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All questions of Indian Polity for UPSC CSE Exam

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Which of the following schemes provide education to girls and their welfare?
  • a)
    One Stop Centre Scheme
  • b)
    UJJAWALA
  • c)
    SWADHAR Scheme
  • d)
    Beti Bachao Beti Padhao
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Kabir Verma answered
Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao Yojana is a campaign under the Government of India that was established for generating awareness and improving the efficiency of the welfare services intended for girls in India. This scheme was launched by PM Narendra Modi on 22 January 2015 which is run jointly by the Ministry of Women and Child Development, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and the Ministry of Human Resource Development.

Which is/are CORRECT statement:
1. Ladakh is also called Little Tibet
2. Local versions of the Tibetan national epic the Kesar Saga are performed and sung by both Muslims and Buddhists in Ladakh
  • a)
    1 Only
  • b)
    2 Only
  • c)
    Both of them
  • d)
    Neither of them
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Kavita Mehta answered
  • Ladakh – literally ‘The Land of Many Passes’ and also known as ‘Little Tibet’ – is situated in the northern-most part of India and shares borders with Tibet, Pakistan and the Indian states of Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh .
  • Kesar Saga is sung by both Buddhist and local muslims. This epic is not just sung locally but also sung throughout Central Asia right from Mongolia to Ladakh. Kesar Saga is a Tibetian epic about a king called Kesar who ruled Ling

If there are 545 members in the Lok Sabha, five members are absent, 50 do not participate in the voting, and how many members will be required to pass a bill from the effective majority in Lok Sabha?
  • a)
    270
  • b)
    254
  • c)
    276
  • d)
    245
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Sanjay Rana answered
Effective Majority of the house means more than 50% of the effective strength of the house. This implies that out of the total strength, we deduct the vacant seats. When Indian Constitution mentions “all the then members”, that refers to the effective majority.

Which of the following statements is not correct?
  • a)
    According to the 42nd and the 44th amendment, it is compulsory for president to comply with the advice of the Council of Ministers
  • b)
    Presidential System is based on double executive
  • c)
    Members of all Union Territories
  • d)
    All of the above
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Rohit Jain answered
In the Presidential election, elected members of both houses of parliament, elected members of the state legislature and only elected members of Delhi and Puducherry Legislatures participate.
1. Both elected and nominated members of the State legislative council
2. Along with elected and nominated members of the State Legislative Council, other members who do NOT participate directly in the election of the President are: nominated members of both Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha, nominated members of legislative assemblies of the Union Territories of Delhi and Puducherry
3. Following members directly participate in the election:
a. the elected members of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha
b. the elected members of the legislative assemblies of the state
c. the elected members of the legislative assemblies of the Union Territories of Delhi and Puducherry.
 
 

What was the main purpose behind bringing Panchayati Raj system in India?
  • a)
    To Prevent criminalization of politics
  • b)
    Development of villages
  • c)
    Decentralisation of the political power to the general peoples
  • d)
    To reduce election expenses
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Suresh Reddy answered
  • Decentralising the democratic process In India, election to these local bodies has been carried out on a regular basis, in most cases, freely and fairly. Though some states have seen allegations of violence, these are primarily law and order issues.

Which of the following are judicial and electoral powers and functions of the Parliament?
1. It can impeach the President.
2. The Parliament is authorized to make laws to regulate the elections.
3. It can amend the constitution.
4. It can punish its members for the breach of its privileges or its contempt.
  • a)
    1, 3
  • b)
    1, 2, 3
  • c)
    1, 2, 4
  • d)
    All of the above
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Kavita Shah answered
Judicial Powers and Functions -
1. It can impeach the President for the violation of the Constitution.
2. It can remove the Vice-President from his office.
3. It can recommend the removal of judges (including chief justice) of the Supreme Court and the high courts, chief election commissioner, comptroller and auditor general to the president.
4. It can punish its members or outsiders for the breach of its privileges or its contempt.
Electoral Powers and Functions -1. The Parliament participates in the election of the President (along with the state legislative assemblies) and elects the Vice-President.
2. The Lok Sabha elects its Speaker and Deputy Speaker, while the Rajya Sabha elects its Deputy Chairman.
3. The Parliament is also authorized to make laws to regulate the elections to the offices of President and Vice-President, to both the Houses of Parliament and to both the Houses of state legislature.
4. Accordingly, Parliament enacted the Presidential and Vice-Presidential Election Act (1952), the Representation of People Act (1950), the Representation of People Act (1951), etc.
Other Powers and Functions -
1. It serves as the highest deliberative body in the country.
2. It discusses various issues of national and international significance.
3. It approves all the three types of emergencies (national, state and financial) proclaimed by the President.
4. It can create or abolish the state legislative councils on the recommendation of the concerned state legislative assemblies.
5. It can increase or decrease the area, alter the boundaries and change the names of states of the Indian Union.
6. It can regulate the organization and jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and high courts and can establish a common high court for two or more states.

Consider the following assertions:
1. The midday meal scheme was first introduced in the state of Andhra Pradesh.
2. In 2001, the Supreme Court asked all the State Governments to begin midday meal programmes in their schools within six months.
Which of the above assertion(s) is/are correct?
  • a)
    1 only
  • b)
    2 only
  • c)
    Both 1 and 2
  • d)
    Neither 1 nor 2
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Vikram Kapoor answered
  • One of the steps taken by the government includes the midday meal scheme. This refers to the programme introduced in all government elementary schools to provide children with cooked lunch.
  • Tamil Nadu was the first state in India to introduce this scheme, and in 2001, the Supreme Court asked all state governments to begin this programme in their schools within six months. This programme has had many positive effects.
  • These include the fact that more poor children have begun enrolling and regularly attending school.
  • This programme has also helped reduce caste prejudices because both lower and upper caste children in the school eat this meal together, and in quite a few places, Dalit women have been employed to cook the meal.
  • The midday meal programme also helps reduce the hunger of poor students who often come to school and cannot concentrate because their stomachs are empty.

