Amit Kumar asked   •  6 minutes ago

Directions : In view of the passage given below: Choose the best option for question.
When talks come to how India has done for itself in 50 years of independence, the world has nothing but praise for our success in remaining a democracy. On other front, the applause is less loud. In absolute terms, India has not done too badly, Of course, life expectancy has increased. So has literacy. Industry, which was barely a fledging, has grown tremendously, As far as agriculture is concerned, India has been transformed from a country perpetually on the edge of starvation into a success story held up for others to emulate. But these are competitive times when change is rapid, and to walk slowly when rest of the world is running is almost as bad standing still on walking backwards.
Compare with large chunks of what was then the developing world South Korea, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, China and what was till lately a separate Hong Kong- India has fared abysmally, It began with a far better infrastructure than most of these countries had. It suffered hardly or not at all during the Second World War It ha advantages like a English speaking elite, quality scientific manpower (including a Novel laureate and others who could be ranked according to their global competitiveness, it is tiny Singapore that figures at the top. Hong Kong is an export powerhouse. So is Taiwan. If a symbol were needed of, how far we have fallen back, note that while Korean Ceils are sold in India, no one is South Korea is rushing to by an Indian car. The reasons list themselves, Top most in economic isolationism.
The government discouraged imports and encouraged self-sufficiency. Whatever the aim was, the result was the creation of totally inefficient industry that failed to keep pace with global trends and, therefore, became absolutely uncompetitive. Only when the trade gates were opened a little did this become apparent. The years since then have been spent in merely trying to catch up. That the government actually sheltered it’s the years since then have been spent in merely trying to catch up. That the government actually sheltered its industrialists from foreign competition is a little strange. For in all other respects, it operated under the conviction that businessman were little more than crooks how were to be prevented from entering the most important area of the economy, how were to be hamstrung in as many ways as possible, how were to be tolerated in the same way as an in excisable wart. The high expropriator rates taxation, the licensing laws, the reservation of whole swathes of industry for the public sector, and the granting of monopolies to the public sector firms were the principle manifestations of this attitude. The government forget that before wealth could be distributed, it had to be created.
The government forgot that it itself could not create, but only squander wealth, Some of the manifestations of the old attitude have changed, Tax rates have fallen, Licensing has been al but abolished. And the gates of global trade have been open wide. But most of these changes were first by circumstances partly by the funds of support the public sector, leave alone expand it. Weather the attitude of the government itself, of that of more than handful of ministers, has changed, is open of question. In many other ways, however, the government has not changed one with. Business till has to negotiable a welter of negotiations. Transparency is still a longer way off. And there is no exit policy. In defending the existing policy, politicians betray and inability to see beyond their noses. A no-exit policy for labour is equivalent to a no-entry policy for new business. If one industry is not allowed to retrench labour, other industries will think a hundred times before employing new labour. In other ways, the government hurts industries.
Public sector monopolies like the department of telecommunications and Videsh Sanchar Nigam Ltd. make it possible for Indian business to operator only at cost several times that off their counterparts abroad. The infrastructure is in a shambles partly because it is unable to formulate a sufficiently remunerative policy for private business, and partly because it does not have the stomach to change market rates for services. After a burst of activity in the early nineties, the government is dragging its feet. At the rate it is going, it will be another fifty years before the government realizes that a pro-business policy is the best pro-people policy. By then of course, the world would have moved even further ahead.
Q. The major reason for India’s poor performance is…..
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Lida sat outside her great aunt’s hotel watching the steam engines go by and listening to the clop-clop of horses as they pulled wagons down the cobbled road. She was taking a short break from her chores at the inn: mopping the ballroom, fixing cornbread for the guests, and tending the fire in the wood-burning stove. She enjoyed working there and was happy to help her illustrious aunt bolster her growing business and notoriety around the city.
Lida had always had an assiduous nature and applied herself to almost any task unremittingly. Today, however, she took this quick respite to daydream about the dance she would be attending that evening.
At 17, it would be her first. Her friends had all purchased brightly colored, ornate dresses to wear. Lida, as a reflection of her demure personality, had chosen a modest, yet elegant dress in a charcoal gray.
“Are you ready, Miss Lida?” Hattie asked as she burst through the parlor doors and into the kitchen. Mary and Florence were in step right behind her.
“Hattie, I done told you never to come in that way. You disturb the guests having cocktails in the parlor!”
“Oh, hush, Lida. You worry too much. Let’s go.”
“I need to put a few more logs in the stove so Auntie can boil water for the dishes,” Lida said. “Then we can go.”
Hattie gave a sigh, but did not bother to argue. She knew that when Lida had something to do, she didn’t rest until it was done.
“Let’s take the tracks,” Hattie said when they finally headed out to the party. Daylight was turning into dusk.
“Naw, Hattie,” Lida said. "You know that’s too dangerous in the night.”
“Look, Lida,” Hattie said impatiently. “We’re runnin’ late ‘cause of you. The tracks will take 15 minutes off our walk.” Mary and Florence both mumbled in agreement. “We can take the carriage back.”
Against her better judgment, Lida agreed to take the train tracks. After all, it was her first real dance ever. Why adulterate it with acrimony?
The girls clumsily navigated the moonlit tracks and talked excitedly about the dance: who would be there, who was the best-looking, who was the smartest, and if anyone had remembered money for a carriage ride home. Then Lida heard a whistle in the distance. It seemed to get louder as it persisted and then cut out in a shock of tender silence. “We’ve gotta get off the tracks. Train’s coming,” said Lida.
The girls scurried to the side but found the decline too precipitous. They made their way forward along the tracks and finally found a suitable place to descend. Lida tiptoed nimbly from the precipice. Finding herself safely below, she heard a sudden thud. She gasped and turned about.
“Help!” she heard a voice cry, “Help…down here!” Hattie had fallen in the ash pit, an 8 foot trench between the rails, about 20 feet long, where trains stopped to empty ashes from the engine’s fire box when they pulled through town.
Hattie screamed and tried frantically to climb out, but the pit was too deep. Lida scrambled to the edge, grabbing for her hand, the train getting closer, the whistle growing evermore piercing.
Not wanting to appear scared herself, Lida’s calm voice belied the panic-stricken beating of her heart.
“Just give me your hand, Hattie, and I’ll pull ya right out.”
They fumbled for each other’s hands in the dark. Lida lay down on the rails and hooked her feet under the track to give herself more leverage. She had Hattie in her fingertips. Then she lost her. Then she had her again. Lida pulled and she could feel the joints in Hattie’s hands popping. In this instant, Hattie found better purchase—on what, no one could be sure—and her hands came into view. Wearing a mask of anguish, her teeth clenched and reflecting the pale moonlight, Lida pulled and pulled. Hattie’s amorphous form appeared from below the surface like some stygian phantom. Mary and Florence’s screams could be heard intermittently in the night, watching helplessly as the train lights grew brighter.
Hattie’s torso finally eclipsed the edge of the pit and there she lay, catching her breath. The girls hoisted her to her feet and hobbled away from the tracks like a collection of frenzied grave robbers, their treasure in tow. It was there that they stood, caked in ash, watching as the train screeched to a stop and dropped its load of glowing cinders.
Q. As used in the beginning of the story, which is the best antonym for demure?
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Sunma answered  •  53 minutes ago
Demure (adjective): modest and reserved.
Near the beginning of the story, it says, “Her friends had all purchased brightly colored, ornate dresses to wear. Lida, as a reflection of her demure personality, had chosen a modest, yet elegant dress in a charcoal gray.” Lida differs from her friends by wearing something that does not call attention to herself. The reader can infer from this that demure means shy or reserved. An antonym for demure, then, is outgoing. Therefore (D) is correct. Being reckless means acting with disregard for possible harm. The opposite of shy is not acting with a disregard for harm. Therefore (A) is incorrect. Someone who is aggressive is physically or socially forceful. Someone who is shy is probably not aggressive, but aggressive is not the opposite of shy. Therefore (B) is incorrect. Harmful means causing harm, which is not the opposite of shy or reserved. Therefore (C) is incorrect.

