Jass Manak asked   •  58 minutes ago

Problem (For question)
Rules
A. The act of using threats to force another person to enter into a contract is called coercion.
B. The act of using influence on another and taking undue advantage of that person is called undue influence.
C. In order to prove coercion, the existence of the use of threat, in any form and manner, is necessary. If coercion is proved, the person who has been so threatened can refuse to abide by the contract.
D. In order to prove undue-influence, there has to be a pre-existing relationship between the parties to a contract. The relationship has to be of such a nature that one is in a position to influence the other. If it is proven that there has been undue influence, the party who has been so influenced need not enforce the contract or perform his obligations under the contract.
Facts
Aadil and Baalu are best friends. Aadil is the son of multi millionaire business person, Chulbul who owns Maakhan Pharmaceuticals. Baalu is the son of a bank employee, Dhanraj. One day, Aadil is abducted from his office by Baalu. Chulbul receives a phone call from Dhanraj telling him that if he does not make Baalu the CEO of Maakhan Pharmaceuticals, Aadil will be killed. Chulbul reluctantly agrees to make the Baalu the CEO. Subsequently Chulbul and Baalu sign an employment contract. However as soon as Aadil is released and safely returns home, Chulbul tells Baalu that he shall not enforce the employment contract. Baalu and Dhanraj are not sure as to what is to be done next.
Q.
Baalu will succeed in getting the employment contract enforced if he can show that
... more

Joginder Kaur asked   •  13 hours ago

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.
An independent, able and upright judiciary is the hallmark of a free democratic country. Therefore, the process of judicial appointments is of vital importance. At present, on account of the Supreme Court’s last advisory opinion, the role of the executive and its interference in the appointment of judges is minimal, which, in light of our previous experience, is most welcome. However, there is a strong demand for a National Judicial Commission on the ground of wider participation in the appointment process and for greater transparency. The composition, the role and the procedures of the proposed National Judicial Commission, must be clearly spelt out, lest it be a case of jumping from the frying-pan into the fire.
Recently, there has been a lively debate in England on the subject. A judicial commission has been proposed but there are not many takers for that proposal. In the paper issued this month by the Lord Chancellor’s Department on judicial appointments, the Lord Chancellor has said, “I want every vacancy on the Bench to be filled by the best person available.
Appointments must and will be made on merit, irrespective of ethnic origin, gender, marital status, political affiliation, sexual orientation, religion or disability. These are not mere words. They are firm principles. I will not tolerate any form of discrimination.”
At present, there are hardly any persons from the ethnic minorities manning the higher judiciary and so far not a single woman has made it to the House of Lords. The most significant part of Lord Chancellor’s paper is the requirement that “allegations of professional misconduct made in the course of consultations about a candidate for judicial office must be specific and subject to disclosure to the candidate”. This should go a long way in ensuring that principles of natural justice and fair play are not jettisoned in the appointment process, which is not an uncommon phenomenon.
Q. According to the passage, there has been a demand for a National Judicial Commission
... more