Consider the following statements:
1. In our country, the Parliament consists of two Houses.
2. The President of India is not a part of the Parliament.
3. All laws made in the Houses come into force only after they receive the assent of the President.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
  • a)
    1 and 2 only
  • b)
    2 and 3 only
  • c)
    1 and 3 only
  • d)
    1, 2 and 3
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Rohit Jain answered
  • The Parliament plays a central role in modern democracies, most large countries divide the role and powers of the Parliament in two parts. They are called Chambers or Houses. One House is usually directly elected by the people and exercises the real power on behalf of the people.
  • The second House is usually elected indirectly and performs some special functions. The most common work for the second House is to look after the interests of various states, regions or federal units. In our country, the Parliament consists of two Houses.
  • The two Houses are known as the Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and the House of the People (Lok Sabha). The President of India is a part of the Parliament, although she is not a member of either House. That is why all laws made in the Houses come into force only after they receive the assent of the President.

Consider the following statements.
1. The people of most of the princely states clearly wanted to become part of the Indian union.
2. The government was prepared to be flexible in giving autonomy to some regions.
3. The idea was to accommodate plurality and adopt a flexible approach in dealing with the demands of the regions
Which of these statements are correct?
  • a)
    1 and 2 only
  • b)
    2 and 3 only
  • c)
    1 and 3 only
  • d)
    All of the above
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Anjali Rao answered
  • The interim government took a firm stance against the possible division of India into small principalities of different sizes. The Muslim League opposed the Indian National Congress and took the view that the States should be free to adopt any course they liked.
  • Sardar Patel was India’s Deputy Prime Minister and the Home Minister during the crucial period immediately following Independence. He played a historic role in negotiating with the rulers of princely states firmly but diplomatically and bringing most of them into the Indian Union. It may look easy now.
  • But it was a very complicated task which required skilful persuasion. For instance, there were 26 small states in today’s Orissa. Saurashtra region of Gujarat had 14 big states, 119 small states and numerous other different administrations.

Which of the following systems is established on the basis of direct election?
  • a)
    Gram Panchayat
  • b)
    Block Committee
  • c)
    Zila Parishad
  • d)
    Both b and c
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Akanksha Bose answered
Introduction:
The question asks which of the given systems is established on the basis of direct election. Let's analyze each option and determine the correct answer.

Explanation:
- Gram Panchayat: Gram Panchayat is the local self-government system in rural areas of India. It is the lowest level of Panchayati Raj system. Gram Panchayats are established on the basis of direct election, where the members are elected by the people of the village. They play a crucial role in the development and administration of the village. Therefore, option A is correct.

- Block Committee: Block Committee, also known as Panchayat Samiti, is the intermediate level of the Panchayati Raj system. It consists of elected representatives from various Gram Panchayats within a block. However, the members of the Block Committee are not directly elected by the people. They are elected by the members of the Gram Panchayats. Therefore, option B is incorrect.

- Zila Parishad: Zila Parishad is the highest level of the Panchayati Raj system. It is established at the district level and consists of elected representatives from various Block Committees within the district. Similar to the Block Committee, the members of Zila Parishad are not directly elected by the people. They are elected by the members of the Block Committees. Therefore, option C is incorrect.

Conclusion:
Based on the above explanation, it can be concluded that Gram Panchayat is the only system among the given options that is established on the basis of direct election. Therefore, the correct answer is option A.

Which statement is not correct in the case of "Sovereign India"?
  • a)
    India is not dependent on any country
  • b)
    India is not a colony of any other country
  • c)
    India can give any part of its country to any other country
  • d)
    Is obliged to obey the UN in its internal affairs
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Deepa Iyer answered
  • The word Sovereign means a state having independent authority and a Right to govern itself without any outside influence.
  • The Preamble of India proclaims India as a state to be sovereign, it testifies to the fact that India is no longer a dependency or colony or possession of British Crown.
  • As a sovereign independent state, India is free both internally and externally to take her own decisions and implement these for her people and territories. Thus, being a free sovereign country India has the power and authority to rule its subjects, manage its own security and assert its Sovereignty against any outside powers or nations

The word democracy is derived from two Greek terms :
  • a)
    Alpha, Beta
  • b)
    Demos, Kratos
  • c)
    Demo, Cracy
  • d)
    None of these
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Aashna Bose answered
The correct answer is option B, Demos, Kratos.

Explanation:
Democracy is a form of government in which power is vested in the people. It is derived from two Greek terms: Demos and Kratos. Let's understand the meaning of these terms:

1. Demos:
Demos means "the people" or "the citizens" in Greek. It refers to the collective body of individuals who constitute a society or a community. In the context of democracy, it represents the idea that the ultimate power and authority should rest with the people.

2. Kratos:
Kratos means "rule" or "power" in Greek. It signifies the exercise of authority or governance. In the context of democracy, it symbolizes the principle of self-rule or the power of the people to govern themselves.

Combining the two terms, "Demos" and "Kratos," we get the word "Democracy," which literally means "rule by the people" or "government by the people."

Democracy as a Concept:
Democracy is not just a word but a concept that embodies the principles of popular sovereignty, equality, and participation. It is a system of government where decisions are made collectively and reflect the will of the majority. In a democratic society, citizens have the right to express their opinions, elect their representatives, and participate in the decision-making process.

Democracy in Practice:
Democracy can take various forms, such as direct democracy, representative democracy, or constitutional democracy. It has been practiced in different ways throughout history and across different countries. However, the core idea remains the same - the power lies with the people.

Conclusion:
The word "democracy" is derived from the Greek terms "Demos" and "Kratos," which mean "the people" and "rule" respectively. It represents the concept of self-governance and the idea that power should ultimately rest with the citizens. Democracy is a fundamental principle of many modern societies and is based on the values of popular sovereignty, equality, and participation.