Arul Kumar asked   •  7 minutes ago

Passage for Question 
If religion and community are associated with global violence in the minds of many people, then so are global poverty and inequality. There has, in fact, been an increasing tendency in recent years to justify policies of poverty removal on the ground that this is the surest way to prevent political strife and turmoil. Basing public policy—international as well as domestic—on such an understanding has some evident attractions. Given the public anxiety about wards and disorders in the rich countries in the world, the indirect justification of poverty removal-not for its own sake but for the sake of peace and quiet in the world—provides an argument that appeals to self-interest for helping the needy. It presents an argument for allocating more resources on poverty removal because of its presumed political, rather than moral relevance.
While the temptation to go in that direction is easy to understand, it is a perilous route to take even for a worthy cause. Part of the difficulty lies in the possibility that if wrong, economic reductionism would not only impair our understanding of the world, but would also tend to undermine the declared rationale of the public commitment to remove poverty. This is a particularly serious concern, since poverty and massive inequality are terrible enough in themselves, and deserve priority even if there were no connection whatsoever with violence.
Just as virtue is its own reward, poverty is at least its own penalty. This is not to deny that poverty and inequality can-and do-have far reaching consequences with conflict and strife, but these connections have to be examined and investigated with appropriate care and empirical scrutiny, rather than being casually invoked with unreasoned rapidity in support of a ‘good cause’.
Destitution can, of course, produce provocation for defying established laws and rules. But it need not give people the initiative, courage, and actual ability to do anything very violent. Destitution can be accompanied not only by economic debility, but also by political helplessness. A starving wretch can be too frail and too dejected to fight and battle, and even to protest and holler. It is thus not surprising that often enough intense and widespread suffering and misery have been accompanied by unusual peace and silence.
Indeed, many famines have occurred without there being much political rebellion or civil strife or intergroup warfare. For example, the famine years in the 1840s in Ireland were among the most peaceful, and there was title attempt by the hungry masses to intervene even as ship after ship sailed down the river Shannon with rich food. Looking elsewhere, my own childhood memories in Calcutta during the Bengal famine of 1943 include the sight of starving people dying in front of sweetshops with various layers of luscious food displayed behind the glass windows, without a single glass being broken, or law or order being disrupted.
Q.
Select the statement that can be most plausibly inferred from the aforesaid passage.
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Article 14 of the Constitution guarantees equality before law and equal protection of laws to everyone. Article 15(1) generally prohibits any discrimination against any citizen on the grounds of religion, caste, sex or place of birth.
The Delhi Government rolled out a travel scheme that offers free rides to women in over 5,500 state-run buses in the national capital. Freedom of movement is not only a human right - emphasized in the Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights - but is also an economic imperative. It is important to note that restriction on movement of women is not limited to a legal imposition. When we have social and economic norms that make mobility to workplace difficult or fail to protect women from sexual harassment in public places, we are indeed restricting their freedom to move. We are ergo impairing them in terms of economics, freedom and human rights.
India ranks 121 among 131 countries in female labour force participation rate averaging at 23 per cent. At 17 per cent of GDP, the economic contribution of Indian women is less than half the global average. Women's workforce participation rate in Delhi is shamefully low at 11 per cent, which is even below the national average. Increasing this participation is paramount not only for gender equality but also for national economic progress. A prominent way to achieve this is through increasing freedom of mobility for women.
In a deeply unequal country like ours, where women still have to take money from their fathers, husbands and sons for every small expense, free bus travel will give women independence to move freely and save monetarily. These in turn increase women's decision-making abilities and empower them. The inclusion of bus marshals to ensure protection of the commuting women further advances their mobility.
While the United Nations Human Rights Committee concurred that "Liberty of movement is an indispensable condition for the free development of a person," the Delhi model has become one of the first 100 cities globally to apply this belief in a literal sense - in the transport sector for women. The rationale for doing so is simple and is printed on the 'pink ticket' in the hands of all women who have used buses in Delhi - "When women progress, the country progresses."
Q. The author has linked the govt scheme to extension of rights of women, what rights is she referring to?
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Shukantal Devi answered  •  53 minutes ago
It has been stated in the passage that the Bill does not allow the couple or individual to utilise the service of more than one surrogate at any given time. Therefore, such a demand is invalid.

What is meant by the Legal Maxim/word “falsus procurator”?
  • a)
    False agent
  • b)
    False Person
  • c)
    False principle
  • d)
    None of the above
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Sakuntla answered  •  53 minutes ago
Agent acting without or outside his authority. The principal is not bound if an agent acts without or outside his authority ("falsus procurator") unless he ratifies, expressly or impliedly through his conduct, the acts of the agent.

Passage: The human rights situation in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) following the dilution of Article 370 and the passage of the Citizenship (Amendment) Act (CAA) have brought renewed international focus on India’s human rights practice. Responding to criticism made by the United Nations agencies and others, the Indian state asserted that both J&K and CAA are entirely internal matters and there cannot be any interference in such sovereign decisions.
What is remarkable about modern international human rights law is its recognition of individuals as subjects. Classic international law governed the conduct between states and did not recognise the rights of individuals. Countries made agreements on the premise that a sovereign state had the exclusive right to take any action if thought fit to deal with its nationals. Such a notion of absolute sovereignty was challenged in 19th century with the emergence of humanitarian intervention to protect minorities living in other states. Later, in 1919, the evolution of labour standards led to the establishment of the International Labour Office (ILO). In 1926, the Slavery Convention adopted by the League of Nations prohibiting slave trade heralded the first human rights treaty based on the principle of dignity of a human being. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted in 1948 by the United Nations, was the first comprehensive international human rights document. The Universal Declaration has acquired the force of law as part of the customary law of nations. It has provided the basis for binding human rights treaties and non-binding guidelines/principles that constitute a distinct body of law known as international human rights law.
This progress of international law in the last 100 years makes the Indian state’s assertion of its sovereign right unsustainable. The evolution of international human rights law is also about the gradual weakening of the concept of unrestricted sovereignty. The Indian government has ratified several international human rights treaties and submits periodic reports to the respective treaty bodies. By doing so, it has acknowledged the principle that the treatment of its citizens is not entirely an internal matter, and such measures do not enjoy an absolute sovereignty.
The Indian government’s response to concerns about its human rights practice has always been that international scrutiny is unwarranted since the country is the largest democracy in the world with an independent judiciary, free media, and an active civil society. These claims sound less credible after the recent developments in J&K and the passage of the CAA.
Q. In reply to international criticism on the J&K situation, Indian government's stand is "entirely internal matters and there cannot be any interference in such sovereign decisions". What is the author's opinion on it?
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Sunita answered  •  53 minutes ago
This article is the author's criticism of India’s stand and the reasons for the same. So, he disagrees. As for the reasoning option, B gives the actual reason while option D simply states a fact which would require further elaboration to offer reasoning for the author’s opinion.

The law relating to prisoners of war has been codified by
  • a)
    Geneva Convention
  • b)
    Vienna Convention
  • c)
    Paris Convention
  • d)
    None of the above
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Amarjit Kaur answered  •  53 minutes ago
The Geneva Conventions are rules that apply only in times of armed conflict and seek to protect people who are not or are no longer taking part in hostilities; these include the sick and wounded of armed forces on the field, wounded, sick, and shipwrecked members of armed forces at sea, prisoners of war, and civilians.

Principle 1 – The Principal is liable for all acts of the agent done in the course of employment.
Principle 2 – When a servant commits a mistake while acting on behalf of his master, causing loss to the plaintiff thereby, the master will be liable for the same. 
Principle 3 – Generally, the employer is not liable for torts committed by an independent contractor working for him. 
Exception – The employer will be held liable for the acts of an independent contractor if he authorizes the doing of an illegal act.
Explanation – An independent contractor is one who is not under the complete direction and control of the employer.
Principle 4 – If the servant acts negligently in the performance of his duties or displays reckless behaviour, thereby causing loss to the plaintiff, the master will be held liable.
Principle 5 – If the servant does an act in defiance of an express prohibition, and the act is outside the course of employment, then the master cannot be held liable for harm arising out of such an act. 
Facts – Ojaswi is an old woman who lives alone in the outskirts of the city. Every month, she has to deposit a sum of Rs. 2000 in the nearby branch of the State Bank of Shamirpet. Pranesh, her neighbour, works as a teller at that branch and offers to deposit the money for her. Trustingly, Ojaswi hands him the money at the end of the month and asks him to deposit it in her bank account. Pranesh never gave her a receipt stating that the amount had been deposited, but made false entries in her passbook nonetheless. Six months later, it is brought to her notice that Pranesh has been misappropriating all the money. She wishes to sue the State Bank of Shamirpet and claim damages for her loss. Would the Bank be liable?
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Santra Devi answered  •  53 minutes ago
Parnesh had no authority from the bank to collect money from Mrs O, So the collection of money falls beyond the scope of course of employment. Parnesh offered to deposit money on his own to which she agreed. It was out and out a social arrangement between two wherein the Bank has no role to play. So bank cannot be made liable to pay damages to her.

