FAQs on PPT: Basic Features of Indian Constitution - Indian Polity for UPSC CSE
|1. What are the basic features of the Indian Constitution?
Ans. The basic features of the Indian Constitution include:
1. Federalism: The Constitution establishes a dual polity consisting of the Union at the center and the states, ensuring a division of power between them.
2. Fundamental Rights: It guarantees certain fundamental rights to all citizens, such as the right to equality, freedom of speech, and right to life and personal liberty.
3. Separation of Powers: The Constitution provides for the separation of powers among the legislature, executive, and judiciary to prevent the concentration of power in any one organ of the government.
4. Parliamentary System: India follows a parliamentary system of government where the President is the nominal head, and the Prime Minister is the real executive power.
5. Judicial Review: The Constitution empowers the judiciary to review the actions of the legislature and executive to ensure they are in accordance with the Constitution.
|2. How does federalism work in the Indian Constitution?
Ans. Federalism in the Indian Constitution works through the division of powers between the central government and the state governments. The Constitution clearly defines the powers and responsibilities of each level of government. Some powers, such as defense and foreign affairs, are exclusively held by the central government, while others, such as education and healthcare, are under the jurisdiction of the state governments. The Constitution also provides for a mechanism to resolve disputes between the center and the states through various institutions, such as the Inter-State Council and the Supreme Court.
|3. What are the fundamental rights guaranteed by the Indian Constitution?
Ans. The Indian Constitution guarantees several fundamental rights to its citizens, including:
1. Right to Equality: It ensures equality before the law, prohibition of discrimination based on religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth.
2. Right to Freedom: It includes freedom of speech and expression, assembly, association, movement, residence, and profession.
3. Right against Exploitation: It prohibits trafficking, forced labor, and child labor.
4. Right to Freedom of Religion: It grants individuals the freedom to practice, propagate, and profess any religion of their choice.
5. Right to Constitutional Remedies: It empowers citizens to approach the courts for the enforcement of their fundamental rights.
|4. How does the Indian Constitution ensure the separation of powers?
Ans. The Indian Constitution ensures the separation of powers through various mechanisms:
1. Independent Judiciary: The judiciary acts as the guardian of the Constitution and has the power of judicial review to ensure the actions of the legislature and executive are within the constitutional limits.
2. Bicameral Legislature: The Parliament is divided into two houses - the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. This division of power prevents any one house from becoming too powerful.
3. Independent Election Commission: The Election Commission of India is an autonomous body responsible for conducting free and fair elections, ensuring the independence of the electoral process.
4. Checks and Balances: The Constitution contains checks and balances, where each organ of the government has certain powers to keep the others in check, preventing any one organ from becoming dominant.
|5. How does the Indian Constitution protect individual rights through judicial review?
Ans. The Indian Constitution protects individual rights through judicial review by empowering the judiciary to examine the constitutionality of laws and government actions. If any law or action violates the fundamental rights enshrined in the Constitution, the judiciary can strike it down as unconstitutional. This ensures that the government acts within the boundaries set by the Constitution and protects the rights of individuals. The Supreme Court of India, as the highest judicial authority, has the power of judicial review and has played a significant role in safeguarding fundamental rights and ensuring their enforcement.