In the context of India, consider the following assertions:
1. India has the largest number of medical colleges in the world and is among the largest producers of doctors.
2. India is the fourth largest producer of medicines in the world and is also a major exporter of medicines.
Which of the above assertion(s) is/are correct?
  • a)
    1 Only
  • b)
    2 Only
  • c)
    Both 1 and 2
  • d)
    Neither 1 nor 2
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Meera Kapoor answered
  • Despite having the highest number of hospitals and doctors, the level of healthcare is poor in India.
  • The main reason for this is that most doctors settle in urban areas. People in rural areas have to travel long distances to reach a doctor.
  • The number of doctors with respect to the population is much less in the rural areas. Despite being a big producer and exporter of drugs, the cost of medicines is high here, thus medicines are not adequately accessible to every citizen.
  • Several deaths are caused because of it.

"The language of Preamble" of Indian constitution is taken from the constitution of
  • a)
    America
  • b)
    Canada
  • c)
    Australia
  • d)
    Ireland
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Niti Basak answered
Explanation:

The Preamble of the Indian Constitution is a brief introductory statement that sets out the objectives and purposes of the Constitution. It was adopted on 26 November 1949 by the Constituent Assembly of India.

The language of the Preamble is inspired by the Constitution of Australia. However, the idea of including a Preamble in the Constitution was borrowed from the Constitution of the United States of America.

The Preamble is a non-justiciable part of the Constitution, meaning that it cannot be enforced by a court of law. However, it serves as a guiding principle for the interpretation of the Constitution.

The Preamble of the Indian Constitution reads as follows:

"We, the people of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic and to secure to all its citizens:

Justice, social, economic and political;
Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
Equality of status and of opportunity;
and to promote among them all
Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;
In our constituent assembly this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do hereby adopt, enact and give to ourselves this Constitution."

Conclusion:

Thus, it can be concluded that the language of the Preamble of the Indian Constitution is taken from the Constitution of Australia, but the idea of including a Preamble in the Constitution was borrowed from the Constitution of the United States of America.

Which of the following is not a ground for claiming discrimination?
  • a)
    Being overweight
  • b)
    Race
  • c)
    Religion
  • d)
    Caste
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Deepa Iyer answered
  • The Constitution of India guarantees certain fundamental rights to the citizens of India, including protection to individuals from discrimination only on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth. ... These fundamental rights are available only against the State.

Deliberative democracy involves:
  • a)
    politicians consulting their ministerial colleagues before taking decisions
  • b)
    every major political decision being taken after a referendum.
  • c)
    extensive public debate before politicians take decisions
  • d)
    citizens consulting family and friends before voting
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Ojasvi Mehta answered
  • Deliberative democracy or deliberative engagement is all about placing people (citizens, residents, affected individuals) closer to the affairs of government and decision makers.
  • Deliberative processes are built around a number of key principles including:
1. Participants will have access to the information they need to have an in-depth conversation and information will be neutral, balanced and from a range of different sources.
2. The process is representative. Participants are selected randomly via a random, stratified selection process.
3. Participants are given the time they need to deliberate, which allows them to consider complex information, grapple with trade-offs and impacts and weigh up options and ideas
4. The deliberative group is given a high level of influence over outcomes or decisions.

Consider the following statements.
1. People who have fled their homes but remain within national borders are called ‘internally displaced people’.
2. Those who voluntarily leave their home countries are called refugees
Which of these statements are correct?
  • a)
    1 Only
  • b)
    2 Only
  • c)
    Both of them
  • d)
    Neither of them
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Eshaan Kapoor answered
  • Poverty in the South has also led to large-scale migration to seek a better life, especially better economic opportunities, in the North. This has created international political friction. International law and norms make a distinction between migrants (those who voluntarily leave their home countries) and refugees (those who flee from war, natural disaster or political persecution).
  • States are generally supposed to accept refugees, but they do not have to accept migrants. While refugees leave their country of origin, people who have fled their homes but remain within national borders are called ‘internally displaced people’. Kashmiri Pandits that fled the violence in the Kashmir Valley in the early 1990s are an example of an internally displaced community

Consider the following statements:
1. The assertion of social diversities in a country needs to be seen as a source of danger for the country.
2. Expression of various kinds of social divisions in politics often results in weakening of democracy.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
  • a)
    1 Only
  • b)
    2 Only
  • c)
    Both of them
  • d)
    Neither of them
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Kavita Shah answered
  • The assertion of social diversities in a country need not be seen as a source of danger. In a democracy, political expression of social divisions is very normal and can be healthy. This allows various disadvantaged and marginal social groups to express their grievances and get the government to attend to these.
  • Expression of various kinds of social divisions in politics often results in their cancelling one another out and thus reducing their intensity. This leads to strengthening of a democracy.

How many tiers are in the Panchayati Raj system of India?
  • a)
    One tier
  • b)
    Two tier
  • c)
    Three tier
  • d)
    Four tier
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Sanjay Rana answered
Three tier system is arranged i.e. Gram Panchayat, Panchayat Samiti and Zila Parishad. Panchayati Raj is the oldest system of local government in the Indian subcontinent.

Which of the following are the purpose of the constitution?
1. It lays out certain ideals that form the basis of the kind of country.
2. It defines the nature of a country’s political system.
3. It prevents tyranny or domination by the majority over the minority.
4. It helps to save us from ourselves.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
  • a)
    1, 2 and 3 only
  • b)
    2 and 4 only
  • c)
    1 and 4 only
  • d)
    1, 2, 3 and 4
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Sahana Patel answered
Introduction:
The purpose of a constitution is to establish the fundamental principles, values, and framework for a country's governance. It serves as a guiding document that outlines the ideals, nature of the political system, and safeguards against potential abuses of power. The given options highlight key purposes of a constitution.