Lakshmi Mohan T asked   •  15 hours ago

Directions : In view of the passage given below: Choose the best option for question.
When talks come to how India has done for itself in 50 years of independence, the world has nothing but praise for our success in remaining a democracy. On other front, the applause is less loud. In absolute terms, India has not done too badly, Of course, life expectancy has increased. So has literacy. Industry, which was barely a fledging, has grown tremendously, As far as agriculture is concerned, India has been transformed from a country perpetually on the edge of starvation into a success story held up for others to emulate. But these are competitive times when change is rapid, and to walk slowly when rest of the world is running is almost as bad standing still on walking backwards.
Compare with large chunks of what was then the developing world South Korea, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, China and what was till lately a separate Hong Kong- India has fared abysmally, It began with a far better infrastructure than most of these countries had. It suffered hardly or not at all during the Second World War It ha advantages like a English speaking elite, quality scientific manpower (including a Novel laureate and others who could be ranked according to their global competitiveness, it is tiny Singapore that figures at the top. Hong Kong is an export powerhouse. So is Taiwan. If a symbol were needed of, how far we have fallen back, note that while Korean Ceils are sold in India, no one is South Korea is rushing to by an Indian car. The reasons list themselves, Top most in economic isolationism.
The government discouraged imports and encouraged self-sufficiency. Whatever the aim was, the result was the creation of totally inefficient industry that failed to keep pace with global trends and, therefore, became absolutely uncompetitive. Only when the trade gates were opened a little did this become apparent. The years since then have been spent in merely trying to catch up. That the government actually sheltered it’s the years since then have been spent in merely trying to catch up. That the government actually sheltered its industrialists from foreign competition is a little strange. For in all other respects, it operated under the conviction that businessman were little more than crooks how were to be prevented from entering the most important area of the economy, how were to be hamstrung in as many ways as possible, how were to be tolerated in the same way as an in excisable wart. The high expropriator rates taxation, the licensing laws, the reservation of whole swathes of industry for the public sector, and the granting of monopolies to the public sector firms were the principle manifestations of this attitude. The government forget that before wealth could be distributed, it had to be created.
The government forgot that it itself could not create, but only squander wealth, Some of the manifestations of the old attitude have changed, Tax rates have fallen, Licensing has been al but abolished. And the gates of global trade have been open wide. But most of these changes were first by circumstances partly by the funds of support the public sector, leave alone expand it. Weather the attitude of the government itself, of that of more than handful of ministers, has changed, is open of question. In many other ways, however, the government has not changed one with. Business till has to negotiable a welter of negotiations. Transparency is still a longer way off. And there is no exit policy. In defending the existing policy, politicians betray and inability to see beyond their noses. A no-exit policy for labour is equivalent to a no-entry policy for new business. If one industry is not allowed to retrench labour, other industries will think a hundred times before employing new labour. In other ways, the government hurts industries.
Public sector monopolies like the department of telecommunications and Videsh Sanchar Nigam Ltd. make it possible for Indian business to operator only at cost several times that off their counterparts abroad. The infrastructure is in a shambles partly because it is unable to formulate a sufficiently remunerative policy for private business, and partly because it does not have the stomach to change market rates for services. After a burst of activity in the early nineties, the government is dragging its feet. At the rate it is going, it will be another fifty years before the government realizes that a pro-business policy is the best pro-people policy. By then of course, the world would have moved even further ahead.
Q. According to the writer……
... more

Khushi Gupta asked   •  15 hours ago

After the “Liberalisation”, “Globalisation” and the consequent changes in the new international economic order as well as new information technology order, a new catch-phrase is being coined: `A New Health Order’. Talking about setting it up is the theme of the WHO-sponsored International Conference on Primary Health and Medical Care, currently being held in Milan in Italy. While much has been said and written on establishing “new order”, little has actually been done. Will the conferees at Milan, too, swear by the “New Health Order”, go home and then forget about it, while the present medical and health care set-up in poor countries further "entrenches" itself? This does not have to be the fate of the radical resolutions that will undoubtedly be passed at Milan. Unlike creating a new world economic or information order, establishing a new health set-up is essentially a matter for individual countries to accomplish. No conflict of international interests is involved. But this advantage is, at least until it beings to take concrete shape, only theoretical. The million-dollar question is whether individual third-world governments are able and willing to "muster" the will, the resources, the administrative and other infrastructure to carry out what it is entirely within their power to attain and implement.
The dimensions of the problem are known and the solutions broadly agreed on. The present medical and health-care system is urban-biased, closely geared to drugs, hospitals and expensively trained "allopathic" doctors. The bulk of the population in poor countries, who live in rural areas, are left untouched by all this and must rely on traditional healers. The answer is to turn out medical/health personnel sufficiently, but not expensively, trained to handle routine complaints and to get villagers to pay adequate attention to garbage disposal and other elementary but "crucial" matters. More complicated ailments can be referred to properly equipped centres in district towns, cities and metropolises. Traditional healers, whom villagers trust, can be among these intermediate personnel. Some third-world countries, including India, have "launched" or are preparing elaborate schemes of this nature. But the experience is not quite happy. There is "resistance" from the medical establishment which sees them as little more than licensed quackery but is not prepared either to offer "condensed" medical courses such as the former licentiate course available in this country and unwisely scrapped. There is the question of how much importance to give to indigenous system of medicine. And there is the difficult matter of striking the right balance between preventive health care and curative medical attention. These are complex issues and the Milan conference would perhaps be more fruitful if it were to discuss such specific subjects.
Q. To make the conference really useful, the author suggests:
... more

