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All questions of History for UPSC CSE Exam

With reference to the Manuscripts, which of the following is correct ?
1. The word manuscript is derived from the Latin word ‘Manu’  which means hand.
2. They are written on a palm leaf or the bark of a tree known as a birch.
3. The Manuscripts were uncovered at some of the Indus Valley civilisation sites.
Q. Which of the statements is correct ?
  • a)
    1 and 2
  • b)
    1 only
  • c)
    2 only
  • d)
    None of these
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Amit Sharma answered
The noun manuscript evolved from the Latin manu scriptus, meaning “written by hand.” Manu is “hand” and scriptus is “to write." It refers to old documents actually written by hand before books were made, but it can also refer to a writer's unpublished work whether it's handwritten or typed.
Manuscripts were usually written on palm leaf, or on the specially prepared bark of a tree known as the birch, which grows in the Himalayas, while inscriptions were engraved either on a stone surface or on bricks or metals.
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Consider the following statements.
1. Upanishads were texts containing student-teacher conversations presented mostly by men like brahmins and rajas.
2. Poor people rarely took part in such discussions, however a slave woman Jabali was an exception and became one of the best known thinkers of the time.
Which of the statements is incorrect?
  • a)
    1 and 2
  • b)
    1 only
  • c)
    None of these
  • d)
    2 only
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Nabanita Kaur answered
The incorrect statement is option (c) 2 only.

Explanation:
1. Upanishads were texts containing student-teacher conversations presented mostly by men like brahmins and rajas.
This statement is true. The Upanishads are a collection of ancient texts that contain the philosophical concepts of Hinduism. They consist of discussions between teachers and students, mostly men like brahmins and rajas.

2. Poor people rarely took part in such discussions, however a slave woman Jabali was an exception and became one of the best known thinkers of the time.
This statement is incorrect. While it is true that the Upanishads were mostly discussions between men of higher social status, there were exceptions. Women and people of lower social status did take part in such discussions. However, there is no mention of a slave woman named Jabali in the Upanishads. There is a sage named Jabala who is mentioned in some Upanishads, but there is no evidence to suggest that she was a slave or a woman.

Therefore, option (c) 2 only is the incorrect statement.

Who among the following, arranged vowels and consonants in a special order to create formulas like those found in Algebra?
a)Gargi
b)Gautama
c)Panini
d)Shaunaka
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Pooja Shah answered
Paninini was the one who prepared a grammar for Sanskrit. He arranged the vowels and the consonants, in special order and then used these to create formulae like those found in Algebra. He used to write down the rules of the language in short formula, around 3000 of them.

Faience, unlike stone or shell, was an artificially produced material. It was used to make which of the following items?
1. Beads
2. Bangles
3. Plough
4. Seals
  • a)
    1,2 and 4
  • b)
    1 only
  • c)
    2 and 3 only
  • d)
    1 and 2
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Poonam Reddy answered
Unlike stone or shell, that is found naturally, Faience is a material that is artificially produced. A gum was used to shape sand or powdered quartz into an object. The objects were then glaze, resulting in a shiny, glassy surface. The colours of glaze were usually blue or sea green.
Faience was used to make beads , bangles, earrings and tiny vessels.

Consider the following statements.
1. The market control policy in the Delhi Sultanate was implemented by Alauddin Khilji.
2. Allaudin started to pay his soldiers in cash instead of Iqta.
Q. Which of the statements is true?
  • a)
    2 only 
  • b)
    1 and 2
  • c)
    1 only
  • d)
    None of these
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Anmol Kumar answered
The most important improvement in Alauddin's economic reforms was "market control policy" which was mentioned by Barni in his book 'Tarikh-i-Firuz Shahi'.
Maximum Mongol invasions took place during the reign of Alauddin Khilji, due to which Alauddin had to keep a large army. Allauddin started paying cash salaries to the soldiers instead of Iqta.

Consider the following statements.
1. Many craft persons and merchants formed associations known as shrenis which provided training and procurement of raw material.
2.  The Northern black polished ware was a hard wheel, metallic looking ware with a shiny black surface. It was applied on pots to give them a mirror like shine.
Which of them is incorrect?
  • a)
    1 and 2
  • b)
    1 only
  • c)
    2 only
  • d)
    None of these
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Debanshi Menon answered
The Correct Answer is Option D
  • Crafts persons and merchants formed an association known as shrines. These shrenis of craft persons provided training, procured raw material and distributed the finished product. The Shrenis organised the trade and also served as banks.
  • The Northern black polished ware was a hard wheel, metallic looking ware with a shiny black surface. It was applied on pots to give them a mirror like shine.