Principles: A. Whoever intending to take any moveable property out of the possession of any person without that person’s consent, moves that property out of his or her possession, is said to commit theft.
B. A person who, without lawful excuse, damages any property belonging to another intending to damage any such property shall be guilty of causing criminal damage.
C. Damage means any impairment of the value of a property.
Facts: Draupadi, an old lady of 85 years, used to live with her granddaughter Subhadra. Draupadi was ill and therefore bedridden for several months. In those months, she could not tolerate any noise and it ‘became quite difficult to clean her room. After she died, Subhadra hired a cleaner, Vinodji, to clean the room and throw away any rubbish that may be there. There was a pile of old newspapers which Draupadi had stacked in a corner of her room. Vinodji asked Subhadra if he should clear away the pile of old newspapers, to which she said yes, Vinodji took the pile to the municipality rubbish dump. While Vinodji was sorting and throwing away the newspapers, he was very surprised to find a beautiful painting in between two sheets of paper. He thought that Subhadra probably wouldn’t want this old painting back, especially because it was torn in several places and the colour was fading. He took the painting home, mounted it on a wooden frame and hung it on the wall of his bedroom. Unknown to him, the painting was an old ‘masterpiece, and worth twenty thousand rupees. Before mounting the painting, Vinodji pasted it on a plain sheet of paper so that it does not tear any more. By doing so, he made its professional ‘restoration very difficult and thereby reduced its value by half. Vinodji’s neighbour Champi discovered that the painting belonged to Subhadra. With the motive of returning the painting to Subhadra, Champi climbed through an open window into Vinodji’s room when he was away one afternoon and removed the painting from his house.
Q. Is Vinodji guilty of criminal damage?
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Sushila answered  •  53 minutes ago
There was no intention to damage. Vinodji rather wanted to keep the painting intact by pasting a paper. He was absolutely unaware of the factum of diminishing the value thereby. 

(For questions 14-18)
Rules
A. The fundamental right to freedom of association includes the right to form an association as well as not join an association.
B. The fundamental right to freedom of association also includes the freedom to decide with whom to associate.
C. The fundamental right to freedom of association does not extend to the right to realize the objectives of forming the association.
D. Fundamental rights are applicable only to laws made by or administrative actions of the State and do not apply to actions of private persons.
E. Any law in contravention of fundamental rights is unconstitutional and therefore cannot bind any person.
Facts
Gajodhar Pharmaceuticals, a private company, offered an employment contract of two years to Syed Monirul Alam. One of the clauses in the employment contract provided that Syed Monirul Alam must join Gajodhar Mazdoor Singh (GMS), one of the trade unions active in Gajodhar Pharmaceuticals.
Q. 
Decide which of the following propositions can be most reasonably inferred through the application of the stated legal rules to the facts of this case:
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Prateek Sinha answered  •  2 hours ago
The answer to this questions is D clearly mention in the PRINCIPLE B

view all 5 answers

Gulzar Singh asked   •  24 minutes ago

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.
On January 10, 2020, the Ministry of Steel launched the "__{X}__" programme, under which major PSUs like SAIL, IOCL and Coal India and concerned departments of five states; West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Jharkhand and Odisha will be working towards accelerating steel production in the region. For this purpose, the steel ministry is looking to invest $70 billion, that is likely to result in $35 billion addition to the GDP, and creation of 2.5 million jobs.
Kickstarting the programme here, the Minister of Petroleum and Natural Gas & Steel said that the idea was to promote the region as an integrated steel hub, which can foster growth towards a $5 trillion economy. Kolkata could be the epicentre of this growth, facilitated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi's visit to the city.
The steel ministry would anchor in coordinating various stake holders across central ministries, state governments and private investors, and a policy facilitating the creation of steel clusters has thus been put in place. Kalinganagar and Bokaro have been identified as pilot locations for steel clusters around integrated steel plants, and task forces and working groups with respective state governments have been formed for detailed planning for operationalisation of these clusters.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi, as part of his Kolkata visit, attended the 150th anniversary of Kolkata Port Trust. While Paradip Port Trust has been taken as a major stakeholder in the "__{X}__" initiative, Kolkata Port will play a vital role in developing inter-state connectivity through inland waterways.
Critical logistics and infrastructure projects were identified for expedition across the twelve major steel zones, which include rail, road and port capacity expansion projects. The twelve major steel zones identified are Kalinganagar, Angul, Rourkela, Jharsuguda, Nagarnar, Bhilai, Jamshedpur, Raipur, Bokaro, Durgapur, Kolkata and Vizag.
At a later stage, Bihar will be included within the cluster for driving growth in steel consumption, and that political differences between the centre and state governments, would not be a hindrance to uplift the 57 backward districts of the region.
According to the National Steel Policy announced in 2017, the government aims at a total production capacity of 300 million tonne by 2030-31 and out of which, around 200 million tonne is to be envisaged from the five eastern states.
Eastern region at present contributes 70% of the country's total steel production. This will go up to 87% with the integrated steel hub in place quotes by ___blank (i)___, IOCL Chairman and Managing Director. The oil and gas sector has been a major consumer of steel and the expansion would boost the steel industry thereby increasing the share of manufacturing to services.
Q. In the above passage, the name of the programme has been redacted with '__{X}__'. What is the name of the programme?
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Anannya Reddy asked   •  24 minutes ago

Select the most appropriate answer.
Q. 
Until recent times it was the local communities that have used, developed and conserved biological diversity who have been custodians of the biological wealth of this planet. It is their control, their knowledge and their rights that need to be strengthened if the foundations of biodiversity conservation are to be strong and deep. However, instead of being treated as common property of local communities or as national property of sovereign states, the Third World’s biodiversity has been treated by the Western industrialized States as common heritage of humankind. Such claims are not only atrocious, but are indicative of Western neo-imperialism.  One of the following statements is not in conformity with the above view. Identify these statements.
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Sujan Kaur asked   •  42 minutes ago

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''
Estoppel is a legal principle that prevents someone from arguing something or asserting a right that contradicts what they previously said or agreed to by law. It is meant to prevent people from being unjustly wronged by the inconsistencies of another person's words or actions.
Section 115 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 incorporates the meaning of estoppels. As per the definition, 'estoppels' means when one person either by his act or omission, or by declaration, has made another person believe something to be true and persuaded that person to act upon it, then in no case can he or his representative deny the truth of that thing later in the suit or in the proceedings.
The legal principle of the doctrine of estoppel is viewed as a substantive rule of law, albeit it has been described as a principle under the Indian Evidence Act, 1872.
There are different types of estoppel. Collateral estoppel can prevent a person from going back to court as a plaintiff with the same grievance. This prevents legal harassment and abuse of legal resources.
Estoppel by deed prevents a person from denying the truth of any fact stated in a deed they have executed. By contrast, equitable estoppel prevents someone from taking a legal position that is contrary or inconsistent with their previous stance if doing so harms the other party.
Alike res judicata, once a court has given the judgement, the parties, their representatives, their executors, etc. all are bound by that decision. This doctrine stops the parties to a case from raising another suit in the same matter or to dispute the facts of the case after the decision has been made by the court. The doctrine of collateral estoppel safeguards a criminal from being prosecuted for the same issue as raised in the earlier trial in more than one criminal trial. Judicial estoppel prevents a party from making conflicting or contradicting statements as to what was previously said in the court as this would adversely affect the court proceedings and also cause disrepute to the court. Legal estoppel means that the assignor or the grantor, in the subject matter of assignment or grant, cannot in the latter stage deny the validity of title.
Q. Sita, mother of Raj, states that Raj is not her son and refuses to accept him. Raj is handed over to a child care centre where the child receives support payment from his father. Sita demands share from the child support payment, stating that she is her mother. Decide.
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Anand Parkash asked   •  43 minutes ago

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''
Estoppel is a legal principle that prevents someone from arguing something or asserting a right that contradicts what they previously said or agreed to by law. It is meant to prevent people from being unjustly wronged by the inconsistencies of another person's words or actions.
Section 115 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 incorporates the meaning of estoppels. As per the definition, 'estoppels' means when one person either by his act or omission, or by declaration, has made another person believe something to be true and persuaded that person to act upon it, then in no case can he or his representative deny the truth of that thing later in the suit or in the proceedings.
The legal principle of the doctrine of estoppel is viewed as a substantive rule of law, albeit it has been described as a principle under the Indian Evidence Act, 1872.
There are different types of estoppel. Collateral estoppel can prevent a person from going back to court as a plaintiff with the same grievance. This prevents legal harassment and abuse of legal resources.
Estoppel by deed prevents a person from denying the truth of any fact stated in a deed they have executed. By contrast, equitable estoppel prevents someone from taking a legal position that is contrary or inconsistent with their previous stance if doing so harms the other party.
Alike res judicata, once a court has given the judgement, the parties, their representatives, their executors, etc. all are bound by that decision. This doctrine stops the parties to a case from raising another suit in the same matter or to dispute the facts of the case after the decision has been made by the court. The doctrine of collateral estoppel safeguards a criminal from being prosecuted for the same issue as raised in the earlier trial in more than one criminal trial. Judicial estoppel prevents a party from making conflicting or contradicting statements as to what was previously said in the court as this would adversely affect the court proceedings and also cause disrepute to the court. Legal estoppel means that the assignor or the grantor, in the subject matter of assignment or grant, cannot in the latter stage deny the validity of title.
Q. Jiya is an employee of ABC Co. In a particular suit against her, she denies to be an employee of that company. Later on after a month, she demands salaries and perks from that company. Decide.
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Jai Singh asked   •  51 minutes ago