Explanation:

1. It lays out certain ideals that form the basis of the kind of country:
- A constitution often includes a preamble or an introductory statement that outlines the fundamental values and aspirations of the country.
- It expresses the ideals and principles that the nation strives to uphold, such as equality, justice, liberty, and democracy.
- These ideals shape the country's laws, policies, and governance structure.

2. It defines the nature of a country’s political system:
- A constitution establishes the framework for the political system of a country.
- It defines the structure and powers of the government, including the executive, legislature, and judiciary.
- It outlines the relationship between these branches and their respective roles and responsibilities.
- It may also specify the process for elections, appointment of officials, and the functioning of political institutions.

3. It prevents tyranny or domination by the majority over the minority:
- One of the essential purposes of a constitution is to safeguard individual rights and protect minority interests.
- It establishes a system of checks and balances to prevent the abuse of power by any branch of government or majority faction.
- Constitutional provisions, such as the separation of powers, judicial review, and the protection of fundamental rights, ensure that the rights and interests of all citizens are upheld and protected.

4. It helps to save us from ourselves:
- This option suggests that a constitution acts as a safeguard against our own human tendencies and potential for self-destructive behavior.
- By establishing clear rules, principles, and institutions, a constitution helps maintain stability, order, and progress.
- It ensures that decisions are made through established processes, preventing arbitrary actions or decisions based on momentary impulses or emotions.

Conclusion:
The constitution serves multiple purposes, including laying out ideals, defining the political system, preventing tyranny, and safeguarding against self-destructive behavior. It provides a framework for governance and ensures that the rights and interests of citizens are protected.

Consider the following statements with reference to Indian Parliament.
1. The Indian Parliament is an expression of the faith that the people of India have in principles of democracy.
2. The Parliament in our system has immense powers because it is the representative of the people.
Which of the statements given above is/are NOT correct?
  • a)
    1 only
  • b)
    2 only
  • c)
    Both 1 and 2
  • d)
    Neither 1 nor 2
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Shivani Desai answered
The correct answer is option 'd) Neither 1 nor 2'.

Explanation:
The given statements are related to the Indian Parliament and its significance in the democratic system of India. Let us analyze each statement individually to understand why they are incorrect:

1. The Indian Parliament is an expression of the faith that the people of India have in principles of democracy:
This statement is incorrect. While it is true that the Indian Parliament is a key institution in the functioning of Indian democracy, it cannot be considered as an expression of the faith that people have in democratic principles. The Indian Parliament is not a direct expression of people's faith, but rather a representative body that is elected by the people to make decisions on their behalf. The faith in democratic principles is reflected in the process of electing representatives and the functioning of a democratic system as a whole.

2. The Parliament in our system has immense powers because it is the representative of the people:
This statement is also incorrect. While it is true that the Parliament is the representative body of the people, it does not possess immense powers solely because of this representation. The powers of the Parliament are defined and limited by the Constitution of India. The Parliament has powers to make laws, discuss and deliberate on important issues, and exercise control over the executive branch of the government. However, these powers are subject to checks and balances, and the Parliament cannot act arbitrarily or without regard to the Constitution and the principles of separation of powers.

Overall, neither of the given statements is correct. The Indian Parliament is an important institution in the democratic system of India, but it is not an expression of people's faith in democracy, and its powers are not unlimited solely based on representation. The functioning of the Indian Parliament is guided by constitutional provisions and democratic principles.

Who among the following is hailed as the father of local self-government in India?
  • a)
    Lord Mayo
  • b)
    Lord Ripon
  • c)
    Jawaharlal Nehru
  • d)
    Mahatma Gandhi
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

  • Lord Ripon is known to have granted the Indians first taste of freedom by introducing the Local Self Government in 1882. His scheme of local self government in 1882. His scheme of local self-government developed the Municipal institutions which had been growing up in the country ever since India was occupied by the British Crown.
  • He led a series of enactments in which larger powers of the Local self government were given to the rural and urban bodies and the elective people received some wider rights.
  • Lord Ripon is known as Father of Local Self Government in India. This was not enacted by any act, it was a resolution that was passed in 1882.

How many members are elected indirectly in State Legislative Councils?
  • a)
    1/6
  • b)
    3/4
  • c)
    5/6
  • d)
    1/3
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Rajesh Roy answered
State Legislative Councils, also known as Vidhan Parishads, are the upper houses of the state legislature in India. The members of these councils are not directly elected by the people, but are elected indirectly through a system of various methods.

The correct answer to the question is option 'C': 5/6 members are elected indirectly in State Legislative Councils.

Explanation:

1. Composition of State Legislative Councils:
- State Legislative Councils consist of members who are elected by different methods such as Legislative Assembly members, local bodies, and Governor's nominees.
- The total number of members in a State Legislative Council is fixed at a maximum of one-third of the total number of members in the Legislative Assembly of that state.
- For example, if a state's Legislative Assembly has 300 members, then the maximum strength of the State Legislative Council will be 100 members.

2. Indirect Election Process:
- Out of the total members in the State Legislative Council, a majority of them are elected indirectly.
- The members of the Legislative Council who are elected indirectly include:
a) Members elected by the Members of Legislative Assembly (MLAs): A certain number of MLAs from the Legislative Assembly of the state are elected to the Legislative Council.
b) Members elected by local bodies: Members are elected by local bodies such as municipalities, district boards, and other local government institutions.
c) Governor's nominees: The Governor of the state can nominate certain members to the Legislative Council.

3. Calculation of Indirectly Elected Members:
- To determine the number of members elected indirectly in State Legislative Councils, we need to consider the total number of members in the council and subtract the number of members who are directly elected.
- Since one-third of the total members are directly elected, the remaining members (two-thirds) are elected indirectly.
- Therefore, the proportion of members elected indirectly is 2/3, which is equivalent to 5/6.

Hence, the correct answer to the question is option 'C': 5/6 members are elected indirectly in State Legislative Councils.