Consider the following statements. Which of them is correct?
1. The Arya Samaj was founded by Swami Dayanand Sarawsati in 1875.
2. It aimed at promoting the authority of the Vedas and rejected the worship of idols.
  • a)
    1 and 2
  • b)
    1 only
  • c)
    2 only
  • d)
    None of these
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Kabir Verma answered
Swami Dayanand Saraswati founded the reform association called Arya Samaj in 1875. Arya Samaj was aimed at promoting values and practices based on the belief in the infallible authority of the Vedas. Members of the Arya Samaj believe in one God and reject the worship of idols.

Which of the following treaty was signed between tipu Sultan and the British to end the third Anglo Mysore war?
  • a)
    Treaty of Sugauli.
  • b)
    Treaty of Poona.
  • c)
    Treaty of Srirangapatnam.
  • d)
    Treaty of Mangalore.
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Puja Iyer answered
The treaty that was signed between Tipu Sultan and the British to end the third Anglo Mysore war is the Treaty of Srirangapatnam.

Details of the Treaty:
• The Treaty of Srirangapatnam was signed on March 22, 1792, between Tipu Sultan and the British East India Company.
• The treaty ended the third Anglo-Mysore war which had started in 1789.
• As per the treaty, Tipu Sultan had to cede half of his kingdom to the British.
• He had to pay a war indemnity of three crore rupees to the British.
• Two of Tipu Sultan's sons were taken hostage by the British as a guarantee for the payment of the indemnity.
• The treaty also provided for the establishment of British factories in Mysore and granted them a free passage for their trade through Mysore.
• The British were also given control of the city of Malabar and its surrounding areas.

Significance of the Treaty:
• The Treaty of Srirangapatnam marked the end of the military career of Tipu Sultan.
• It also marked the beginning of the British domination over South India.
• The treaty paved the way for the establishment of British rule in India.
• The treaty led to the weakening of Mysore and its eventual annexation by the British in 1831.

Hence, the correct answer is option 'C'.

Which of the following is considered to be the first place where people learnt to grow barley and wheat and rear sheep and goats for the first time?
  • a)
    Mehrgarh
  • b)
    Burzahom
  • c)
    Brahmagiri
  • d)
    Inamgaon
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Uday Roy answered
The first place where people learnt to grow barley and wheat and rear sheep and goats for the first time is considered to be Mehrgarh.

Mehrgarh is an archaeological site located in the Balochistan province in Pakistan. It is regarded as one of the most important Neolithic sites in South Asia and has provided valuable insights into the early development of human civilization.

Some of the key features of Mehrgarh that make it an important site for the study of early human civilization include:

1. Agriculture: Mehrgarh is believed to be one of the earliest sites where people started to cultivate crops such as barley and wheat. The discovery of grain storage pits and grinding stones indicates that agriculture was an important part of life at Mehrgarh.

2. Domestication of animals: In addition to agriculture, Mehrgarh is also believed to be one of the earliest sites where people started to domesticate animals such as sheep and goats. The discovery of animal bones and figurines suggests that these animals were an important part of life at Mehrgarh.

3. Social organization: The discovery of large, multi-room structures at Mehrgarh suggests that people were living in complex, organized societies. The presence of figurines and other artifacts also suggests that art and religion were important aspects of life at Mehrgarh.

In conclusion, Mehrgarh is considered to be the first place where people learnt to grow barley and wheat and rear sheep and goats for the first time. Its importance in the study of early human civilization cannot be overstated, and it continues to be a valuable source of information for archaeologists and historians.

Which of the following statements is not correct regarding the Lucknow pact?
  • a)
    It was signed between Congress and Muslim league
  • b)
    Congress accepted a separate electorate demand.
  • c)
    Extremists were readmitted to Congress
  • d)
    Congress accepted to support the Khilafat issue.
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

The Lucknow Pact was a significant event in the Indian national movement that took place on December 1, 1916. It was an agreement signed between the Indian National Congress and the All India Muslim League. The pact aimed at uniting the two major communities of India- Hindus and Muslims- in their struggle for independence from British rule.

The correct statement regarding the Lucknow Pact is:

D) Congress accepted to support the Khilafat issue.

Explanation:

The Khilafat movement was launched by the Indian Muslims to protect the Ottoman Caliphate from the disintegration and dismantling of the Ottoman Empire by the Allied powers after World War I. The Khilafat Committee was formed in 1919 to coordinate the Khilafat movement in India.

The Congress, in its effort to gain Muslim support for the freedom struggle, agreed to support the Khilafat issue at its session in Calcutta in September 1920. The Congress leaders believed that the Khilafat movement would help in achieving Hindu-Muslim unity and would strengthen the nationalist movement.

