Surinder Kaur asked   •  14 minutes ago

Law characteristically faces backward. Unlike most forms of policymaking, which are concerned with a proposed policy’s future consequences, legal decision-making is preoccupied with looking over its shoulder. Frequently in law, but less so elsewhere, it is not enough that a decision produces desirable results in the future; the decision must also follow from or at least be consistent with previous decisions on similar questions. By ordinarily requiring that legal decisions follow precedent, the law is committed to the view that it is often better for a decision to accord with precedent than to be right, and that it is frequently more important for a decision to be consistent with precedent than to have the best consequences.
The obligation to follow precedent arises in the legal system in two different ways. One we can call vertical precedent. Lower courts are normally expected to obey the previous decisions of higher courts within their jurisdiction, and this relationship of lower to higher in the “chain of command” is usefully understood as vertical. Federal district courts are obliged to follow the precedents of the courts of appeals of their circuit, and the courts of appeals are obliged to follow the precedents of the Supreme Court. The same holds true in state systems, which typically have a similar structure and impose equivalent obligations. Indeed, we refer to courts as higher and lower precisely because higher courts exercise authority over lower ones, an authority manifested principally in the obligation of lower courts to treat the decisions of higher courts as binding upon them.
Courts are also, although less obviously and sometimes more controversially, expected to follow their own earlier decisions – horizontal precedent, because the obligation is between some court now and the same court in the past. The earlier decision is superior not because it comes from a higher court; rather, the earlier decision becomes superior just because it is earlier. This obligation of a court to follow its own previous decisions is typically known as stare decisis.
Q. Which of the following would most weaken the author’s contention?
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Guddi Devi asked   •  48 minutes ago

The study is a fascinating one, using thousands of brain scans and hundreds of thousands of sequenced genomes to look for associations between genes, brains and hands. It found that, in left-handers, the left and right hemispheres had stronger links in the regions associated with language, which could correlate with greater language ability.
It also found ‘significant positive correlation’ between left handedness and mental health outcomes such as sensitivity, having ‘fed-up feelings’ and being a ‘worrier’. Look, I’m no scientist, but that feels extremely real.
Talking ‘as a leftie’ always feels like an odd identity to adopt. It’s something I share with about 10% of the population, which is a fairly large community to claim is special and different. That said, it is not much bigger than the cohort of any given star sign, and that hasn’t stopped astrology folk.
And unlike being a Sagittarius, being left-handed has had a concrete effect on my life. That has always been the case with using scissors (painful) and pens (smudged) and playing musical instruments (confusing) and racquet sports (I’m extremely bad at them, although also extremely bad at non-racquet sports, so that might have nothing to do with my handedness).
It looks like it might also be the case for some of the more deep-seated aspects of my personality, health and general phenotype. Which is great, and gives me just a little bit more justification when shouting at lecture theatres that have those stupid flip-down desks, or user interfaces that assume I’m holding a stylus in my right hand. I am special! Mum always said it, but now the scientists have proved it.
Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the author’s arguments in the given passage?
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Angrajo Devi asked   •  51 minutes ago

On August 14, 2020, the Supreme court found Prashant Bhushan guilty under the contempt of courts act, 1971, for two social media posts in June for, it said had “the effect of destabilising the very foundation” of India’s judiciary. Sentencing was set for August 20. On August 19, Bhushan filed an application seeking to defer the sentencing hearing until a review petition is filed and considered. According to section 2(c) of The Contempt of Courts Act, 1971, criminal contempt means the publication (whether by word, spoken or written, or by signs, or by visible representation, or otherwise) of any matter or the doing of any other act whatsoever which- Scandalizes or tends to scandalize, or lowers or tends to lower the authority of, any court, or Prejudices or interferes or tends to interfere with the due course of any judicial proceeding. Thus, from the abovementioned definition, it can be ascertained that there are three important essentials to constitute criminal contempt: Firstly, Publication of any matter-The word publication has been given a very wide meaning so far as contempt of court is concerned. It includes words (spoken/written), signs and visible representation, Secondly, Scandalizing or lowering the authority of the court -scandalizing might manifest itself in various ways but in substance, it is an attack on individual judges in particular or the court as a whole, with or without reference to a particular case, by casting unwarranted and defamatory aspersions upon the character or the ability of the judges and lastly, Prejudice or interference with the due course of any judicial proceeding - Any publication which prejudices or interferes with the due course of any judicial proceeding would amount to criminal contempt of court. The defences against Criminal Contempt are- Innocent publication and distribution of matter, fair and accurate report of judicial proceedings, fair criticism of judicial act, bonafide complaint against the presiding officer of a subordinate court and defamation of the judge in personal capacity and not interfering with the administration of justice.
Q. Marloo was Justice Krishakants batchmate in school, and they did not like each other back then. Marloo in his biography writes that his batchmate krishakant was not a person of good character and fought with people on regular basis, he also claimed that Krishakant was not mentally stable. A contempt of court case was filed against, will he be held liable?
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Usha Devi asked   •  1 hour ago