Consider the following statements with reference to Public facilities:
1. Electricity, public transport, schools are known as public facilities.
2. The important characteristic of a public facility is that once it is provided, its benefits can be shared by many people
3. One of the most important functions of the government is to ensure that public facilities are made available to everyone.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
  • a)
    1 and 3 only
  • b)
    2 and 3 only
  • c)
    1 and 2 only
  • d)
    1, 2 and 3
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Disha Bose answered
The correct answer is option 'D': 1, 2 and 3.

Explanation:
Public facilities are essential services provided by the government to the general public for their welfare and well-being. These facilities are intended to benefit a large number of people and are typically funded by the government. Let's analyze each statement in detail:

1. Electricity, public transport, schools are known as public facilities:
- This statement is correct. Electricity, public transport, and schools are examples of public facilities. Electricity is a basic necessity that is provided to households, businesses, and institutions for various purposes. Public transport includes buses, trains, trams, and other modes of transportation accessible to the general public. Schools are educational institutions where students receive formal education.

2. The important characteristic of a public facility is that once it is provided, its benefits can be shared by many people:
- This statement is correct. One of the key features of public facilities is that they are accessible to a large number of people. For example, when electricity is provided to a neighborhood, all households in that area can benefit from it. Similarly, public transport services are available to anyone who wishes to use them, and schools cater to the educational needs of a wide range of students.

3. One of the most important functions of the government is to ensure that public facilities are made available to everyone:
- This statement is correct. It is a crucial responsibility of the government to ensure that public facilities are provided to all sections of society. Governments invest in infrastructure development, such as electricity grids, transportation networks, and educational institutions, to ensure that these facilities are accessible to everyone. By doing so, the government promotes equality and enhances the overall quality of life for its citizens.

In conclusion, all three statements are correct. Public facilities such as electricity, public transport, and schools are essential for the well-being of society. Once provided, these facilities can be shared by many people, and it is the government's responsibility to ensure their availability to everyone.

With reference to term Dalit, consider the following statements:
1. The term Dalit, means ‘broken’ and is used by groups to highlight the centuries of discrimination.
2. Dalits can ‘invoke’ or ‘draw on’ a Fundamental Rights in situations where they feel that they have been treated badly by some individual or community
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
  • a)
    1 only
  • b)
    2 only
  • c)
    Both 1 and 2
  • d)
    Neither 1 nor 2
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Disha Bose answered
The correct answer is option 'C' - Both 1 and 2.

Explanation:

1. The term Dalit, means ‘broken’ and is used by groups to highlight the centuries of discrimination.
The term "Dalit" originates from the Sanskrit word "dalita" which means "oppressed" or "broken". It is used by groups in India to refer to individuals who have been historically marginalized and discriminated against due to their caste. The term is used to highlight the social, economic, and educational disadvantages faced by this community for centuries.

The Dalit community in India has faced various forms of discrimination and oppression, including untouchability, social exclusion, and limited access to resources and opportunities. They have been subjected to social, economic, and political marginalization, and have often been denied basic human rights.

2. Dalits can ‘invoke’ or ‘draw on’ Fundamental Rights in situations where they feel that they have been treated badly by some individual or community.
The Constitution of India provides Fundamental Rights to all citizens, including Dalits. These rights include the right to equality, freedom of speech and expression, protection from discrimination, and the right to life and personal liberty.

Dalits can invoke or draw on these Fundamental Rights when they feel that they have been treated unfairly or discriminated against by individuals or communities. For example, if a Dalit person is denied access to public spaces, educational institutions, or employment opportunities based on their caste, they can file a complaint or seek legal recourse invoking their right to equality.

The Constitution of India also provides for affirmative action measures, such as reservations in educational institutions and government jobs, to uplift and empower marginalized communities, including Dalits. These measures aim to address historical injustices and provide equal opportunities for social and economic advancement.

In conclusion, both statements are correct. The term "Dalit" is used to highlight the centuries of discrimination faced by marginalized communities in India, and Dalits can invoke Fundamental Rights to seek redressal in situations where they feel they have been treated badly.

Zero Hour in the Parliamentary system has been derived from:
  • a)
    South Africa
  • b)
    America
  • c)
    Japan
  • d)
    None of the above
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

  • As the 9th Lok Sabha Speaker, Rabi Ray introduced certain changes in the proceedings of the House to create more opportunities for the members to raise matters of urgent public importance.
  • He proposed a mechanism to regulate the proceedings during the ‘Zero Hour’, raise matters in a more orderly manner and optimize the time of the House. While the dictionary defines ‘Zero Hour’ as the “the critical moment” or “the moment of decision”, in parliamentary parlance, it is referred to as the time gap between the end of Question Hour and the beginning of the regular business.
  • Zero Hour doesn’t find a mention in the Rules of Procedure and hence it’s considered an informal procedure for the members of Parliament to raise matters of serious importance. The other rationale behind naming it so can be traced to the fact that it starts at 12 noon.

Consider the following statements:
1. The judge of the Supreme Court can resign his office by writing to the Chief Justice of India.
2. The judge of the Supreme Court can be removed from his office by the President on the recommendation of the Chief Justice of India.
3. The Removal of a Supreme Court judge is based on two grounds - proved misbehaviour or incapacity.
Which of the statements given above is / are correct?
  • a)
    1 only
  • b)
    2 only
  • c)
    3 only
  • d)
    1, 3 only
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Anshika Basak answered
Statement 1: The judge of the Supreme Court can resign his office by writing to the Chief Justice of India.
This statement is correct. According to Article 124(2) of the Constitution of India, a judge of the Supreme Court can resign his office by writing to the President. However, it is customary for the judge to write to the Chief Justice of India, who then forwards the resignation to the President.