However, the support for the Khilafat issue proved to be a strategic mistake for the Congress as the movement turned violent and led to communal riots. Moreover, the Khilafat issue became irrelevant after the abolition of the Ottoman Caliphate by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk in 1924.

Therefore, the correct statement is that Congress accepted to support the Khilafat issue, and not that it was a part of the Lucknow Pact. The Lucknow Pact primarily dealt with the issue of separate electorates for Muslims and Hindus, representation in the legislative councils, and the sharing of power between the two communities.

Who Among the following composed a biography of the Buddha, the Buddha charita?
  • a)
    Ashvaghosha
  • b)
    Fa Xian
  • c)
    Muvender
  • d)
    Gautami Balashri
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Ashvaghosha composed the biography of the Buddha, the Buddha Charita. He was a Buddhist philosopher and poet who lived in India during the 1st century CE.

Biography of Ashvaghosha:
Ashvaghosha was born in Saketa, a town in present-day Uttar Pradesh, India. He was a Brahmin by birth and was well-educated in the Vedic scriptures. He was later attracted to Buddhism and became a monk.

Works of Ashvaghosha:
Ashvaghosha was a prolific writer and composed many works in Sanskrit. Some of his notable works include:

1. Buddha Charita: It is an epic poem that describes the life of the Buddha from his birth to his enlightenment. It is considered one of the most important works of Buddhist literature.

2. Saundarananda: It is another epic poem that describes the life of Nanda, the stepbrother of the Buddha, and his conversion to Buddhism.

3. Sutralamkara: It is a treatise on Buddhist philosophy and ethics that discusses the tenets of Buddhism in detail.

4. Vajrasuchi: It is a work on meditation that describes the stages of concentration and the attainment of enlightenment.

Legacy of Ashvaghosha:
Ashvaghosha's works were highly influential in the development of Buddhist philosophy and literature. His writings were widely read and commented upon by later Buddhist scholars. He is considered one of the greatest Buddhist philosophers and poets of all time.

Conclusion:
In summary, Ashvaghosha composed the biography of the Buddha, the Buddha Charita. He was a prominent Buddhist philosopher and poet who made significant contributions to Buddhist literature and philosophy.

The people of India agitated against the arrival of Simon Commission because
  • a)
    Indians never wanted the review of the working of the Act of 1919 
  • b)
    the Simon Commission suggested the partition of the country​
  • c)
    Simon Commission recommended the abolition of Dyarchy (Diarchy) in the Provinces there was no Indian member in the Simon Commission 
  • d)
    none of these
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Ankit Kumar answered
Correct Answer:- C


After the Non-Cooperation Movement, British government itself provided an opportunity to the Indians for the revival of political agitation in the country. The British government announced the appointment of a statutory commission on November 8, 1927 and the constitution of the commission revived the political agitation in India.

The commission consisted of seven members of the British Parliament with John Simon as its Chairman. The most objectionable feature of the commission from the Indian point of view was its all British composition. Not a single Indian was considered fit to be included in the commission. The commission was to look into the functioning of the reforms introduced in India by the Act of 1919 and to enquire into the working of the growth of education in India.

Regarding the late ancient era consider the following statement:
1. Puranic stories and local deities became popular.
2. As per Puranas only Upper Caste devotees can receive the grace of God.
Which of the following statements is/are not correct?
  • a)
    1 only
  • b)
    2 only
  • c)
    All of the above
  • d)
    None of the above
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Late Ancient Era and Puranic Stories

Introduction:
The late ancient era marks the period between the 4th and 8th centuries AD in Indian history. During this period, many significant changes took place in Indian society and culture.

Puranic stories and local deities:
One of the most notable features of this era was the increasing popularity of Puranic stories and local deities. Puranas are ancient Hindu texts that contain stories about the gods and goddesses, as well as various aspects of Hindu mythology. These stories became very popular during this period, and many new temples were built to house the images of the gods and goddesses.

Only Upper Caste devotees can receive the grace of God:
However, it is not true that only Upper Caste devotees can receive the grace of God, as mentioned in statement 2. This is a misconception that has been propagated by some people based on a misinterpretation of certain texts. In fact, the idea of God's grace being available only to a certain section of society is contrary to the basic tenets of Hinduism, which emphasize the importance of individual effort and devotion.

Conclusion:
In conclusion, while Puranic stories and local deities did become popular during the late ancient era, it is incorrect to say that only Upper Caste devotees can receive the grace of God. It is essential to understand the nuances of Indian history and culture to avoid such misconceptions.

