- Tropical evergreen—Teak, ebony, rosewood, bamboos.
- Tropical deciduous—Teak, sal, redwood, padauk, sandalwood, shisham, mahua.
- Thorny—Babul, kikar, wild date, acacias.
- Mountain—Oak, deodar, pines, chestnut, walnut, maple, elm, ash, birch and sal.
- Tidal—Firewood trees,, and mangroves.
- There are five major classes of the natural vegetation which are found in different parts of the country.
- Their distribution is related to the differences in climate, soil and relief features of our country.
The main vegetation regions are:
- Arid Vegetation Region. This type of vegetation is common in Rajasthan, West Punjab, South-west-Haryana, parts of Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh, and in the drier parts of the Deccan.
- The rainfall in these areas is less than 80 cm. In wetter areas (more than 50 cm of rains or on river sides) widely scattered trees such as babul, kikar, and wild dates are found.
- These trees have long roots, sharp spines or thorns to protect themselves against scorching heat. In very dry areas the trees gradually fade away into scrubs, thorny bushes, and cacti, which are typical vegetation types of the desert region.
- The trees of the desert region yield various types of gums and fuelwood. The bark of babul is used for tanning leather.
Tropical deciduous forests or monsoon forest region.
- These forests are the typical vegetation cover on the monsoon region.
- They extend from the Siwalik ranges in the north to the eastern flanks of the Western Ghats.
- This region has a rainfall between 100 and 200 cm.
- The trees of these forests shed their leaves during the dry season.
- The typical trees of these forests are teak, sal, sandal-wood, shisham, and mahua.
- The trees of these forests, specially teak, sal, and shisham are economically most important for the valuable timber.
- The timber is used for constructional purposes and for making furniture.
The tropical evergreen forests region.
- These forests are confined to the region of very high rainfall over 200 cm. The main areas are found in West Bengal, the West Coastal Plain, the north-eastern hills, and the rainy side of the Eastern Ghats.
- The trees of these forests are very lofty, dense, and hardwooded.
- There is a thick growth of various types of moist vegetation under these trees.
- Mahogany, bamboo, ivory woods, ebony, rubber-trees are the economically significant trees of these forest.
- Owing to lack of means of transportation these forests are of little commercial use.
Tidal Vegetation Region. This type of vegetation is grown along the deltas of rivers which are subjected to tides.
- Most important region is the delta of Ganga where a special mangrove tree known as Sundari tree is grown.
- This forest region is named Sundarbans after the Sundari trees. These forests yield tanning material and firewood.
The Himalayan Vegetation. This type of vegetation differs in kind with increasing height. In the foot-hills of the Himalayas, tropical deciduous forests like teak, sal, and rosewood occur.
- Above these forests zone are found evergreen broad level forests of beech, chestnut, elm, ash, oak, etc.
- At a higher altitude this forest belt is replaced by coniferous forests consisting of pine, fir, cedar, and spruce.
- The coniferous at a still higher altitude give place to shrubs and grasses called Alpine Vegetation.
- Most of forest species of the Himalayas are economically highly significant but have been exploited only where these forests have become accessible by the development of means of transportation.
- The most widespread vegetation belt of India occurs in the form of tropical deciduous forest.
- Its main characteristic is that the trees shed their leaves for six to eight weeks during the dry season.
- Deciduous forests are economically the most important forest of India.
- This is because their trees teak, sal, etc., provide fine timber for making furniture, railway sleepers, bridges, etc., and valuable products such as the bark, leaves, fruits, etc., of sandalwood, mahua, khair, rosewood, cane and other trees which constitute important industrial raw materials.
- The main factors which have undermined the economic value of tropical evergreen forests are: dense growth of lofty trees, wide variety of species growing in a small area, thick undergrowth, hard wood of the trees, lack of means of transportation, and remoteness from the market.
Man Made Lakes
NAME OF DAM
High aswan (Sadd-el Aali)
Guri (Raul Leoni)