Statement 2: The judge of the Supreme Court can be removed from his office by the President on the recommendation of the Chief Justice of India.
This statement is incorrect. According to Article 124(4) of the Constitution of India, a judge of the Supreme Court can be removed from his office only by an order of the President, passed after an address by each House of Parliament supported by a majority of the total membership of that House and by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members of that House present and voting, has been presented to the President in the same session for such removal on the ground of proved misbehaviour or incapacity. The recommendation of the Chief Justice of India is not required for the removal of a Supreme Court judge.

Statement 3: The removal of a Supreme Court judge is based on two grounds - proved misbehaviour or incapacity.
This statement is correct. Article 124(4) of the Constitution of India states that a judge of the Supreme Court can be removed on the ground of proved misbehaviour or incapacity. However, it is important to note that the process for removal is elaborate and requires the support of both Houses of Parliament as mentioned in the previous statement.

In conclusion, statement 1 is correct as a judge of the Supreme Court can resign his office by writing to the Chief Justice of India. Statement 2 is incorrect as the removal of a Supreme Court judge requires an address by each House of Parliament and does not solely depend on the recommendation of the Chief Justice of India. Statement 3 is correct as the removal of a Supreme Court judge is based on proved misbehaviour or incapacity. Therefore, the correct answer is option C - 3 only.

Consider the following statements:
1. The Rowlatt Act allowed the British government to imprison people without due Trial.
2. In West Bengal, protests against this Act continued quite actively and two leaders of the movement, Dr Satyapal and Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew were arrested.
3. To protest these arrests, a public meeting was held at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar, Punjab.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
  • a)
    1 and 2 only
  • b)
    2 and 3 only
  • c)
    1 only
  • d)
    1 and 3 only
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

  • The Rowlatt Act allowed the British government to imprison people without due trial. Indian nationalists including Mahatma Gandhi were vehement in their opposition to the Rowlatt bills.
  • Despite the large number of protests, the Rowlatt Act came into effect on 10 March 1919.In Punjab, protests against this Act continued quite actively and on April 10 two leaders of the movement, Dr Satyapal and Dr Saifuddin Kitchlew were arrested.
  • To protest these arrests, a public meeting was held on 13 April at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar. General Dyer entered the park with his troops. They closed the only exit and without giving any warning General Dyer ordered the troops to fire.Several hundreds of people died in this gunfire and many more were wounded including women and children.

Where was the first Municipal Corporation set up in India?
  • a)
    Bombay
  • b)
    Calcutta
  • c)
    Madras
  • d)
    Surat
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Aniket Nair answered
The first Municipal Corporation was set up in India in Madras in 1688 during the British rule.

History of Municipal Corporations in India
During the British rule, the concept of Municipal Corporations was introduced in India to improve the management of cities and towns. The first Municipal Corporation was established in Madras in 1688. In the following years, several other cities such as Bombay, Calcutta, and Surat also established Municipal Corporations.

Functions of Municipal Corporations
Municipal Corporations are responsible for the management of cities and towns. They perform various functions such as:

1. Providing basic amenities such as water supply, sanitation, and waste management
2. Maintenance of roads, parks, and other public places
3. Promotion of cultural and educational activities
4. Collection of taxes and fees from residents and businesses
5. Implementation of urban development projects

Challenges faced by Municipal Corporations
Municipal Corporations in India face several challenges such as inadequate funds, lack of skilled manpower, corruption, and political interference. These challenges often lead to poor management of cities and towns, resulting in inadequate provision of basic amenities and infrastructure.

Conclusion
The establishment of Municipal Corporations in India was a significant step towards improving the management of cities and towns. However, there is a need for greater accountability, transparency, and efficiency in the functioning of Municipal Corporations to address the challenges faced by them.

With respect to communal politics, consider the following statements:
1. In communal politics religion is expressed in politics in exclusive and partisan terms.
2. Communal politics is based on the idea that religion is the principal basis of social community.
Which of the statements given above is/are NOT correct?
  • a)
    1 Only
  • b)
    2 Only
  • c)
    Both of them
  • d)
    Neither of them
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Kavita Mehta answered
Communalism
1. The problem begins when religion is seen as the basis of the nation and it becomes more acute when religion is expressed in politics in exclusive and partisan terms, when one religion and its followers are pitted against another.
2. This happens when beliefs of one religion are presented as superior to those of other religions, when the demands of one religious group are formed in opposition to another and when state power is used to establish domination of one religious group over the rest. This manner of using religion in politics is communal politics.
3. Communal politics is based on the idea that religion is the principal basis of social community.

Which of the following challenges are faced by the democratic countries all over the world?
1. Applying the basic principle of democratic government across all the regions, different social groups and various institutions.
2. Extension of federal principle to all the units of the federation.
3. Deepening of democracy.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
  • a)
    1, 2 and 3
  • b)
    2 and 3 only
  • c)
    1 and 3 only
  • d)
    1 and 2 only
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Anjali Rao answered
  • At least one fourth of the globe is still not under democratic government. The challenge for democracy in these parts of the world is very stark.
  • These countries face the foundational challenge of making the transition to democracy and then instituting democratic government.
  • This involves bringing down the existing non-democratic regime, keeping the military away from controlling government and establishing a sovereign and functional state. Most of the established democracies face the challenge of expansion.

Consider the following statements:
1. Equality is an important principle of our Constitution.
2. The government has set up anganwadis in several villages in the country to reduce the inequality between the sexes.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
  • a)
    1 Only
  • b)
    2 Only
  • c)
    Both 1 and 2
  • d)
    Neither 1 nor 2
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Meera Kapoor answered
  • Equality is an important principle of our Constitution. The Constitution says that being male or female should not become a reason for discrimination.
  • To fulfill this , the government takes positive steps to reduce the inequality between both the sexes. For example, government recognises that burden of childcare and housework falls on women and girls.
  • This naturally has an impact on whether girls can attend school or whether women can work outside the house and what kind of jobs and careers they can have.To tackle this one of the steps that government has taken is to set up anganwadis or child-care centres in several villages in the country.