Read the passage below and answer the question.
"Fake News" is a real phenomenon. There are sleazy predators who cook up completely apocryphal news stories and try to get them circulated on social media and on the internet. But it's a terrible pollution of the language for the president to call any article that criticizes him "fake news." If you compare the credibility of the president's statement with those of the mainstream media, there's just no comparison. The president's been called out on lie after lie after lie. And as someone who's often written for the so-called "mainstream media," for all their flaws, they got fact-checkers. They won't let me just write anything that comes into my head, I've got to prove it. So that's the kind of standard that has established the credibility of many of the news media.
And the basis of democracy is that everyone can be criticized, particularly the leaders. We don't have a monarch, a Supreme Leader, or a dictator for life. We've got a person who is temporarily in charge of the government and when he makes an error, it is mandatory for the free press to call it out. To try to delegitimize the press whenever it criticizes the president, it's really the reflex of an autocrat, of a tin-pot dictator in some banana republic and not worthy of a democracy like the United States where the president serves in our pleasure and can be criticized just like anyone else.
Q. Which of the following can be inferred from the author's description of the president?
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Shrihari Prabhu asked   •  1 hour ago

Find  the word most appropriate for Blank no.  35
The Constitution of Independent India and the various laws (21)____ to meet the constitutional obligation have fortified the  position of women vis-à-vis the man. But it is (22)____ on paper only. The myth that more and more women are getting higher education and are occupying position of  responsibility in all walks of life is falsified by the (23)____  of dowry deaths and divorce  cases filed in the (24)____ courts. One look at the national dailies will tell the (25)____  tale of the Indian women, women-who (26)____  a child is bargained for a bridal price or when she grows up serves as a supplier of dowry for her husband’s family or who, as widow immolates herself on her husband’s (27)____ be (28)____ as sati.
Our study about women’s place in Indian society is mainly based on urban, professional and educated Indian women. Deep in the rural heartland of the country, the rapidly changing world has not even touched the (29)____ of the life of a women. Most men of orthodox families take (30)____ in revealing that their (31)____ folk stay in ‘purdah’, a shield that (32)____ a woman of the joys of free nature. Still more alarming are the (33)____ of atrocities of women (34)____ incidents at Bantala, Singur and Birati are (35)____
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Ashna Abbobaker asked   •  2 hours ago

Passage: In 2017, a group called Human Rights Network, decided to collect and collate a set of state laws which imposed a blanket ban on cow slaughter. These laws, they believed, violated the fundamental right to trade under Article 19(1)(g). In addition to that, they argued that such laws were often a potent tool to justify mob–lynching of butchers, or people who consumed beef as a part of their diet. Another group called Cow Savers decided to argue that the laws were formulated in line with the directive state policy, specifically Article 48, and thus could not be challenged before any Court as violative of fundamental rights. The Cow Savers further asked the Court to enforce Article 48 across states where no ban on cow slaughter existed. HRN argued that DPSPs are not justiciable.
The HRN cited the case of Irreligious Society v. State of Kerala. Here, there was a clash between a policy enforcing the DPSP of enforcing the Uniform Civil Code and the fundamental right to religion. The Court attempted to read the two together, and wherever there was no compatibility, the right to religion prevailed. 
After the Supreme Court admitted the petition filed by HRN, Cow Savers intervened in the matter. 
While the case was going on, the government of Gau Land decided to start picking up butchers from their shops under the suspicion that they were slaughtering cows late in the night. There was a protest organized by HRN against this action of the government, during which some activists were also picked up. HRN tried extremely hard to locate the activists and the butchers, but to no avail. They decided that they would approach the court regarding this as well.
Their legal advisors laid down the following writs before them–
Habeas Corpus is „To have the body of.‟; Mandamus means „We command‟ and is used by the court to order the public official who has failed to perform his duty or refused to do his duty. The literal meaning of the writ of “Certiorari‟ is “To be certified‟ or „To be informed.” This writ is against issued by a court higher in authority to a lower court. The literal meaning of the writ of „Quo– Warranto‟ is „By what authority or warrant,‟ which question one‟s appointment to a public office. 
Article 19(1)(g) grants the right to practice any profession or to carry on any occupation, trade or business to all citizens of India. 
Article 48 reads that the State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall, in particular, take steps for preserving and improving the breeds, and prohibiting the slaughter, of cows and calves and other milch and draught cattle.
Article 21 provides that no person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law. This has been interpreted expansively to ensure a right to a wholesome life and not just guarantee bare existence.
Q. Mr. Y, a chef, decides to explore recipes of beef delicacies across India and cook and consume them in the privacy of his house. However, he notices that due to the cow slaughter ban, beef is not available at all. He believes that this is a violation of his right to consume any food in the privacy of his home. 
Notwithstanding any decisions on the legality of cow slaughter and cow beef, his challenge as the violation of Right to Privacy will–
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Deoswaroop Gupta asked   •  3 hours ago

The decision by global watchdog, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), at its plenary in __(1)__, to keep Pakistan on its ”greylist” for monitoring its record against terror financing was no surprise. While the Pakistan government has yet to complete the 27-point action plan it was given in June 2018, it has, according to the FATF, made some progress. As a result, the 39-member group that includes India decided to extend Pakistan‘s September 2019 d eadline until June 2020. Actions Pakistan still needs to carry out include tightening security and banking restrictions to block loopholes through which designated groups including the Taliban, al-Qaeda, Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammad access funding. It also calls on Pakistan to begin prosecutions against terrorists and sanction entities that are flouting the UNSC‘s rules for designated terror organizations. The FATF Chairman‘s final comment says Pakistan must comply with all 27-action points — it has cleared about 14 — in the next four months or face financial strictures by being placed on the ”blacklist”. Pakistan is one of 18 countries on the greylist; Iran and North Korea are on the blacklist.
The FATF‘s sharp language is significant, yet according to the force‘s consensus rules, Pakistan believes it might be able to slip through the deadlines if it is able to ensure that three countries, China, Turkey and Malaysia, which have pledged support, veto any move to blacklist it.
Q. Which of the following correctly describes initial mandate of FATF which stands for Financial Action Task Force ?
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Usha Devi asked   •  4 hours ago

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.
Every year, Time magazine names a 'Person of the Year', puts their photo on the cover and writes about them and their contribution — good or bad — to the planet. People like Mahatma Gandhi, Angela Merkel, President Obama and even non-people like the computer have been put on the cover.
This year, Time magazine named 15-year-old climate change activist Greta Thunberg as the person of the year. How cool is that? I am planning to walk around with a copy of the magazine with me wherever I go, so that whenever someone says 'What do kids know?' I can stick the magazine in their face!
Well, since the decade is almost over, the cover got me thinking of all the other amazing kids out there who are proof that we know a lot and can change the world. Here are five of them.
I am going to start with Greta Thunberg because I am a huge fan. Greta started skipping school every Friday to protest outside the Swedish parliament on climate emergency. She started a global environmental protest powered by young people, has given speeches at the United Nations, and has the coolest Twitter account.
Tween climate activist Ridhima Pandey was one of the petitioners, along with Greta Thunberg, in a complaint with the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child on government inaction on the climate crisis. She believes that if children all over the world protest for climate justice, then there can be a positive change.
Malala Yousafzai is the youngest Nobel Prize laureate. She was shot by the Taliban because they didn't want girls going to school. Later, she became a spokesperson campaigning for girls' right to education. I am not sure what the argument is for not sending girls to school, because they are super smart. Just look how many of them are on this list!
When he was 15, Jack Andraka invented a new, cheap way to detect pancreatic cancer. He won a bunch of International Science Fairs for his creation and said he came up with the idea by reading free science papers he found online.
So, who do you think might be the child change makers of 2020-2030? Well, why not you and me? We might not find a cure for a disease or be allowed to skip school to march outside parliament, but we can start doing something in our neighbourhood or school. Maybe it's feeding stray dogs, speaking up when someone gets teased or bullied in your class, or telling your local burger joint to stop using plastic straws. You might not get on the cover of Time magazine for it, but you sure will make a difference to that puppy, kid or sea turtle.
Q. Which of the following best sums up the author's main point in the given passage?
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Suman Sakshi asked   •  4 hours ago

Direction: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions below. In this passage Ria and Gargi give their opinions about a new painting by Marcello Vasquez.