The Curious asked   •  16 hours ago

Principle: A person abets the doing of a thing, who-- 
First--Instigates any person to do that thing; or
Secondly--Engages with one or more other person or persons in any conspiracy for the doing of that thing, if an act or illegal omission takes place in pursuance of that conspiracy, and in order to the doing of that thing; or
Thirdly--Intentionally aids, by any act or illegal omission, the doing of the thing.
Explanation 1: A person who, by willful misrepresentation, or by willful concealment of a material fact which he is bound to disclose, voluntarily causes of procures, or attempts to cause or procure, a thing to be done, is said to instigate the doing of that thing.
Explanation 2: Whoever, either prior to or at the time of the commission of an act, does anything in order to facilitate the commission of that act, and thereby facilitates the commission thereof, is said to aid the doing of that act.
Principle: A person abets an offence, who abets either the commission of an offence, or the commission of an act which would be an offence, if committed by a person capable by law of committing an offence with the same intention or knowledge as that of the abettor. 
Explanation 1: The abetment of the illegal omission of an act may amount to an offence although the abettor may not himself be bound to do that act.
Explanation 2: To constitute that offence of abetment it is not necessary that the act abetted should be committed, or that the effect requisite to constitute the offence should be caused.
Facts: A instigates B to murder D. B in pursuance of the instigation stabs D. D recovers from the wound.
... more

Mukund Garg asked   •  20 hours ago

Amnesty International's charge that 'tens of thousands' of political prisoners, including prisoners of conscience, are "languishing" in Indian jails and that prisoners are routinely tortured in this country has to be seen in a much wider context than the organization's annual report cares to do. In its overall appraisal of 151 countries, Amnesty has accused 112 of torturing prisoners, 63 of harboring prisoners of conscience, 61 of resorting to political killings and 53 of detaining people without a trial. Of these apparently "overlapping" categories, India seems to have been excluded from the list of the 61 which undertake political killings. The report has, however, pointed out that "scores" of people in India die of torture in police and military custody and that many also simply disappear. Clearly, only a thin line separates the 61 charged with political murders from the rest. Before coming to such conclusions, however, it may also be necessary to classify the various countries according to their political systems. Torture by the security forces and killings at the behest of the government make no difference to the victims whether they are in a democratic country or a totalitarian one. It is also nobody's case that a democratic country is less "culpable" than dictatorship in the event of human rights violations. But the point that still needs to be made perhaps is that torture or 'disappearances' represent a failure of the system in a democracy in contrast to being an integral part of state policy in a country ruled by an autocrat who is answerable to no one.
India may be guilty of keeping 'tens of thousands' behind bars and of the other human rights abuses mentioned by Amnesty, but it still remains a qualitatively different place from a totalitarian country. It is in this respect that Amnesty has been less than fair. It has chosen to ignore the distinctions between the good, the bad and the ugly. The openness of Indian society will be evident to anyone who spends half an hour in one of its chaotic marketplaces or visits the law courts or watches a political rally or reads a newspaper or "strikes up" a conversation with any person on the roads. There is no sense of fear in India, as in a dictatorship. There is also scope for securing relief from the heavy-handed behavior of the authorities, even if the human rights commission has not yet lived up to expectations. Unless such points are recognized, Amnesty's assessment will seem to be a dry recital of statistics which may "pillory" India simply because of its larger population. Mercifully, Amnesty nowadays at least notes that the terrorists also indulge in human rights violations and that India has to cope with several insurgencies "fomented" by a country where the military does not always seem to be under the control of the elected government. True, there is much that is wrong in India's prison system and with the way the terrorist challenge is sometimes met, but the stress should be on activating the self-correcting mechanism within a democracy and not merely on painting a grim, even biased, picture.
Q. The author is doubtful whether:
... more