Arrange the following sequence of events.
1. End of Yuan dynasty in China
2. Capture of Baghdad and end of the Abbasid Caliphate
3. Death of Genghis Khan.
  • a)
    2-1-3
  • b)
    3-2-1
  • c)
    1-2-3
  • d)
    1-3-2
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Arya Das answered
Sequence of events:
1. Death of Genghis Khan: Genghis Khan, the founder and the first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, died in 1227. His death marked a significant turning point in the history of the Mongol Empire and had implications for the subsequent events.

2. Capture of Baghdad and end of the Abbasid Caliphate: After the death of Genghis Khan, his successors continued the expansion of the Mongol Empire. In 1258, Hulagu Khan, a grandson of Genghis Khan, led the Mongols in capturing Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate. This event resulted in the end of the Abbasid Caliphate, a major Islamic empire that had existed for centuries.

3. End of Yuan dynasty in China: The Yuan dynasty was established in China by Kublai Khan, a grandson of Genghis Khan. The dynasty ruled over China from 1271 to 1368. However, internal conflicts, economic difficulties, and popular uprisings led to the decline of the Yuan dynasty. In 1368, the Chinese rebel leader Zhu Yuanzhang overthrew the Mongols and established the Ming dynasty, bringing an end to the Yuan dynasty.

Arrangement of events:
Based on the chronological order of the events, the correct sequence is:
3-2-1

- Genghis Khan's death in 1227 marks the beginning of the sequence.
- The capture of Baghdad and the end of the Abbasid Caliphate occurred in 1258, after Genghis Khan's death.
- The end of the Yuan dynasty in China happened in 1368, which is the final event in the given sequence.

Therefore, the correct arrangement of the events is 3-2-1 (Death of Genghis Khan, Capture of Baghdad and end of the Abbasid Caliphate, End of Yuan dynasty in China).

Consider the following statements.
1. The Harappans made seals out of stone which were generally rectangular and had a deity carved on them.
2. Copper and bronze was used to make tools, weapons, and vessels while gold and silver was used to make ornaments and vessels.
Which of the statements is correct?
  • a)
    1 and 2
  • b)
    1 only
  • c)
    2 only
  • d)
    None of these
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

The Harappans made seals out of stone which were generally rectangular and had an animal carved on them.
Copper and bronze was used to make tools, weapons, and vessels , ornaments while gold and silver was used to make ornaments and vessels.
Most of the things found by archaeologists are made of stone, shell and metal including copper, bronze, gold and silver.

Consider the following statement:
1. Char bagh means four gardens, because of their symmetrical division into quarters.
2. Charbagh style was brought to India by Mughals.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
  • a)
    1 only
  • b)
    2 only
  • c)
    All of the above
  • d)
    None of the above
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Anjali Rao answered
  • Char bagh means four gardens, because of their symmetrical division into quarters.
  • Babur described his interest in planning and laying out formal gardens, placed within rectangular walled enclosures and divided into four quarters by artificial channels.
  • Charbagh style was brought to India by Mughals. Humayun’s tomb and Taj Mahal in India are the most famous examples of this style.

Consider the following statements.
1. Hunter-gatherers moved from place to place to search for food and in search of animals to prey.
2. Koldihwa is a famous Megalithic site.
Which of the statements is correct ?
  • a)
    1 and 2
  • b)
    1 only
  • c)
    2 only
  • d)
    None of these
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Anjana Sharma answered
Statement 1 is correct as hunter-gatherers were nomadic people who moved from place to place in search of food and animals to hunt.

Statement 2 is incorrect as Koldihwa is not a famous Megalithic site. In fact, Koldihwa is a prehistoric site in Uttar Pradesh, India, which is known for its ancient paintings and rock art, not megalithic structures.

Therefore, the correct answer is option B.

Which of the statements is true?
1. The term Hindustan was used by Minhaj-i-Siraj to denote the areas of undivided India.
2. The term Rajput's included not just rulers and chieftains but also commanders and soldiers of the army.
Q. Which of the statements is true?
  • a)
    2 only 
  • b)
    1 and 2
  • c)
    1 only
  • d)
    None of these
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Snehal Kumar answered
The term Hindustan was used by the chronicler Minhaj-i-Siraj to denote the areas of Punjab, Haryana and the lands between the Ganga and Yamuna. The terms were used in political sense to describe the lands which were part of the Delhi Sultanate, but never included South India.
The Rajputs were among the main communities whose importance grew in the medieval period. The term was used not just for rulers and chieftains, but also included the soldiers and commanders of armies.