Ria
"The new painting is spectacular! It is certainly the best work ever completed by Marcello Vasquez. I like the new painting for several reasons. First the painting is large. It almost covers the entire wall! Second the painting is inexpensive. Normally a painting like this would cost thousands of dollars. But this painting costs less than $500. Third the painting is colourful. Red and green dominate the canvas peppered with bright spots of yellow."

Gargi
'The new painting is horrendous! Marcello Vasquez should be ashamed of his work. I haven't seen a painting this bad in a long time. I dislike the new painting for several reasons. First the painting is far too large. It almost covers the entire wall think small paintings are better than large ones. Second the painting is inexpensive. This tells me that Vasquez must have been unable to sell the painting for a higher price. Now he is desperate. As a result it appears he is trying to give the painting away. Third the painting is colourful. Although I usually like a painting to be colourful I strongly dislike the colours Vasquez uses. To put it plainly the combination of red green and yellow is ugly."

Q. Ria and Gargi both view the new painting as
Select the correct answer using the codes given below
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Nirmala Kumari asked   •  4 hours ago

Directions: The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.
Bailment is a legal relationship in common law where physical possession but not ownership of personal property, or a chattel, is transferred from one person (the bailor) to another (the bailee) who subsequently has possession of the property. The bailee holds the personal property in trust for a specific purpose and delivers the property back to the bailor when the purpose is accomplished.
Contracts of bailment are a special class of contract. The circumstance in which this happens are numerous. Section 148 of the Indian Contract Act defines 'bailment' as 'the delivery of goods by one person to another for some purpose, upon a contract that they shall, when the purpose is accomplished, be returned or otherwise disposed off according to the directions of the person delivering them'. According to Section 150 of the Indian Contract Act, which deals with the duties of bailor, bailors are of two kinds viz. 1) Gratuitous bailor 2) Bailor for reward/consideration. It is the first and foremost duty of the bailor to disclose the faults about the goods bailed to the bailee. If he does not make such disclosure, he is responsible for any damage caused to the bailee directly from such faults. A gratuitous bailment can be terminated by the bailor at any time even though the bailment was for a specified time or purpose. But in such a case, the loss accruing to the bailee from such premature termination should not exceed the benefit he has derived out of the bailment. If the loss exceeds the benefit, the bailor shall have to indemnify the bailee. The duty of a bailor for consideration is much greater. He is making profit from his profession and, therefore, it is his duty to see that the goods which he delivers are reasonably safe for the purpose of the bailment. It is no defence for him to say that he was not aware of the defect. However, the bailee is bound to bear ordinary and reasonable expenses of bailment, but for any extraordinary expenses, the bailor is responsible. It is the duty of the bailor to receive back the goods when the bailee returns them after the expiry of the term of the bailment or when the purpose for which the bailment was created has been accomplished. If the bailor refuses to receive back the goods, the bailee is entitled to receive compensation from the bailor, the necessary expenses of custody/storage. Where the title of the bailor to the goods is defective and the bailee suffers as a consequence, the bailor is responsible to the bailee and may, by reason, sustain that the bailor was not entitled to make bailment, or to receive back the goods, or to give directions respecting them. From the above discussion, it can be seen that bailment is a contract, whereby a delivery of possession is given of specific goods to another for some purpose with the direction that the goods shall be returned or disposed off on fulfillment of the purpose.
Q. X owned a hatchery. Y brought 20 eggs of duck from a farm and wanted to get them hatched. He also instructed X to handover the ducklings, when they are a week old, to Y's home. However, only 15 ducklings could survive till a week. X took the ducklings to Y's place on 8th day after they were hatched. Y refused to take the delivery as X was not delivering 20 ducklings and X delayed the delivery by one day. Thereafter, X went to his house. Z, the servant of Y, was witnessing the scene. X approached Z and was told that Y had not been in a good mood for 2 days and was getting annoyed with everyone for no reason. He also assured X that he could take delivery of ducklings and handover the same to Y, once Y was convinced that X was not at fault. However, X demanded $50 from Z as he knew he would have to take back the ducklings and transportation cost would cost much more to X. Z agreed to the same. In the bill for using services of hatchery, X added $50 which Z agreed to pay to X. Is X justified in adding $50?
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Santosh Devi asked   •  4 hours ago

Read the passage and answer the following question.
The key reason for the disagreement between India and China was that contrary to India's perception of matters, the Chinese saw themselves as leaders of the new world order. They therefore expected— indeed demanded—the prestige, respect and servitude that went along with it.
When China overran Tibet, partly as a way of securing its western flank, India did not react. Instead, elephant-like Delhi sat and waited patiently for the aggression to abate.
It did not. Instead, it grew in intensity.
During the 1950s, Chinese premier Zhou Enlai had been on two 'goodwill' visits to India. But Zhou Enlai's polite gestures at diplomatic meetings had not stopped him from laying claim to India's vulnerable northern flanks outside of these discussions: Ladakh and territories in the NEFA, now known as Arunachal Pradesh. Moreover, China was eyeing Barahoti in Uttar Pradesh, just south of Tibet. Indian troops were based there, and when Chinese soldiers tried to cross the southern border into India, the elephant finally protested. But the dragon did not blink.
In the late 1950s, China denounced the McMahon Line, challenging its international validity. At the end of that year, Zhou Enlai visited Nehru in India with soothing words, assuring him that the border issue with Tibet would be resolved peacefully. In that same meeting, China also recognized the Indian boundary with Burma.
By that time, Chinese soldiers were actually in Barahoti and had marched ten miles into Indian territory. The latter had taken too passive a role and now sat helpless as the dragon advanced, fired up. The following year, talks took place between the two countries. China was persuaded to withdraw its military but left its civilians in the territory.
In January 1959, Zhou Enlai formally claimed Ladakh and NEFA for his country, giving orders for his command to be reflected in Chinese maps.
Just four years earlier, India had formally handed over control of communication services in Tibet to China. When the Tibetan Buddhist leader, the Dalai Lama, asked Nehru for refuge in India because of increasing Chinese pressure on him and the Tibetan people, Nehru who was balanced precariously on a political tightrope, chose to side with Peking and refused the request.
By March 1959, the eyes of the world were on the highly charged power plays. Following a crackdown on the Tibetan capital of Lhasa by the People's Liberation Army (PLA), the Dalai Lama managed to escape possible capture and containment. He again sought refuge in India.
Q. What, according to the author, are India and China primarily at odds?
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Sanjib Bhanja asked   •  5 hours ago

Read the following passage and answer the question.
In 2017, the Ministry of Food Processing Industries which is a ministry of the Government of India was looking into several ways to promote and spread awareness about World Food India 2017 - an event organised by the ministry to promote India as the world's food factory. They desperately needed a way to raise awareness about how India being the largest producer of food and food products, suffers from an acute shortage of food.
India is the fastest-growing economy in the world, yet 40% of its food production is wasted annually. Realising this, the ministry realised that the country, especially its youth, needed a wake-up call and the World Food Day was an ideal time for it.
The Ministry found out that youth of the country is highly active on social media platforms, and therefore they need to look for innovative digital marketing strategies to reach out to them. In order to achieve this, they hired a digital marketing agency that designed a creative marketing strategy that emphasised on food wastage and the ways to tackle it. The agency published creative posts to gather the attention of the target audience, hence engaging them with the campaign.
Q. Which of the following statements presents a paradox that is mentioned in the text?
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Puneet Dhupparh asked   •  6 hours ago

