tanks called anaerobic sludge digesters. So, here other kinds of bacteria which grow anaerobically, digest the fungi and bacteria of the sludge.


Q3. Match the following columns and select the correct option.    [NEET 2020] 

Correct Answer is Option (D) 

  • Clostridium butylicum is (a bacterium) of butyric acid. 
  • Cyclosporin A which is used as an immunosuppressive agent in organ-transplant patients, is produced by the fungus Trichoderma polysporum. 
  • Monascus purpureus is not a blood cholesterol lowering agent, statins produced by it are been commercialised as blood-cholesterol lowering agents. 
  • Aspergillus niger is (a fungus) of citric acid.


Q4. Which of the following can be used as a biocontrol agent in the treatment of plant disease?     [NEET 2019] 

(a) Lactobacillus
(b) Trichoderma
(c) Chlorella
(d) Anabaena

Correct Answer is Option (B)
Trichoderma species are free-living fungi that are very common in the root ecosystems. They are effective biocontrol agents of several plant pathogens.


Q5. Select the correct group of biocontrol agents.   [NEET 2019]
(a) Nostoc, Azospiiillium, Nucleopolyhedrovirus
(b) Bacillus thuringiensis, Tobacco mosaic virus, Aphids
(c) Trichoderma, Baculovirus, Bacillus thuringiensis
(d) Oscillatoria, Rhizobium, Tiichoderma

Correct Answer is Option (C)

Fungus Trichoderma, Baculoviruses(NPV) and Bacillus thuringiensis are used as biocontrol agents.
Rhizobium, Nostoc, Azospirillum and Oscillatoria are used as biofertilizers, whereas TMV is a pathogen and aphids are pests that harm crop plants.
So, the correct answer is 'Trichoderma, Baculovirus, Bacillus thuringiensis'


Q6. Which of the following is a commercial blood cholesterol-lowering agent?    [NEET 2019]
(a) Lipases
(b) Cyclosporin A
(c) Statin
(d) Streptokinase

Correct Answer is Option (C)

  • Statins are products of fermentation activity of yeast (Monascus purpureas) which resemble mevalovate and are competitive inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-f3-methylglutaryl or HMG CoA reductase. 
  • This inhibits cholesterol synthesis. Statins are therefore used in lowering blood cholesterol. E.g. lovastatin, pravastatin, simvastatin.


Q.7. Match the following organisms with the products they produce.    [NEET 2019]

Select the correct option.

Correct Answer is Option (C)

Microbes are used in production of several household and industrial products-
Lactobacillus - Production of curd
Saccharomyces cerevisiae - Bread making
Aspergillus niger - Citric acid production
Acetobacter aceti - Acetic acid.


Q.8. A biocontrol agent to be a part of integrated pest management should be    [NEET 2019]
(a) species-specific and symbiotic
(b) free-living and broad spectrum
(c) narrow spectrum and symbiotic
(d) species-specific and inactive on non-target organisms

Correct Answer is Option (D)

A good biocontrol agent should be species-specific and inactive on non-target organisms. 


Q.9. Conversion of milk to curd improves its nutritional value by increasing the amount of    [NEET 2018]
(a) vitamin D
(b) vitamin A
(c) vitamin B12
(d) vitamin E

Correct Answer is Option (C)

  • Lactobacillus bacteria convert milk into curd. It produces acids that coagulate and partially digest the milk proteins. 
  • A small amount of curd added to the fresh milk as inoculum or starter contains millions of Lactobacillus which at suitable temperature multiply, thereby converting milk to curd which also improves its nutritional value by increasing vitamin B12 content and a number of organic acids.

Lactobacillus bacteria convert milk into curd


Q10. Select the mismatch.     [NEET 2017]
(a) Rhodospirillum - Mycorrhiza
(b) Anabaena - Nitrogen fixer
(c) Rhizobium — Alfalfa
(d) Frankia - Alnus

Correct Answer is Option (A)

  • Rhodospirillum is a free-living nitrogen fixing bacteria. 
  • Mycorrhiza is the symbiotic association between ftingi and roots of higher plants. 
  • The most common fungal partners of mycorrhiza are Glomus species.