Consider the following statements.
1. The Qutub Minar was built by Qutbuddin Aibak and Iltutmish
2. The two bands of inscriptions under the balcony of Qutub Minar, are written in Persian
3. A large reservoir just outside Delhi-i-kuhna by constructed by Balban
Q. Which of the statements is true?
  • a)
    2 and 3 only 
  • b)
    1 and 2
  • c)
    1 only
  • d)
    1, 2 and 3
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Sasmita Rout answered
C) Because construction of basement of Qutab minar was started by Qutbuddin Aibak , and later the construction taken over by Iltutmish . And in other hand ---
The two bands of inscriptions under the balcony of Qutab minar, are written in Arabic language. And
A large reservoir just outside Delhi-i-kuhna was constructed by Sultan Iltutmish , and named as 'Kings Reservoir ' .

Consider the following statements.
1. The Indigo Revolt of 1859-60 resulted in the virtual wipeout of indigo cultivation from the districts of Bengal by 1860.
2. Nil Darpan, is a Bengali play written by Michael Madhusudan Dutt which depicts the indigo planters and their protest against exploitative farming under the British Raj.
Q. Which of the following statements is correct?
  • a)
    2 only
  • b)
    1 and 2
  • c)
    1 only
  • d)
    None of these
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Pranjal Ghosh answered
The Indigo revolt (or Nil bidroho) was a peasant movement and subsequent uprising of indigo farmers against the indigo planters that arose in Chowgacha village of Nadia in Bengal in 1859.
As Indigo planting became more commercially profitable due to the demand for blue dye in Europe, the planters persuaded the peasants to plant indigo instead of food. They were provided with loans, at a very high interest resulting in a whole life of debt, whereas the price paid for indigo was only 2.5% of the market price resulting in no profit for farmers.
Under this severe oppression, farmers resorted to revolt. Due to the revolt, the planters gradually began to shut shop with the cultivation of indigo being wiped out from the districts of Bengal by 1860.
Nil Darpan is a Bengali play written by Dinabandhu Mitra in 1858–1859. The play was published in Dhaka in 1860, under a pseudonym of the author. The play was essential to Nil Vidroha, better known as the Indigo Revolt of February–March 1859 in Bengal, when farmers refused to sow indigo in their fields to protest against exploitative farming under the British Raj.
It was Michael Madhusudan Dutt who translated the play into English immediately after it was published.

Which of the following is correct?
1. Mughals were proud of the timurid dynasty who captured Delhi in 1398.
2. In 1526, Babur occupied Delhi and Punjab after the battle of Panipat.
  • a)
    1 and 2 both
  • b)
    2 only  
  • c)
    1 only
  • d)
    None of these
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Sanvi Kapoor answered
Mughals were proud of the timurid dynasty because their great ancestor had captured Delhi in 1398. Their pride was celebrated by getting a picture made of timur with themselves. 
On 21st April 1526, Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the First Battle of Panipat and quickly occupied Delhi 

With reference to the Delhi sultanate, which of the following rulers had the shortest period of rule.
  • a)
    Turkish Dynasty
  • b)
    Khilji Dynasty
  • c)
    Tughlaq Dynasty
  • d)
    Syed Dynasty
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Sandhya Kadam answered
Khilji dynasty was the shortest ruling dynasty of the delhi sultanate.The founder of Khilji dynasty was Jalal-ud-din Khilji.He was very generous king.He adopted the policy of tolerence towards all religion. But he could rule for a very short period of 4 years as he was treacherously murdered by his nephew Alauddin Khilji. Alauddin Khalji was very harsh in his policies.He was intolerent towards other religion other than islam.During his reign, he raided and looted many temples and killed a large number of masses.His expeditions reached far till south India. After his death, his immediate successors were not so strong to keep the foundations of his kingdom intact, therefore the Khilji dynasty collapsed and it was taken over by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq who founded the Tughlaq dyanasty.

During the 1857 revolt which proclamation criticized the attitude of British towards native public servants?
  • a)
    Delhi proclamation
  • b)
    Lucknow proclamation
  • c)
    Azamgarh proclamation
  • d)
    Kanpur proclamation
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Ojasvi Mehta answered
  • Azamgarh proclamation criticized the attitude of British towards native public servants. Section (iii) of proclamation was regarding public servant.
  • It is not a secret thing, that under the British Government, natives employed in the civil and military services have little respect, low pay, and no manner of influence; and all the posts of dignity and emolument in both the departments are exclusively bestowed on Englishmen.
  • Therefore, all the natives in the British service ought to be alive to their religion and interest, and abjuring their loyalty to the English, side with the Badshahi Government, and obtain salaries of 200 and 300 rupees a month for the present, and be entitled to high posts in the future