Cells are the ultimate multitaskers: they can switch genes and carry out their order, talk to each other, divide in two, and much more, all the same time. But they couldn’t do any of these tricks without a power source to generate movement. The inside of a cell bustles with more traffic than Delhi roads, and like all vehicles, the cell’s moving parts need engines. Physicists and biologists have looked ‘under the hood’ of the cell – and laid the nuts and bolts of molecular engines.
The ability of such engines to convert chemical energy into motion is the envy of nanotechnology researchers looking for ways to power molecule-sized devices. Medical researchers also want to understand how these engines work. Because these molecules are essential for cell division, scientists hope to shut down the rampant growth of cancer cells by deactivating certain motors. Improving motor-driven transport in nerve cells may also be helpful for treating diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease.
We wouldn’t make it far in life without motor proteins. Our muscles wouldn’t contract. We couldn’t grow, because the growth process requires cells to duplicate their machinery and pull the copies apart. And our genes would be silent without the services of messenger RNA, which carries genetic instruction over to the cell’s protein-making factories. The movements that make these cellular activities possible occur along a complex network of threadlike fibres, or polymers, along which bundles of molecules travel like trams. The engines that power the cell’s freight are three families of proteins, called myosin, kinesin and dynein. For fuel, these proteins burn molecules of ATP, which cells make when they break down the carbohydrates and fats from the foods we eat. The energy from burning ATP causes changes in the proteins’ shape that allow them to heave themselves along the polymer track. The results are impressive: in one second, these molecules can travel between 50 and 100 times their own diameter. If a car with a 5-foot-wide engine were as efficient, it would travel 170 to 340 kmph.
Ronald Vale, a researcher at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the University of California at San Francisco, and Ronald Milligan of the Scripps Research Institute have realized a long-awaited goal by reconstructing the process by which myosin and kinesin move, almost down to the atom. The dynein motor, on the older hand, is still poorly understood. Myosin molecules, best known for their role in muscle contraction, form chains that lie between filaments of another protein called actin. Each myosin molecule has a tiny head that pokes out form the chain like oars from a canoe. Just as rowers propel their boat by stroking their oars through the water, the myosin molecules stick their heads into the actin and hoist themselves forward along the filament. While myosin moves along in short strokes, its cousin kinesin walks steadily along a different type of filament called a microtubule. Instead of using a projecting head as a lever, kinesin walks on two “legs.” Based on these differences, researchers used to think that myosin and kinesin were virtually unrelated. But newly discovered similarities in the motors’ ATP-processing machinery now suggest that they share a common ancestor-molecule. At this point, scientists can only speculate as to what type of primitive cell-like structure this ancestor occupied as it learned to burn ATP and use the energy to change shape. ‘We’ll never really know, because we can’t dig up the remains of ancient proteins. But that was probably a big evolutionary leap,’ says Vale.
On a slightly larger scale, loner cells like sperm or infectious bacteria are prime movers that resolutely push their way through to other cells. As L.Mahadevqan and Paul Matsudaira of the Massac-husetts Institute of Technology explain, the engines in this case are springs or ratchets that are clusters of molecules, rather than single proteins like myosin and kinesin Researchers don’t yet fully understand these engines’ fueling process or the details of how they move, but the result is a force to be reckoned with. For example, one such engine is a spring like stalk connecting a single-called organism called a vorticellid to the leaf fragment it calls home. When exposed to calcium, the spring contracts, yanking the vorticellid down at speeds approaching 3 inches (8 centimetres) per second.
Springs, like this, are coiled bundles of filaments that expand or contract in response to chemical cues. A wave of positively charged calcium ions, for example neutralizes the negative charges that keep the filaments extended. Some sperm use spring like engines made of actin filaments to shoot out a barb that penetrates the layers that surround an egg. And certain viruses use a similar apparatus to shoot their DNA into the host’s cell. Ratchets are also useful for moving whole cells, including some other sperm and pathogens. These engines are filaments that simply grow at the end, attracting chemical building blocks from nearby. Because the other end is anchored in place, the growing end pushes against any barrier that gets in its way.
Both springs and ratchets are made up of small units that each move just slightly, but collectively produce a powerful movement. Ultimately, Mahadevan and Matsudaira hope to better understand just how there particles create an effect that seems to be so much more than the sum of its parts. Might such an understanding provide inspiration for ways to power artificial nano-sized devices in the future? ‘The short answer is absolutely,’ says Mahadevan. ‘Biology has had a lot more time to evolve enormous richness in design for different organisms. Hopefully, studying these structures will not only improve our understanding of the biological world, it will also enable us to copy them, take part their components and re-create them for other purposes.
Q. 
The author has used several analogies to illustrate his arguments in the article. Which of the following pairs of words are examples of the analogies used?
I. Cell activity and vehicular traffic.
II. Polymers and tram tracks.
III. Genes and canoes.
IV. Vorticellids and ratchets.
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Jass Manak asked   •  6 hours ago

Directions : Read the given passage carefully and answer the questions given after the passage
1. Often, we passionately pursue matters that in the future appear to be contradictory to our real intention or nature; and triumph is followed by remorse or regret. There are numerous examples of such a trend in the annals of history and contemporary life.
2. Alfred Nobel was the son of Immanuel Nobel, an inventor who experimented extensively with explosives. Alfred too carried out research and experiments with a large range of chemicals; he found new methods to blast rocks for the construction of roads and bridges; he was engaged in the development of technology and different weapons; his life revolved around rockets and cannons and gun powder. The ingenuity of the scientist brought him enough wealth to buy the Bofors armament plant in Sweden.
3. Paradoxically, Nobel's life was a busy one yet he was lonely; and as he grew older, he began suffering from guilt of having invented the dynamite that was being used for destructive purposes. He set aside a huge part of his wealth to institute Nobel Prizes. Besides honouring men and women for their extraordinary achievements in physics, chemistry, medicine and literature, he wished to honour people who worked for the promotion of peace.
4. It's strange that the very man whose name was closely connected with explosives and inventions that helped in waging wars willed a large part of his earnings for the people who work for the promotion of peace and the benefit of mankind. The Nobel Peace Prize is intended f or a person who has accomplished the best work for fraternity among nations, for abolition or reduction of war and for promotion of peace.
5. Another example that comes to one's mind is that of Albert Einstein. In 1939, fearing that the Nazis would win the race to build the world's first atomic bomb, Einstein urged President Franklin D Roosevelt to launch an American programme on nuclear research. The matter was considered and a project called the Manhattan Project was initiated. The project involved intense nuclear research the construction of the world's first atomic bomb. All this while, Einstein had the impression that the bomb would be used to protect the world from the Nazis. But in 1945, when Hiroshima was bombed to end World War II, Einstein was deeply grieved and he regretted his endorsement of the need for nuclear research.
6. He also stated that had he known that the Germans would be unsuccessful in making the atomic bomb, he would have probably never recommended making one. In 1947, Einstein began working for the cause of disarmament. But, Einstein's name still continues to be linked with the bomb. Man's fluctuating thoughts, changing opinions, varying opportunities keep the mind in a state of flux. Hence, the paradox of life: it's certain that nothing is certain in life.
 
Q.
The paradox, 'it's certain that nothing is certain in life', indicates the writer's    
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Pratyaksh Sharma asked   •  7 hours ago

Care should be taken when submitting manuscripts to book publishers. A suitable publisher should be chosen, by a study of his list of publications or an examination in the bookshops of the type of books in which he specializes. It is a waste of time and money to send the typescript of a novel to a publisher who publishes no fiction, or poetry to one who publishes no verse, though all too often this is done. A preliminary letter is appreciated by most publishers, and this should outline the nature and extent of the typescript and enquire whether the publisher would be prepared to read it (writers have been known to send out such letters of enquiry in duplicated form, an approach not calculated to stimulate a publisher’s interest). It is desirable to enclose the cost of return postage when submitting the typescript and finally it must be understood that although every reasonable care is taken of material in the Publishers’ possession, responsibility cannot be accepted for any loss or damage thereto.
Authors are strongly advised not to pay for the publication of their work. If a MS. Is worth publishing, a reputable publisher will undertake its publication at his own expense, except possibly for works of an academic nature. In this connection attention is called to the paragraphs on Self-publishing and vanity publishing, at the end of this section.
Q. In view of the writer –
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Kamlesh asked   •  7 hours ago

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.
With an aim to boost the ailing realty sector, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs on January 14, 2020 launched an online platform to facilitate home-buyers. The platform will list projects that have received _____(i)____. It will create a safe and transparent home-buying experience that it will create positive sentiment for the real estate industry, boosting confidence and faith among home-buyers, enhancement of liquidity flow in the industry and contributing to growth of the economy.
Urban Affairs Secretary launched realtors' body NAREDCO's e-commerce platform which will list completed residential units and said the portal has the potential to become Amazon of Indian real estate.
"The portal is designed for the all industry stakeholders with a powerful back-end platform which manages and displays the most accurate inventory data in the market, and allows buyers to book their flats directly online", said Niranjan Hiranandani.
The portal ___(ii)___ should be credible and transparent, he said, adding that there should also be a system for consumers' grievances. The portal, will help buyers in accessing best priced inventory by builders for a limited time to take full advantage of best pricing. Buyers will be able to view complete listing info including floor plans, room dimensions, video tours of units and external views looking out from windows/balconies.
This website is not for NAREDCO, but for consumers and home-buyers who can take an informed decision. Officials said that the move will create positive sentiment for the real estate industry, boosting confidence and faith among home-buyers, enhancement of liquidity flow in the industry and contributing to the growth of the economy.
NAREDCO formed under the aegis of Union Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, would list only completed RERA-registered housing projects on the platform. Buyers will start making purchases from March 1 till March 31, 2020.
Q. In the above passage, what has been redacted with ___(ii)___?
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Hardeep Kaur asked   •  7 hours ago