Gaurav Gangwar asked   •  21 hours ago

Directions(1 – 5): Read the following passages carefully and answer the question given below them.  All answer should be given in the context of the given passage. Certain words/phrases are printed in Bold to help you to locate them while answering some of the questions.
Since World War II, the nation-state has been regarded with approval by every political system and every ideology. In the name of modernization in the West, of socialism in the Eastern bloc, and of development in the Third World, it was expected to guarantee the happiness of individuals as citizens and of peoples of societies. However, the state today appears to have broken down in many parts of the world. It has failed to guarantee either security or social justice, and has been unable to prevent either international wars or civil wars. Disturbed by the claims of communities within it, the nation-state tries to repress their demands and to proclaim itself as the only guarantor of security of all. In the name of national unity, territorial integrity, equality of all its citizens and non-partisan secularism, the state can use its powerful resources to reject the demands of the communities; it may even go so far as genocide to ensure that order prevails.
As one observes the awakening of communities in different parts of the world, one cannot ignore the context in which identity issues arise. It is no longer a context of, sealed frontiers and isolated regions, but is one of integrated global systems. In a reaction to this trend towards globalization, individuals and communities everywhere are voicing their desire to exist, to use their power of creation and to play an active part in national and international life.
There are two ways in which the current upsurge in demands for the recognition of identities can be looked at. On the positive side, the efforts by certain populate groups to assert their identity can be regarded as “liberation movements”, challenging oppression and injustice. What these groups are doing – proclaiming that they are different, rediscovering the roots of their culture or strengthening group solidarity – may accordingly be seen as legitimate attempts to escape from their state of subjugation and enjoy a certain measure of dignity. On the downside, however, militant action for recognition tends to make such groups more deeply entrenched in their attitude and to make their cultural compartments even more watertight. The assertion of identity then starts turning into self-absorption, isolation, and is liable to slide into intolerance of others and towards ideas of ethnic cleansing’” xenophobia and violence.
Whereas continuous variations among peoples prevent drawing of clear dividing lines between the groups, those militating for recognition of their group’s identity arbitrarily choose a limited number of criteria such as religion, language, skin colour; and place or origin so that their members recognize themselves primarily in terms of the labels attached to the group whose existence is being asserted. This distinction between the group in question and other groups is established by simplifying the feature selected. Simplification also works by transforming groups into essences, abstractions endowed with the capacity to remain unchanged though time. In some cases, people actually act as though the group has remained unchanged and talk, for example, about the history of nations and communities as if these entities survived for centuries without changing, with the same ways of acting and thinking, the same desires, anxieties and aspirations.
Paradoxically, precisely because identity represents a simplifying fiction, creating uniform groups out of disparate people, that identity performs a cognitive function. It enables us to put names to ourselves and others, form some idea of who we are and who others are, and ascertain the place we occupy along with the others in the world and society. The current upsurge to assert the identity of groups can thus be partly explained by the cognitive function performed by identity. However, that said, people would not go along as they do, often in large numbers, with the propositions put to them, in spite of the sacrifices they entail, if there was not a very strong feeling of need for identity, a need to take stock of things and know who we are, where we come from and where we are, where we come from and where we are going.
Identity is thus a necessity in a constantly changing world, but it can also be a potent source of violence and disruption. How can these two contradictory aspects of identity be reconciled? First, we must bear the arbitrary nature of identity categories in mind, not with a view to eliminating all forms of identification – which would be unrealistic since identity is a cognitive necessity – but simply to remind ourselves that each of us has several identities at the same time. Second, since tears of nostalgia are being shed over the past, we recognize that culture is constantly being recreated by cobbling together fresh and original elements and counter-cultures. There are in our country, a large number of syncretic cults wherein modern elements are blended with traditional values or people of different communities venerate saints or divinities of particular faiths. Such cults and movements are characterized by a continual inflow and outflow of members which prevent them from taking on a self-perpetuating existence of their own and hold out hope for the future, indeed perhaps for the only possible future. Finally, the nation-state must respond to the identity urges of its constituent communities and to their legitimate quest for security and social justice. It must do so by inventing what the French philosopher and sociologist, Raymond Aron, called peace through law. That would guarantee justice both to the state as a whole and its parts, and respect he claims of both reason and emotions. The problem is one of reconciling nationalist demands with the exercise of democracy.
Q.
According to the author, happiness of individuals was expected to be guaranteed in the name of –
... more