With reference to Jhum cultivation, consider the following statements.
1. Jhum cultivation is believed to have originated in the Neolithic period.
2. It is practiced in Northeast India and continues to be a dominant mode of food production.
3. Bewar is a term used in Madhya Pradesh for shifting cultivation practices.
Q. Which of them is correct?
  • a)
    1 and 2
  • b)
    2 and 3
  • c)
    2 only
  • d)
    1,2 and 3
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Ankit Kumar answered
Correct Answer:- D (1,2 and 3)


Shifting cultivation, commonly known as 'jhum' is one of the most ancient systems of farming believed to have originated in the Neolithic period around 7000 BC.

It is a slash and burn practice of cultivation in States of North Eastern Hill Region of India and people involved in such cultivation are called Jhumia.

Bewar term used in Madhya Pradesh for shifting cultivation.

Who among the following founded the Swaraj Party in 1923?
  • a)
    Motilal Nehru and C.R. Das.
  • b)
    Sachin Sanyal and Jogesh Chatterji
  • c)
    Gandhiji and Jawaharlal Nehru
  • d)
    Abdul Ghaffar Khan and Vithalbhai Patel
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Suyash Saha answered
The Swaraj Party was established as the Congress-Khilafat Swaraj Party. It was a political party formed in India in January 1923 after the Gaya annual conference in December 1922 of the National Congress, that sought greater self-government and political freedom for the Indian people from the British Raj.
It was founded by Motilal Nehru and CR Das.

Consider the following statements
1. Harishena composed a prashashti in praise of Gautamiputra Shri Satakarni.
2. Aihole was the capital of the Pallavas.
3. There were twelve rulers in Dakshinapatha.
Q. Which of the statements is correct ?
a)1 and 2
b)3 only
c)2 and 3 only
d)1,2 and 3
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Anisha Singh answered
The correct option is B, i.e. 2 and 3 only.

Explanation:

1. Harishena composed a prashashti in praise of Gautamiputra Shri Satakarni:
This statement is incorrect. Harishena did not compose a prashashti in praise of Gautamiputra Shri Satakarni. In fact, Harishena composed a prashashti in praise of Samudragupta, who was a ruler of the Gupta dynasty.

2. Aihole, the capital of the Chalukyas, was an important trading centre. It developed as a religious centre, with a number of temples:
This statement is correct. Aihole was the capital of the Chalukyas and it was an important trading centre. It also developed as a religious centre, with a number of temples. Some of the famous temples in Aihole are the Lad Khan Temple, the Durga Temple, and the Hucchimalli Temple.

3. There were twelve rulers in Dakshinapatha:
This statement is also correct. Dakshinapatha was the region south of the Vindhyas and it had twelve rulers. Some of the well-known rulers of Dakshinapatha were the Satavahanas, the Chalukyas, and the Pallavas.

Hence, the correct option is B, i.e. 2 and 3 only.

Consider the following statements.
1. He was the first person to conduct a widow remarriage in Andhra Pradesh.
2. He was known as the quintessential renaissance man.
3. He is popularly known as Gadya Tikkana.
Q. Which of the following people is being talked about?
  • a)
    Srinatha
  • b)
    Yerrapragada
  • c)
    Kandukuri veeresalingam pantulu
  • d)
    Nannaya Bhattaraka
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Ajna Ghosh answered
Kandukuri Veeresalingam Pantulu 

1.He was a social reformer and writer of Madras presidency British India.
2.He is considered as the father of renaissance movement in Telugu.
3.He was one of the early social reformers who encouraged a)women education,
b)remarriage of widows
c)fought against dowry system.
4.He also started a school in Dowlaiswaram  in 1874.
5.He constructed a temple as Brahmo Mandir in 1887 and the 'Hithakarini School' in 1908 in Andhra Pradesh.
6.His novel Rajasekhara Charitramu is considered to be the first novel in Telugu literature.

The most effective contribution made by Dadabhai Naoroji to the cause of India National Movement was -
Q. Which of the statements above is/are correct?
  • a)
    Exposed the economic exploitation of India by the British in his writings.
  • b)
    Interpreted the ancient Indian textbooks 
  • c)
    Focused on the need for eradication of social evils
  • d)
    None of these
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Isha Yadav answered
Dadabhai Naoroji was a prominent Indian nationalist leader who played a significant role in the Indian National Movement. He made several contributions to the cause of India's independence, but his most effective contribution was exposing the economic exploitation of India by the British in his writings.