Passage: We have inherited the tradition of secrecy about the budget from Britain were also the system has been strongly attacked by eminent economists and political scientists including Peter Jay. Sir Richard Clarke, who was the originating genius of nearly every important development in the British budgeting techniques during the last two decades, has spoken out about the abuse of budget secrecy: ―The problems of long-term tax policy should surely be debated openly with the facts on the table. In my opinion, all governments should have just the same duty to publish their expenditure policy. Indeed, this obligation to public taxation policy is really essential for the control of public expenditure in order to get realistic taxation implications. Realizing that democracy flourishes best on the principles of open government, more and more democracies are having an open public debate on budget proposals before introducing the appropriate Bill in the legislature. In the United States the budget is conveyed in a message by the President to the Congress, which comes well in advance of the date when the Bill is introduced in the Congress. In Finland the Parliament and the people are already discussing in June the tentative budget proposals which are to be introduced in the Finnish Parliament in September. Every budget contains a cartload of figures in black and whitebut the dark figures represent the myriad lights and shades of India‘s life, the contrasting tones of poverty and wealth, and of bread so dear and flesh and blood so cheap, the deep tints of adventure and enterprise and man‘s ageless struggle for a brighter morning. The Union budget should not be an annual scourge but a part of presentation of annual accounts of a partnership between the Government and the people. That partnership would work much better when the nonsensical secrecy is replaced by openness and public consultations, resulting in fair laws and the people‘s acceptance of their moral duty to pay.
Q. From the contents of the passage, it can be inferred that the author is 
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Deva Singh asked   •  8 hours ago

Passage: We have inherited the tradition of secrecy about the budget from Britain were also the system has been strongly attacked by eminent economists and political scientists including Peter Jay. Sir Richard Clarke, who was the originating genius of nearly every important development in the British budgeting techniques during the last two decades, has spoken out about the abuse of budget secrecy: ―The problems of long-term tax policy should surely be debated openly with the facts on the table. In my opinion, all governments should have just the same duty to publish their expenditure policy. Indeed, this obligation to public taxation policy is really essential for the control of public expenditure in order to get realistic taxation implications. Realizing that democracy flourishes best on the principles of open government, more and more democracies are having an open public debate on budget proposals before introducing the appropriate Bill in the legislature. In the United States the budget is conveyed in a message by the President to the Congress, which comes well in advance of the date when the Bill is introduced in the Congress. In Finland the Parliament and the people are already discussing in June the tentative budget proposals which are to be introduced in the Finnish Parliament in September. Every budget contains a cartload of figures in black and whitebut the dark figures represent the myriad lights and shades of India‘s life, the contrasting tones of poverty and wealth, and of bread so dear and flesh and blood so cheap, the deep tints of adventure and enterprise and man‘s ageless struggle for a brighter morning. The Union budget should not be an annual scourge but a part of presentation of annual accounts of a partnership between the Government and the people. That partnership would work much better when the nonsensical secrecy is replaced by openness and public consultations, resulting in fair laws and the people‘s acceptance of their moral duty to pay.
Q. Which of the following statement(s) is/are definitely false in the context of the passage?
A) Transparency helps unscrupulous elements to resort to corrupt practices.
B) Open approach of Government is a sign of healthy democracy. 
C) People‘s acceptance of their moral duties can best be achieved through openness and public consultations. 
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Ram Krishan asked   •  8 hours ago

Choose the word which is most OPPOSITE in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
​Passage: We have inherited the tradition of secrecy about the budget from Britain were also the system has been strongly attacked by eminent economists and political scientists including Peter Jay. Sir Richard Clarke, who was the originating genius of nearly every important development in the British budgeting techniques during the last two decades, has spoken out about the abuse of budget secrecy: ―The problems of long-term tax policy should surely be debated openly with the facts on the table. In my opinion, all governments should have just the same duty to publish their expenditure policy. Indeed, this obligation to public taxation policy is really essential for the control of public expenditure in order to get realistic taxation implications. Realizing that democracy flourishes best on the principles of open government, more and more democracies are having an open public debate on budget proposals before introducing the appropriate Bill in the legislature. In the United States the budget is conveyed in a message by the President to the Congress, which comes well in advance of the date when the Bill is introduced in the Congress. In Finland the Parliament and the people are already discussing in June the tentative budget proposals which are to be introduced in the Finnish Parliament in September. Every budget contains a cartload of figures in black and whitebut the dark figures represent the myriad lights and shades of India‘s life, the contrasting tones of poverty and wealth, and of bread so dear and flesh and blood so cheap, the deep tints of adventure and enterprise and man‘s ageless struggle for a brighter morning. The Union budget should not be an annual scourge but a part of presentation of annual accounts of a partnership between the Government and the people. That partnership would work much better when the nonsensical secrecy is replaced by openness and public consultations, resulting in fair laws and the people‘s acceptance of their moral duty to pay.
Q. DEBATED 
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Jagdeep Singh asked   •  8 hours ago

Passage: We have inherited the tradition of secrecy about the budget from Britain were also the system has been strongly attacked by eminent economists and political scientists including Peter Jay. Sir Richard Clarke, who was the originating genius of nearly every important development in the British budgeting techniques during the last two decades, has spoken out about the abuse of budget secrecy: ―The problems of long-term tax policy should surely be debated openly with the facts on the table. In my opinion, all governments should have just the same duty to publish their expenditure policy. Indeed, this obligation to public taxation policy is really essential for the control of public expenditure in order to get realistic taxation implications. Realizing that democracy flourishes best on the principles of open government, more and more democracies are having an open public debate on budget proposals before introducing the appropriate Bill in the legislature. In the United States the budget is conveyed in a message by the President to the Congress, which comes well in advance of the date when the Bill is introduced in the Congress. In Finland the Parliament and the people are already discussing in June the tentative budget proposals which are to be introduced in the Finnish Parliament in September. Every budget contains a cartload of figures in black and whitebut the dark figures represent the myriad lights and shades of India‘s life, the contrasting tones of poverty and wealth, and of bread so dear and flesh and blood so cheap, the deep tints of adventure and enterprise and man‘s ageless struggle for a brighter morning. The Union budget should not be an annual scourge but a part of presentation of annual accounts of a partnership between the Government and the people. That partnership would work much better when the nonsensical secrecy is replaced by openness and public consultations, resulting in fair laws and the people‘s acceptance of their moral duty to pay.
Q. Sir Richard Clarke seems to deserve the credit for 
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Shashi Devi asked   •  8 hours ago

Passage: We have inherited the tradition of secrecy about the budget from Britain were also the system has been strongly attacked by eminent economists and political scientists including Peter Jay. Sir Richard Clarke, who was the originating genius of nearly every important development in the British budgeting techniques during the last two decades, has spoken out about the abuse of budget secrecy: ―The problems of long-term tax policy should surely be debated openly with the facts on the table. In my opinion, all governments should have just the same duty to publish their expenditure policy. Indeed, this obligation to public taxation policy is really essential for the control of public expenditure in order to get realistic taxation implications. Realizing that democracy flourishes best on the principles of open government, more and more democracies are having an open public debate on budget proposals before introducing the appropriate Bill in the legislature. In the United States the budget is conveyed in a message by the President to the Congress, which comes well in advance of the date when the Bill is introduced in the Congress. In Finland the Parliament and the people are already discussing in June the tentative budget proposals which are to be introduced in the Finnish Parliament in September. Every budget contains a cartload of figures in black and whitebut the dark figures represent the myriad lights and shades of India‘s life, the contrasting tones of poverty and wealth, and of bread so dear and flesh and blood so cheap, the deep tints of adventure and enterprise and man‘s ageless struggle for a brighter morning. The Union budget should not be an annual scourge but a part of presentation of annual accounts of a partnership between the Government and the people. That partnership would work much better when the nonsensical secrecy is replaced by openness and public consultations, resulting in fair laws and the people‘s acceptance of their moral duty to pay.
Q. The author thinks that openness in budget is essential as it leads to 
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Neelam Kaura asked   •  8 hours ago

