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(a) Source: People of India
(b) Nature: Socialist, Sovereign, Secular democratic and Republic Polity
(c) Objectives: Liberty, Justice, Equality and Fraternity,
(d) Date of adoption: 26 Nov, 1949
2. Key Words
(i) India is neither a dependency nor a dominion of any other nation, but an independent state.
(i) Added by the 42nd Amendment in 1976
(ii) It is ‘democratic socialism’ and not a ‘communistic socialism'.
(iii) Indian socialism is a blend of Marxism and Gandhism.
(i) 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act of 1976
(i) Doctrine of popular sovereignty i.e. possession of supreme power by the people.
(ii) Universal adult franchise, periodic elections, rule of law, independence of judiciary, and absence of discrimination on certain grounds are the manifestations of the democratic character of the Indian polity.
(i) India has an indirectly elected head called the president for a fixed period of five years.
(ii) Vesting of political sovereignty in the people
(i) Dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation.
(i) Found in Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles
(i) Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship, through their Fundamental Rights, enforceable in court of law, in case of violation.
(i) Meaning the absence of special privileges to any section of the society, and the provision of adequate opportunities for all individuals without any discrimination.
(a) Embodies the basic philosophy and fundamental values—political, moral and religious.
(i) Reflects noble vision of the Constituent Assembly and aspirations of the founding fathers of the Constitution.
4. Preamble as part of the Constitution
(a) Berubari Union 16 case (1960) - Not a part of the Constitution
(b) Kesavananda Bharati case 17 (1973) - Part of the constitution
(c) LIC of India case 18 (1995) - Part of the Constitution
(d) Current opinion of SC
(i) The Preamble is neither a source of power to legislature nor a prohibition upon the powers of legislature.
(ii) It is non-justiciable, that is, its provisions are not enforceable in courts of law.
(a) Amended only once so far
(i) 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1976
(ii) Socialist, Secular and Integrity words added.