Exposing Economic Exploitation:
Naoroji was a strong advocate of economic nationalism and believed that India's poverty was a direct result of British economic policies. He argued that India was being exploited by the British through excessive taxation, unequal trade policies, and draining of wealth from India to Britain. In his book "Poverty and Un-British Rule in India," he exposed the economic exploitation of India by the British and the impact it had on the Indian economy. His writings helped to create awareness among Indians about the need to fight against British economic policies and work towards economic independence.

Conclusion:
In conclusion, Dadabhai Naoroji's most effective contribution to the Indian National Movement was exposing the economic exploitation of India by the British in his writings. His work helped to create awareness among Indians about the need for economic independence and played a significant role in shaping the nationalist movement in India.

Consider the following statements. Which of the statements is correct?
1. She wrote a Declaration of Rights of Woman and Citizen addressed to the Queen and members of the National Assembly.
2. She is known to protest against the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen.
3. She criticised the Jacobian government for forcible closing down women’s clubs.
  • a)
    Sarah Bernhardt
  • b)
    Marie de Medicis
  • c)
    Olympe de Gouges
  • d)
    Sonia Delaunay
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Kunal Menon answered
Olympe de Gouges was one of the most important of the politically active women in revolutionary France. She protested against the constitution and Declaration of rights of man and citizen as they excluded women from basic rights that each human being was entitled to .
She wrote a Declaration of Rights of Woman and Citizen addressed to the Queen and members of the National Assembly. In 1793, She criticised the Jacobian government for forcible closing down women’s clubs. She was tired by the National convention which charged her for treason

With reference to the system of Subsidiary alliance, consider the following statements?
1. The British would be responsible for protecting their ally from external threats.
2. In the territory of the ally, a British armed contingent would be stationed.
3. The ally could not enter into agreement with other rules except on the persomissin of the British.
  • a)
    1,2 and 3
  • b)
    1 and 2
  • c)
    1 only
  • d)
    2 and 3
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Prerna Rane answered
The subsidiary alliance was a system devised by Lord Wellesley in 1798. The terms of the alliance included -
A) The British would be responsible for protecting their ally from external and internal threats to power.
B) In the territory of the ally, a British armed contingent would be stationed.
C) The ally would have to provide the resources for maintaining this contingent. 
D) The ally could not enter into agreement with other rules except on the persomissin of the British.

Which of the finding is common for ancient cities Kalibangan and Lothal?
  • a)
    Dockyard
  • b)
    Bead making factory
  • c)
    Fire altars
  • d)
    Ploughed field
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Rhea Reddy answered
  • Dockyard, bead-making factory along with a sea trade centre was found in Lothal, Gujrat.
  • Fire altars were found in both Kalibangan and Lothal showing the practice of the cult of sacrifice.
  • The ploughed field was found in Kalibangan, Rajasthan.

Consider the following statements:
(1) To keep track of life in the growing cities colonial rule carried out regular surveys, gathered statistical data, and published various official reports.
(2) Colonial rule did not emphasize on mapping.
Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
  • a)
    1 Only
  • b)
    2 Only
  • c)
    Both
  • d)
    None of the above
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Vikram Verma answered
  • Colonial rule was based on the production of enormous amounts of data. The British kept detailed records of their trading activities in order to regulate their commercial affairs. To keep track of life in the growing cities, they carried out regular surveys, gathered statistical data, and published various official reports.
  • From the early years, the colonial government was keen on mapping. It felt that good maps were necessary to understand the landscape and know the topography

Consider the following statement.
1. East India Company appointed Gomasthas to supervise weavers consolidating its power in the region.
2. In 1760, East India Company captured the textile market in India.
Which of the following statements is/are not correct?
  • a)
    1 only
  • b)
    2 only
  • c)
    Both of them
  • d)
    Neither of them
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Ojasvi Mehta answered
  • East India Company to establish its monopoly right to trade, it appointed a paid servant called the Gumasta to supervise weavers, collect supplies, and examine the quality of cloth.
  • Before establishing political power in Bengal and Carnatic in the 1760s and 1770s, the East India Company had found it difficult to ensure a regular supply of goods for export. The French, Dutch, Portuguese, as well as the local traders, competed in the market to secure the woven cloth.

Which Delhi sultanate ruler described himself as prophet Moses and Solomon?
  • a)
    Alauddin khilji
  • b)
    Qutbuddin Aibak
  • c)
    Iltutmish
  • d)
    Ghiyasuddin Tughluq
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

The Delhi Sultanate

The Delhi Sultanate, which existed from the 13th to the 16th century, was a Muslim kingdom that ruled over parts of the Indian subcontinent. It was established by Qutbuddin Aibak, a Turkic slave-general of the Ghurid dynasty.