Passage: We have inherited the tradition of secrecy about the budget from Britain were also the system has been strongly attacked by eminent economists and political scientists including Peter Jay. Sir Richard Clarke, who was the originating genius of nearly every important development in the British budgeting techniques during the last two decades, has spoken out about the abuse of budget secrecy: ―The problems of long-term tax policy should surely be debated openly with the facts on the table. In my opinion, all governments should have just the same duty to publish their expenditure policy. Indeed, this obligation to public taxation policy is really essential for the control of public expenditure in order to get realistic taxation implications. Realizing that democracy flourishes best on the principles of open government, more and more democracies are having an open public debate on budget proposals before introducing the appropriate Bill in the legislature. In the United States the budget is conveyed in a message by the President to the Congress, which comes well in advance of the date when the Bill is introduced in the Congress. In Finland the Parliament and the people are already discussing in June the tentative budget proposals which are to be introduced in the Finnish Parliament in September. Every budget contains a cartload of figures in black and whitebut the dark figures represent the myriad lights and shades of India‘s life, the contrasting tones of poverty and wealth, and of bread so dear and flesh and blood so cheap, the deep tints of adventure and enterprise and man‘s ageless struggle for a brighter morning. The Union budget should not be an annual scourge but a part of presentation of annual accounts of a partnership between the Government and the people. That partnership would work much better when the nonsensical secrecy is replaced by openness and public consultations, resulting in fair laws and the people‘s acceptance of their moral duty to pay.
Q. The author seems to be in favor of 
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Urja Sharma asked   •  8 hours ago

Direction: In this section every question is appended with facts and principles, and multiple-choice answers. You are required to read the facts carefully, then read the principles, apply the principles to the given facts and make a select one the option which is the most appropriate answer from the given choices
Principles:Whoever, intending to take dishonestly any movable property out of the possession of any person without that person’s consent, moves that property in order to such taking, is said to commit theft.
Facts: Mr. Mehra and Mr. Santo were cadets on training in the Indian Air Force Academy at Jodhpur. Santo had been discharged from the Academy on the grounds of misconduct. Mehra was a cadet receiving training as a navigator and was due for a flight in a Dakota as part of his training. However, on the scheduled day, Mehra along with Santo took off, not in a Dakota, but a Harvard HT 822, before the prescribed time, without authorization, and without observing any of the formalities which were prerequisites for an air-craft flight. They landed at a place in Pakistan about 100 miles away from the Indo-Pak border. Both of them were sent back to Delhi and arrested enroute in Jodhpur and prosecuted and convicted for theft.
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Ram Chander asked   •  8 hours ago

Passage: An issue hangs like the proverbial sword of Damocles on the moral fabric of the nation’s political system. India’s controversial antidefection law, which is often invoked just before a trial of strength to manipulate numbers in a House, needs to be quickly debated and dusted. Currently, the provisions of the law are prone to serious abuse and manipulation.
On September 18, 2017, 18 dissident AIADMK MLAs belonging to the TTV Dinakaran faction were disqualified by Tamil Nadu Speaker P Dhanapal after they withdrew support to Chief Minister E Palaniswami, bringing the effective strength of the House from 234 to 215. It is a different matter that Palaniswami needs only 108 MLAs to survive.
Consider the case in 2015 when the Hyderabad High Court refused to intervene after hearing a petition that alleged the delay by the Telangana Assembly Speaker in acting against a member under the anti-defection law.
Now, there have been several cases where the courts have expressed concern about the unnecessary delay in deciding such petitions.
This delay in decision making has often helped members, who have defected from their parties, to remain members of the House. In some cases, opposition members have been appointed ministers while still retaining membership of their original parties. This needs to change.
Q. Why the courts have expressed concerns about delay in deciding petitions under anti defective laws?
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Anandu Menon asked   •  8 hours ago

The implicit rationale for, or the philosophical foundation of, the intellectual property rights system in India is embodied in three underlying objectives. First, it seeks to strike a balance between the interest of producers on the one hand and consumers on the other, that is, those who develop the scientific knowledge or innovate and those who use the goods or services derived there from. Needless to say every country attempts the same, but where the balance is reached depends on the level of development. The "levels" of income in the economy and the stage of development in the society are thus particularly important in the context.
The logical exclusions from patentability follows from this objective. Methods of horticulture and agriculture, as also food, are excluded because such a large proportion of the population is dependent on agriculture for a livelihood. The purchasing power of the poor even for food is limited, while drugs and medicines are excluded because millions do not have access to basic health care.
Second, it endeavours to ensure rewards for the owners of knowledge or the innovators but, at the same time, aims to place a limit on the monopoly profits or the quasi-rents which may be appropriated by the entity that commercialises the technology or transforms the scientific knowledge into a marketable product. This is the logic of compulsory licensing. There are two underlying principles set out in the Patents Act: patents are granted to encourage inventions and to secure that the inventions are available in India: and patents are not granted merely to enable the patentees to enjoy a monopoly for the importation of the patented article.
Third, it attempts to create an environment which is conducive for the diffusion of existing technologies and the development of new technologies, in so far as technology is a basic determinant of development in a society that is a latecomer to industrialisation. The patentability of process alone, but not products, in some sectors, and the reduced term of patents derives from this objective.
Q.
Which, according to the passage, is envisaged as one of the basic determinants of development of a country?
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Kanta asked   •  8 hours ago

Passage: The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), which is the lead agency within the UN system on all aspects related to human rights, has expressed its concern stating that the CAA “is fundamentally discriminatory in nature”. It has also said that “although India’s broader naturalization laws remain in place, these amendments will have a discriminatory effect on people’s access to nationality.”
International human rights law includes safeguards against unwarranted foreign intervention and stresses the exhaustion of domestic remedies before an issue is considered by an international body. The Indian state always assured the international community that the judiciary, mainly its Supreme Court, would provide adequate remedies to victims of human rights violations. However, of late, the faith of the common people in the higher judiciary has been weakened. In the face of serious allegations about human rights violations in J&K, the Supreme Court has “ducked, evaded and adjourned”, as put across by advocate Gautam Bhatia.
While responding to criticism against its human rights practices, the Indian government also refers to the role of free media and civil society in protecting the human rights of vulnerable groups. However, in the context of J&K and the ongoing struggle against the CAA, the media has not come out any better. As for civil society organisations, the government since 2014 has systematically targeted them, including by making it difficult for them to receive funds from foreign donors. Since 2014, the government has cancelled the registration of about 14,000 NGOs under the Foreign Contribution Regulation Act (FCRA). It has also mainly targeted its own critics.
Indian and international human rights groups are getting increasingly concerned about the actions of people associated with the ruling party who are engaged in the intimidation of critics, attacks against minorities, and restrictions on the freedoms of artistes. The brazen attack on JNU students on January 5 by armed goons and the total lack of response by the police is emblematic of free reign given to non-state actors in various parts of the country.
The international community is sympathetic to governments that are committed to upholding human rights but lack human and other resources to pursue it. In the case of India, it is not a question of resources but an unwillingness to uphold human rights. The government’s action in J&K, the passage of the CAA, and its response to protests on the CAA demonstrate that the present regime is not fully committed to upholding human rights and does not respect international human rights standards. Of course, it is possible for the Indian government, due to its diplomatic clout, to avoid robust intervention by the UN Human Rights Council and other UN human rights mechanisms. However, it would not be able to avoid scrutiny by the international community, which would complement the struggle of the Indian civil society to reclaim the Indian Constitution and advance human rights.
Q. What is the public perception of the Supreme Court?
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Suraj Bhan Gautam asked   •  8 hours ago

Passage: The words of Sir Francis Bacon — “Knowledge is power” — aptly bring out the essence of the Right to Information Act (RTI). Knowledge, gained through access to correct information, has the ability to upturn the power dynamic: It places a person at a formidable position to fight for their rights and enables them to ask vital questions.
The introduction of this Act into the country’s approach to governance has revolutionised the democratic landscape of India. It has strengthened the principles of democracy, which in Abraham Lincoln’s words is “of the people, by the people and for the people”, by facilitating people’s participation in governance. Empowerment of the people by enabling the demand of information from government authorities lifted the veil of secrecy from government functioning — which helped in keeping a check on arbitrary decision making by public institutions. Contrary to popular belief, the RTI was not just limited to the urban elites; it gave voice to the poor sections of the society by providing them with a tool of information to hold the government accountable. This was confirmed by a nation-wide assessment held by PricewaterhouseCoopers, which stated that out of two million RTI applications filed between 2005 and 2009, a total of 4,00,000 were from rural areas.
Q. Which of the following views cannot be attributed to the author of the above passage?
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