Consider the following statements:
1. In a democracy any group of citizens is free to form a political party.
2. In a one-party system only one party is allowed to control and run the government.
3. Any democratic system must allow at least two parties to compete in elections.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
  • a)
    1 and 2 only
  • b)
    2 and 3 only
  • c)
    1 and 3 only
  • d)
    All of the above
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Explanation:

The correct answer is option 'D' - All of the above. Let's analyze each statement one by one to understand why.

Statement 1: In a democracy any group of citizens is free to form a political party.
- This statement is correct. In a democratic system, citizens have the freedom to form political parties. This is an essential element of democracy as it allows for diverse representation and multiple viewpoints to be expressed.

Statement 2: In a one-party system only one party is allowed to control and run the government.
- This statement is also correct. In a one-party system, only one political party is allowed to exist and control the government. This means that other political parties are either not allowed or heavily restricted in their activities. This type of system is often associated with authoritarian regimes and lacks the principles of multi-party democracy.

Statement 3: Any democratic system must allow at least two parties to compete in elections.
- This statement is correct. In a democratic system, it is important to have multiple parties competing in elections. This ensures that the citizens have a choice and can vote for the party that aligns with their views and interests. It also promotes healthy competition and accountability among political parties.

Conclusion:
All three statements are correct as they describe different aspects of democratic systems. In a democracy, citizens have the freedom to form political parties, while in a one-party system, only one party is allowed to control the government. However, in any democratic system, it is necessary to have at least two parties competing in elections to ensure representation and choice for the citizens.

Where is the parliament of European Union?
  • a)
    Belgium
  • b)
    Britain
  • c)
    Germany
  • d)
    USA
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Ojasvi Mehta answered
Location of the European Union Parliament:
- The European Union Parliament is located in Belgium.
Explanation:
- The European Union Parliament is the legislative body of the European Union (EU), which is a political and economic union of 27 member states.
- The EU Parliament is responsible for representing the interests of EU citizens and passing laws that affect all member states.
- The EU Parliament is located in the capital city of Belgium, which is Brussels.
- Brussels is chosen as the location for the EU Parliament because it is considered to be a neutral and central location within the EU.
- Brussels is also home to many other EU institutions and organizations, making it an important hub for European politics and decision-making.
Summary:
- The parliament of the European Union is located in Belgium, specifically in the city of Brussels. Brussels is chosen as the location due to its central and neutral position within the EU, as well as its status as a hub for European politics.

Which of the following statements regarding the Seventy-Fourth Amendment to the Constitution of India are correct?
1. It provides for the insertion of a new Schedule to the Constitution.
2. It restructures the working of the municipalities.
3. It provides for the reservation of seats for women and Scheduled Castes in the municipalities.
4. It is applicable only to some specified states.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
  • a)
    1, 2 and 3
  • b)
    1, 2 and 4
  • c)
    1, 3 and 4
  • d)
    1, 2, 3 and 4
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Priya Menon answered
The 74th Amendment Act gave Constitutional status to the Municipalities. It has brought them under the purview of the justiciable part of the Constitution. In other words, the state governments are under constitutional obligation to adopt the new system of municipalities in accordance with the provisions of the Act.
Reservation of Seats
1. There shall be provisions for the reservation of seats for the scheduled castes and the scheduled tribes in every municipality in proportion of their population to the total population in the municipal area.
2. Further, there shall be the reservation of not less than one-third of the total number of seats for women (including the number of seats reserved for women belonging to the SCs and STs). 3. The state legislature may provide for the manner of reservation of offices of chairpersons in the municipalities for the SCs, the STs and the women.
4. It may also make any provision for the reservation of seats in any municipality or offices of chairpersons in municipalities in favour of backward classes.

Consider the following statements:
1. Branding means stamping a product with a particular name or sign.
2. Term Branding actually came from cattle grazing.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
  • a)
    1 Only
  • b)
    2 Only
  • c)
    Both 1 and 2
  • d)
    Neither of them
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Branding’ means stamping a product with a particular name or sign. This is done in order to differentiate it from other products in the market.Branding actually came from cattle grazing. Cattle of different owners grazed together in ranches and they often got mixed up.The owners thought of a solution. They started marking their cattle with the owner’s sign by using a heated iron. This was called ‘branding’.

Which of the following can be a reason for power sharing in a polity?
1. Power sharing is good because it helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups.
2. Power sharing is the very spirit of democracy.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
  • a)
    1 Only
  • b)
    2 Only
  • c)
    Both of them
  • d)
    Neither of them
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Kabir Verma answered
  • Two different sets of reasons can be given in favour of power sharing. Firstly, power sharing is good because it helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups.
  • Since social conflict often leads to violence and political instability, power sharing is a good way to ensure the stability of political order. Imposing the will of the majority community over others may look like an attractive option in the short run, but in the long run it undermines the unity of the nation.
  • Tyranny of the majority is not just oppressive for the minority; it often brings ruin to the majority as well.

Consider the following statements:
1. In 1928, Motilal Nehru and other Congress leaders drafted a constitution for India.
2. In 1941, the resolution at the Karachi session of the Indian National Congress dwelt on how independent India’s constitution should look like.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
  • a)
    1 only
  • b)
    2 only
  • c)
    Both 1 and 2
  • d)
    Neither 1 nor 2
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Meera Kapoor answered
  • As far back as in 1928, Motilal Nehru and eight other Congress leaders drafted a constitution for India. In 1931, the resolution at the Karachi session of the Indian National Congress dwelt on how independent India’s constitution should look like.
  • Both these documents were committed to the inclusion of universal adult franchise, right to freedom and equality and to protecting the rights of minorities in the constitution of independent India.