Akanksha Dwivedi asked   •  yesterday

On 26th November 2019, the Rajya Sabha passed the bill on protection of rights of transgender. The Lok Sabha 'passed the Bill on August 5, 2019. It seeks to recognise transgender persons, and confer anti-discriminatory rights and entitlements related to education, employment, health, and welfare measures. Key Provisions of the Act: It defines a transgender person as one whose gender does not match the gender assigned at birth. It includes trans-men and trans-women, persons with intersex variations, gender-queers, and persons with socio-cultural identities, such as kinnar and hijra. Intersex variations is defined to mean a person who at birth shows variation in his or her primary sexual characteristics, external genitalia, chromosomes, or hormones from the normative standard of male or female body. It provides for ‘self-perceived gender identity’ i.e. persons can determine their gender on their own. This is in line with a Supreme Court verdict in NALSA vs Union of India, 2014, which held that the self determination of one’s gender is part of the fundamental right to dignity, freedom and personal autonomy guaranteed under the Constitution. Transgender person may make an application to the (x)for a certificate of identity, indicating the gender as ‘transgender’. A revised certificate may be obtained only if the individual undergoes surgery to change their gender either as a male or a female. It prohibits discrimination against a transgender person, including denial of service or unfair treatment in relation to: (i) education; (ii) employment; (iii) healthcare; (iv) access to, or enjoyment of goods, facilities, opportunities available to the public; (v) right to movement; (vi) right to reside, rent, or otherwise occupy property; (vii) opportunity to hold public or private office; and (viii) access to a government or private establishment in whose care or custody a transgender person is. Every transgender person shall have a right to reside and be included in his household. If the immediate family is unable to care for the transgender person, the person may be placed in a rehabilitation centre, on the orders of a competent court. No government or private entity can discriminate against a transgender person in employment matters, including recruitment, and promotion. Every establishment is required to designate a person to be a complaint officer to deal with complaints in relation to the Act. Educational institutions funded or recognised by the basis of a certificate of identity issued by a district magistrate and proof of surgery contradicts NALSA verdict. Also, there are no avenues open either for appeal in the event a magistrate refuses to hand out such a certificate. Problem with Nomenclature: India’s LGBTQI community wants nomenclature to be ‘Transgender Persons, InterSex and Gender Non-conforming Act’ instead of just ‘Transgender Persons’ as it puts all persons under one binary without giving adequate space to the diversity included within the non-binaries. Disappointment: People are disappointed by the silence on unnecessary and non-consensual sex selective or reassignment surgeries, despite the plea that it be made an offence. No Clarity: Lack of clarity on anti-discriminatory clause makes it difficult to take a legal recourse. It is not clear how the transgender will be treated under existing criminal and civil laws which recognize only two categories, i.e. man and woman. Additionally, the penalties of similar offences may also vary due to gender identity.
Q. Which of the following is replaced by(X) in the passage?
... more

Utsavi Kumari asked   •  yesterday

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.
Employment exchanges - one of the surviving bastions of babudom - face the prospect of becoming irrelevant in an era of reform. Even in the heart of the nation’s capital, the premises are often dilapidated structures with dirty passages and manned by surly staff. Not surprisingly, job-seekers hardly throng these exchanges. Paradoxically, when jobs are getting scarce due to pressure of liberalisation, job-seekers are spurning an institution intended to help them secure placements. The reasons are simply enough. Employment exchanges still concentrate on government and public sector placements, which are fast losing ground in the labour market. For most government jobs, the eligibility criterion is still registration with the employment exchanges. But what is the use of going through the formalities of registration when government jobs themselves are dwindling? The placement effected by all the 939-odd exchanges in the country in 2001 was of the order of 1.69 lakh against annual registration levels of 60 lakh. As there are too few jobs when compared to the number of job-seekers, the accumulated backlog of registrations is close to 4.16 crore. The latter of course doesn’t indicate unemployment levels as those registered with the employment exchanges are not necessarily unemployed.
How can the employment exchanges be revamped? The thinking in the Union labour ministry is to transform them into employment promotion and guidance centres. The plan includes modernisation, changing the mindset of the staff and making them into an effective instrument for monitoring and coordinating various employment generation schemes. This objective calls for developing a better database on the fast changing employment situation with a comprehensive coverage of new economic establishments. For instance, the various economic censuses are an important source of information on the changing employment profile of, say, the nation’s capital. Far from being a bureaucrat-dominated city, Delhi over the years has become more of an industrial metropolis. According to the fourth economic census, manufacturing accounted for 40 per cent of jobs in the capital. The employment exchanges in the capital thus have their work cut out notably, to shift the focus away from government and public sector jobs more towards placements in the private sector, especially in manufacturing and services, including the burgeoning retail trade sector. By doing so, they will better reflect the imperatives of economic reform and remain relevant in today’s times.
Q. Which of the revamped role can be entrusted to employment exchanges?
... more