Alauddin Khilji

Alauddin Khilji was the second ruler of the Khilji dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. He ascended to the throne in 1296 after assassinating his uncle and predecessor, Jalaluddin Khilji. Alauddin Khilji is considered one of the most powerful rulers of the Delhi Sultanate due to his military conquests and administrative reforms.

Self-Proclamation

Alauddin Khilji was known for his grandiose self-proclamations and titles. He referred to himself as "Sikandar-i-Sani," meaning the second Alexander. However, it is also mentioned in historical accounts that he compared himself to Prophet Moses and Solomon.

Comparison to Prophet Moses

Prophet Moses, or Musa in Arabic, is an important figure in Abrahamic religions. He is revered as a prophet and messenger of God who led the Israelites out of slavery in Egypt and received the Ten Commandments on Mount Sinai. By comparing himself to Prophet Moses, Alauddin Khilji aimed to portray himself as a powerful and righteous leader chosen by God.

Comparison to Prophet Solomon

Prophet Solomon, or Sulaiman in Arabic, is another prominent figure in Abrahamic religions. He is known for his wisdom, wealth, and construction of the first temple in Jerusalem. By likening himself to Prophet Solomon, Alauddin Khilji sought to emphasize his own wisdom, wealth, and grandeur.

Conclusion

Alauddin Khilji, the second ruler of the Khilji dynasty, described himself as Prophet Moses and Solomon to project an image of power, righteousness, wisdom, and grandeur. These self-proclamations were part of his larger strategy to consolidate his rule and maintain his authority over the Delhi Sultanate.

Who was the viceroy of India during the Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930?
  • a)
    Lord Irwin
  • b)
    Lord Willington
  • c)
    Lord Lansdowne
  • d)
    None of the above
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Aditya Rane answered
During the Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930, the viceroy of India was Lord Irwin.

Explanation:
Lord Irwin, whose full name was Rufus Daniel Isaacs, was the viceroy of India from 1926 to 1931. He succeeded Lord Reading and served as the 3rd Earl of Reading. Lord Irwin played a significant role during the Civil Disobedience Movement initiated by Mahatma Gandhi in 1930.

The Civil Disobedience Movement was a nonviolent protest against the salt tax imposed by the British colonial government. Mahatma Gandhi led the movement, which aimed to challenge British authority and demand independence for India. As part of the movement, Gandhi and his followers marched to the coastal town of Dandi and illegally produced salt from seawater, defying the British monopoly on salt production.

As the viceroy of India, Lord Irwin was responsible for maintaining law and order in the country. He faced the task of dealing with the growing civil unrest and protests led by Mahatma Gandhi. Lord Irwin was known for his liberal approach and willingness to engage in dialogue with Indian leaders.

Recognizing the importance of resolving the growing tension, Lord Irwin initiated negotiations with Mahatma Gandhi. These talks eventually led to the signing of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact in 1931, which marked a significant milestone in the Indian independence movement. The pact called for the release of political prisoners, the withdrawal of the salt tax, and the participation of the Indian National Congress in the Second Round Table Conference in London.

Lord Irwin's tenure as the viceroy of India witnessed significant developments in the Indian independence movement. His willingness to engage in dialogue and negotiate with Indian leaders played a crucial role in paving the way for future negotiations and discussions on India's independence.

Vetti and Kadamai, found in inscriptions of cholas, are a kind of?
  • a)
    Tax
  • b)
    Tamil literature
  • c)
    Schools for Brahmanas
  • d)
    Donation given by kings to Brahmanas
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Ayush Kulkarni answered
Vetti and Kadamai, found in inscriptions of Cholas, are a kind of Tax.

Explanation:

• The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of southern India.

• The Cholas were great patrons of literature, art, and architecture. They also had a well-organized system of administration, which included the collection of taxes.

• Vetti and Kadamai were two types of taxes collected by the Cholas.

• Vetti was a tax levied on various professions, such as weavers, potters, blacksmiths, and carpenters. This tax was collected in the form of goods or services.

• Kadamai was a tax levied on land. This tax was based on the productivity of the land and was collected in the form of grains or other agricultural produce.

• The revenue collected through these taxes was used for various purposes, such as the maintenance of temples, irrigation systems, and the salaries of officials.

• The Cholas also gave donations to Brahmanas, who were considered the highest caste in the Hindu social hierarchy. These donations were made in the form of land, gold, silver, and other valuables.

In conclusion, Vetti and Kadamai were two types of taxes collected by the Cholas, while donations to Brahmanas were given separately.

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