Which of the following are illegal as per election laws of India?
1. Bribing or threatening voters.
2. Appealing to voters in the name of caste or religion.
3. Use government resources for election campaigns by party or candidate.
4. A candidate cannot spend more than Rs. 10 lakh in a constituency for an Assembly election.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
  • a)
    1 and 2 only
  • b)
    3 and 4 only
  • c)
    1, 2 and 3 only
  • d)
    1, 2, 3 and 4
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

The correct answer is option 'C' - 1, 2, and 3 only.

Explanation:

1. Bribing or threatening voters:
Bribing or threatening voters is illegal as per election laws in India. It is considered an electoral offense to offer or give any gratification to a voter with the intent to induce or influence the voter to exercise their electoral right in a particular manner. Similarly, threatening or intimidating voters to influence their voting choice is also illegal.

2. Appealing to voters in the name of caste or religion:
Appealing to voters in the name of caste or religion is also illegal in India. The Election Commission of India (ECI) has laid down guidelines that prohibit candidates and political parties from seeking votes on the basis of religion, caste, community, or language. This rule is aimed at promoting a fair and secular election process, ensuring that voters are not influenced by religious or caste considerations.

3. Use of government resources for election campaigns by party or candidate:
Using government resources for election campaigns by a party or candidate is illegal in India. The Model Code of Conduct (MCC), enforced by the Election Commission, prohibits the misuse of government machinery, vehicles, buildings, and other resources for election campaigning purposes. This ensures a level playing field for all candidates and parties and prevents unfair advantages based on access to government resources.

4. Candidate spending limit:
The statement about a candidate not being able to spend more than Rs. 10 lakh in a constituency for an Assembly election is incorrect. The spending limit for candidates in elections varies depending on the type of election. For Assembly elections, the spending limit is set by the ECI for each state and is typically higher than Rs. 10 lakh. The actual limit is subject to change and is revised by the ECI from time to time.

In conclusion, statements 1, 2, and 3 are correct as they represent illegal actions under the election laws of India. However, statement 4 is incorrect as the spending limit for candidates in an Assembly election is not fixed at Rs. 10 lakh.

Which of the following are the minimum conditions of a democratic election?
1. Everyone should have one vote and every vote should have equal value.
2. Parties and candidates should be free to contest elections.
3. Elections may or may not be held regularly.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
  • a)
    1 and 2 Only
  • b)
    2 and 3 Only
  • c)
    1 and 3 only
  • d)
    1, 2 and 3 only
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

The correct answer is option 'A': 1 and 2 only.

Explanation:
1. Everyone should have one vote and every vote should have equal value:
- This condition is a fundamental principle of democracy. In a democratic election, every individual should have the right to vote, and each vote should hold equal value.
- This ensures that every citizen has an equal opportunity to participate in the electoral process, regardless of their social, economic, or political status.
- One person, one vote principle ensures that the will of the people is reflected in the election results and that no individual or group has an unfair advantage.

2. Parties and candidates should be free to contest elections:
- This condition emphasizes the importance of political freedom and pluralism in a democratic election.
- In a democratic system, political parties and candidates should be free to participate in elections without any undue restrictions or discrimination.
- This allows for a diverse range of choices for voters and ensures that different political ideologies and viewpoints are represented in the electoral process.
- It also promotes competition among political parties, leading to a more vibrant and dynamic democracy.

3. Elections may or may not be held regularly:
- This statement is incorrect. Regular and periodic elections are an essential feature of a democratic system.
- Regular elections provide a mechanism for the peaceful transfer of power, allowing citizens to hold their elected representatives accountable.
- They also provide stability and continuity to the democratic process.
- Irregular or infrequent elections can undermine the democratic principles of transparency, accountability, and citizen participation.

In conclusion, the minimum conditions for a democratic election are that everyone should have one vote and every vote should have equal value, and parties and candidates should be free to contest elections. Regular and periodic elections are also a crucial aspect of a democratic system. Therefore, the correct answer is option 'A': 1 and 2 only.

Regarding the powers of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha , consider the following statements:
1. Any ordinary law needs to be passed by both the Houses.
2. Lok Sabha exercises more powers in money matters.
3. The Rajya Sabha can only delay the budget passed Lok sabha by 28 days or suggest changes in it.
4. If the majority of the Rajya Sabha members say they have ‘no confidence’ in the Council of Ministers, all ministers including the Prime Minister, have to quit.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
  • a)
    1 and 2 only
  • b)
    3 and 4 only
  • c)
    1, 2 and 4 only
  • d)
    All of the above
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

  • Our Constitution does give the Rajya Sabha some special powers over the states. But on most matters, the Lok Sabha exercises supreme power.
1. Any ordinary law needs to be passed by both the Houses. But if there is a difference between the two Houses, the final decision is taken in a joint session in which members of both the Houses sit together. Because of the larger number of members, the view of the Lok Sabha is likely to prevail in such a meeting.
2. Lok Sabha exercises more powers in money matters.
3. Once the Lok Sabha passes the budget of the government or any other money related law, the Rajya Sabha cannot reject it. The Rajya Sabha can only delay it by 14 days or suggest changes in it. The Lok Sabha may or may not accept these changes.

A voter will not vote for a politician because he is old and all older people are slower and less competent. How could this voter’s actions be categorized?
  • a)
    The voter’s actions are ageism or prejudice and discrimination against a person based on age.
  • b)
    The voter’s actions are ageism or false stereotypes about a person based on age
  • c)
    The voter’s actions are ageism or prejudice against a person based on age.
  • d)
    The voter’s actions are ageism or thoughts and beliefs about a person based on age.
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Ananya Basu answered
Reconsider their decision?

The voter could reconsider their decision by recognizing that age does not necessarily determine someone's competence or ability to lead. They could research the politician's past accomplishments, experience, and policies to make a more informed decision. Additionally, they could consider the possibility that the politician's age and experience may actually be an asset, as they have likely gained valuable insights and skills over their career. Finally, the voter could also consider the potential biases and stereotypes they may hold regarding older individuals, and strive to approach the decision with an open mind.

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