Vi Vi asked   •  yesterday

Passage-1:-  In the second week of august 1998, just a few days after the incidents of bombing the US embassies in Nairobi & Dar-er-Salaam, a high powered, brainstorming session was held near Washington DC, to discuss various aspects of terrorism. The meeting was attended by ten of America’s leading experts in various fields such as germ & chemical warfare, public health, disease control & also by the doctor and the law enforcing officers. Being asked to describe the horror of possible bio-attack, one of the experts narrated the following "gloomy" scenario.
A culprit in a crowded business centre or in a busy shopping mall of a town empties a test tube containing some fluid, which in turn creates an unseen cloud of germ of a dreaded disease like anthrax, capable of inflicting a horrible death within 5 days on anyone who inhales it. At first, 500 or son victims felt that they have mild influenza which may recede after a day or two. Then the symptoms return again and their lungs start filling with fluid. They rush to local hospitals for treatment, but the panic stricken people may find that the Medicare services run quickly out of drugs due to excessive demand. But no one would be able to realize that a terrorist attack has occurred. One cannot deny the possibility that the germ involved would be of contagious variety capable of causing an epidemic. The meeting concluded that "such attacks", apart from causing immediate human tragedy, would have dire long term effect on the political & social fabric of a country by way of ending people’s trust on the competence of the government.
The experts also said that the bombs used in Kenya & Tanzania were of the old fashion variety & involved large quantities of high explosives, but new terrorism will prove to be more deadly & probably more "elusive" than hi jacking an aero-plane or a gelignite or previous decades.  According to Bruce Hoffman, an American specialist on political violence, old terrorism generally had a specific manifesto to overthrow a colonial power or the capitalist system and so on. These terrorists were not shy about planting a bomb or hijacking an aircraft and they set some limit to their brutality. Killing so many innocent people might turn their natural supporters off. Political terrorists want a lot of people watching, but not a lot of people dead. Old terrorism sought to change the word while the new sort is often practiced by those who believe that the world has gone beyond redemption, he added.
Hoffman says, “New Terrorism has no long term agenda, but is ruthless in its short term intentions”. It is often just a "cacophonous cry" of protest or an outburst of religious intolerance or a protest against the west in general & the US in particular. Its may be religious fanatics or die-hard opponents of a government and see no reason to show restraint. They are simply intent on inflicting the maximum amount of pain on the victim.
Q.
In what way would the new terrorism be different from that of the earlier years?i. More dangerous & less bafflingii. More hazardous for victimsiii. Less complicated for terrorists
... more

Archita Prakash asked   •  yesterday

Passage: In the second week of August 1998, just a few days after the incidents of bombing the US embassies in Nairobi and Dar-es-Salaam, a highpowered, brain-storming session was held near Washington D.C., to discuss various aspects of terrorism. The meeting was attended by ten of America‘s leading experts in various fields such as germ and chemical warfare, public health, disease control and also by the doctors and the law- enforcing officers. Being asked to describe the horror of possible bio-attack, one of the experts narrated the following gloomy scenario. A culprit in a crowded business centre or in a busy shopping mall of a town empties a test tube containing some fluid, which in turn creates an unseen cloud of germ of a dreaded disease like anthrax capable of inflicting a horrible death within5 days on any one who inhales it. At first500,or so victims feel that they have mild influenza which may recede after a day or two. Then the symptoms return again and their lungs start filling with fluid. They rush to local hospitals for treatment, but the panic-stricken people may find that the medicare services run quickly out of drugs due to excessive demand. But no one would be able to realize that a terrorist attack has occurred. One cannot deny the possibility that the germ involved would be of contagious variety capable of causing an epidemic. The meeting concluded that such attacks, apart from causing immediate human tragedy, would have dire long-term effects on the political and social fabric of a country by way of ending people‘s trust on the competence of the government. The experts also said that the bombs used in Kenya and Tanzania were of the old-fashion variety and involved quantities of high explosives, but new terrorism will prove to be more deadly and probably more elusive than hijacking an aeroplane or a gelignite of previous decades. According to Bruce Hoffman, an American specialist on political violence, old terrorism generally had a specific manifesto-to overthrow a colonial power or the capitalist system and so on. These terrorists were not shy about planting a bomb or hijacking an aircraft and they set some limit to their brutality. Killing so many innocent people might turn their natural supporters off. Political terrorists want a lot of people watching but not a lot of people dead. ―Old terrorism sought to change the world while the new sort is often practised by those who believe that the world has gone beyond redemption, he added. Hoffman says, ―New terrorism has no long- term agenda but is ruthless in its shortterm intentions. It is often just a cacophonous cry of protest or an outburst of religious intolerance or a protest against the West in general and the US in particular. Its perpetrators may be religious fanatics or diehard opponent of a government and see no reason to show restraint. They are simply intent on inflicting the maximum amount of pain on the victim.
Directions: choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in the passage
Q. Intolerance
... more