Q11. Which of the following in sewage treatment removes suspended solids?     [NEET 2017]
(a) Secondary treatment
(b) Primary treatment
(c) Sludge treatment
(d) Tertiary treatment

Correct Answer is Option (B)
Primary or physical treatment is the process of removal of small and large, floating and suspended solids from sewage through two processes of filtration and sedimentation.


Q12. Which of the following is correctly matched for the product produced by them?     [NEET 2017]
(a) Methanobacterium: Lactic acid
(b) Penicillium notatum: Acetic acid
(c) Sacchromyces cerevisiae: Ethanol
(d) Acetobacter aceti: Antibiotics

Correct Answer is Option (C)
Methanobacterium is useful in the production of biogas. Penicillium notation is used to product, penicillin, an antibiotic. Acetobacter aceti is used to obtain acetic acid.


Q13. Match column I with column II and select the correct option using the codes given below.  [NEET 2017]

(a) A-(iii), B-(i), C-(ii), D-(iv)
(b) A-(iii), B-(i), C-(iv), D-(ii)
(c) A-(i), B-(iv), C-(ii), D-(iii)
(d) A-(iii), B-(iv), C-(i), D-(ii)

Correct Answer is Option (B)

Aspergillus niger- Citric acid

Butyric acid- Clostridium butylicum
Cyclosporin A- Trichoderma polysporum
Statins- Monascus prupureus


Q14. Which of the following is wrongly matched in the given table?    [NEET 2016]

Correct Answer is Option (B)
Clostridium butylicum helps in the production of butyric acid. Candida Upolytica and Geotrichum candidmn help in production of lipases that are added in detergents for removing oily stains from laundry.


Q15. Which of the following is wrongly matched in the given table?     [NEET 2016]

Correct Answer is Option (D)
Clostridium butylicum is used for butyric acid production


Q16. The primitive prokaryotes responsible for the production of biogas from the dung of ruminant animals, include the   [NEET 2016]
(a) Halophiles
(b) Thermoacidiophiles
(c) Methanogens
(d) Eubacteria

Correct Answer is Option (C)
Methanogens are microorganisms that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in anoxic conditions. They are obligate anaerobic ancient and primitive bacteria. They are involved in methanogenesis.


Q17. Match the following list of microbes and their importance:    [NEET 2015]


Correct Answer is Option (D)
a - (iii), b - (iv), c - (i), d - (ii)

  • The source of ethanol for industrial use was from the fermentation of sugars by yeast (Sacharomyces cerevisiae). 
  • Red yeast rice is a substance that's extracted from rice that's been fermented with a type of yeast called Monascus purpureus.

  • Red yeast rice is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been used to lower cholesterol.

  • Trichoderma is used as an immunosuppressant prescribed in organ transplants to prevent rejection.

  • There are three primary types of bacteria that are used to make Swiss cheese: Streptococcus thermophilus; Lactobacillus helveticus; and Propionibacterium shermanii. 

  • It is this Propionibacterium shermanii that is responsible for the holes in Swiss cheese.  


Q18. What gases are produced in anaerobic sludge digesters?   [NEET 2014]
(a) Methane and CO2 only
(b) Methane, Hydrogen Sulphide and CO2
(c) Methane, Hydrogen Sulphide and O
(d) Hydrogen Sulphide and CO
2

Correct Answer is Option (B)
Anaerobic digestion is a series of processes in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen, used for industrial or domestic purposes to manage waste and/or to release energy. The process of anaerobic digestion produces a biogas, consisting of methane (it will burn), carbon dioxide (it does not burn) and traces of other contaminant gases.

The document Microbes in Human Welfare 1 - From Past 28 Years Questions NEET Notes | EduRev is a part of the NEET Course Biology 31 Years NEET Chapterwise Solved Papers.
All you need of NEET at this link: NEET

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