Pranesh Prabhakar asked   •  yesterday

Passage: There is no field of human endeavour that has been so misunderstood as health. While health which connotes well-being and the absence of illness has a low profile, it is illness representing the failure of health which virtually monopolizes attention because of the fear of pain, disability and death. Even Sushruta has warned that this provides the medical practitioner power over the patient which could be misused. Till recently, patients had implicit faith in their physician whom they loved and respected, not only for his knowledge but also in the total belief that practitioners of this noble profession, guided by ethics, always placed the patient‘s interest above all other considerations. This rich interpersonal relationship between the physician, patient and family has, barring a few exceptions, prevailed till the recent past, for caring was considered as important as curing. Our indigenous systems of medicine like ayurveda and yoga have been more concerned with the promotion of the health of both the body and mind and with maintaining a harmonious relationship not just with fellow-beings but with nature itself, of which man is an integral part. Healthy practices like cleanliness, proper diet, exercise and meditation are part of our culture which sustains people even in the prevailing conditions of poverty in rural India and in the unhygienic urban slums. These systems consider disease as an aberration resulting from disturbance of the equilibrium of health, which must be corrected by gentle restoration of this balance through proper diet, medicines and the establishment of mental peace. They also teach the graceful acceptance of old age with its infirmities resulting from the normal degenerative process as well as of death which is inevitable. This is in marked contrast to the western concept of life as a constant struggle against disease, ageing and death which must be fought and conquered with the knowledge and technology derived from their science: a science which, with its narrow dissective and quantifying approach, has provided us the understanding of the microbial causes of communicable diseases and provided highly effective technology for their prevention, treatment and control. This can rightly be claimed as the greatest contribution of western medicine and justifiably termed as ‘high’ technology. And yet the contribution of this science in the field of non-communicable diseases is remarkably poor despite the far greater inputs in research and treatment for the problems of ageing like cancer, heart diseases, paralytic strokes and arthritis which are the major problems of affluent societies today.
Q. Why, according to the author, have people in India survived in spite of poverty?
... more

Pratyaksh Sharma asked   •  yesterday

Care should be taken when submitting manuscripts to book publishers. A suitable publisher should be chosen, by a study of his list of publications or an examination in the bookshops of the type of books in which he specializes. It is a waste of time and money to send the typescript of a novel to a publisher who publishes no fiction, or poetry to one who publishes no verse, though all too often this is done. A preliminary letter is appreciated by most publishers, and this should outline the nature and extent of the typescript and enquire whether the publisher would be prepared to read it (writers have been known to send out such letters of enquiry in duplicated form, an approach not calculated to stimulate a publisher’s interest). It is desirable to enclose the cost of return postage when submitting the typescript and finally it must be understood that although every reasonable care is taken of material in the Publishers’ possession, responsibility cannot be accepted for any loss or damage thereto.
Authors are strongly advised not to pay for the publication of their work. If a MS. Is worth publishing, a reputable publisher will undertake its publication at his own expense, except possibly for works of an academic nature. In this connection attention is called to the paragraphs on Self-publishing and vanity publishing, at the end of this section.
Q. In view of the writer –
... more

Fetching relevant content for you