Four legal approaches may be followed in attempting to channel technological development in socially useful direction: specific directives, market incentive modifications, criminal prohibitions, and changes in decision-making structures. Specific directives involve the government’s identifying factors controlling research, development, or implementation of a given technology. Market incentive modifications are deliberate alterations of the market within which private decisions regarding the development and implementation of technology are made. eg Imposing taxes to cover the costs to society, granting subsidies to pay for social benefits, or easing procedural rules to enable the recovery of damages to compensate for harm caused by destructive technological activity. Criminal prohibitions may modify technological activity in areas impinging on fundamental social values, or they may modify human behavior likely to result from technological applications. Alteration of decision-making structures includes all possible modifications in the authority, constitution, or responsibility of private and public entities deciding questions of technological development and implementation.
Effective use of these methods to control technology depends on whether or not the goal of regulation is the optimal allocation of resources. When the object is optimal resource allocation, that combination of legal methods should be used that most nearly yields the allocation that would exist if there were no external costs resulting from allocating resources through market activity. There are external costs when the price set by buyers and sellers of goods fails to include some costs, to anyone, that result from the production and use of the goods. Such costs are internalized when buyers pay them.
Air pollution from motor vehicles imposes external costs on all those exposed to it, in the form of soiling, materials damage, and disease: these externalities result from failure to place a price on air, thus making it a free good, common to all. Such externalities lead to non optimal resource allocation, because the private net product and the social net product of market activity are not often identical. If all externalities were internalized, transactions would occur until bargaining could no longer improve the situation, thus giving an optimal allocation of resources at a given time.
Q. It can be inferred from the passage that the author does NOT favor which of the following?
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Angrejo Devi asked   •  1 hour ago

The Epidemic Diseases (Amendment) Ordinance, 2020 was promulgated on April 22, 2020. The Ordinance amends the Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897. The Act provides for the prevention of the spread of dangerous epidemic diseases. Key features of the Ordinance include: Definitions: The Ordinance defines healthcare service personnel as a person who is at risk of contracting the epidemic disease while carrying out duties related to the epidemic. They include: (i) public and clinical healthcare providers such as doctors and nurses, (ii) any person empowered under the Act to take measures to prevent the outbreak of the disease, and (iii) other persons designated as such by the state government. An ‘act of violence’ includes any of the following acts committed against a healthcare service personnel: (i) harassment impacting living or working conditions, (ii) harm, injury, hurt, or danger to life, (iii) obstruction in discharge of his duties, and (iv) loss or damage to the property or documents of the healthcare service personnel. Property is defined to include a: (i) clinical establishment, (ii) quarantine facility, (iii) mobile medical unit, and (iv) other property in which a healthcare service personnel has direct interest, in relation to the epidemic. Powers of the central government: The Act specifies that the central government may regulate: (i) the inspection of any ship or vessel leaving or arriving at any port, and (ii) the detention of any person intending to travel from the port, during an outbreak. Protection for healthcare personnel and damage to property: The Ordinance specifies that no person can: (i) commit or abet the commission of an act of violence against a healthcare service personnel, or (ii) abet or cause damage or loss to any property during an epidemic. These offences are cognizable and non-bailable. Compensation: Compensation will be determined by the Court. In the case of damage or loss of property, the compensation payable to the victim will be twice the amount of the fair market value of the damaged or lost property, as determined by the Court. If the convicted person fails to pay the compensation, the amount will be recovered as an arrear of land revenue under the Revenue Recovery Act, 1890. Investigation: Cases registered under the Ordinance will be investigated by a police officer not below the rank of Inspector. The investigation must be completed within 30 days from the date of registration of the First Information Report. Trial: The inquiry or trial should be concluded within one year. If it is not concluded within this time period, the Judge must record the reasons for the delay and extend the time period. However, the time period may not be extended for more than six months at a time. When prosecuting a person for causing grievous harm to a healthcare service personnel, the Court will presume that person is guilty of the offence, unless the contrary is proved.
Q. Ami is a doctor and has been working with the state government in treating patients affected by the CONID-39 virus. She has written down the treatment details of all her patients in a file. Her sister does not like her going to the hospital everyday and in anger burns the file. Can she be prosecuted under the epidemic diseases act?
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Munshi Ram asked   •  1 hour ago

On November 21, 2019, the Union Cabinet approved the introduction of Industrial Relations Code, 2019. This is the third code under labor reforms. Under the new code, forty-four laws are to be amalgamated into four codes. The four codes include wage rates, industrial relations and industrial security and labor welfare. The code intends to simplify and rationalize the Trade Union Act, 1926, Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, Industrial Employment Act, 1946. The code also features a two-member tribunal to fasten the disposal of cases. The code allows the companies to hire fixed-term contract workers. It defines fixed-term employment as a worker who can be hired for a duration of 3 months or 6 months or a year based on the season and orders. With the amalgamation of the laws, the process of registration and filing of returns will get streamlined.
The process will help in improving ease of business and hence employment will increase. With the amalgamation of labor laws, the GoI intends to bring maximum governance with minimum laws. States like Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Haryana, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh, where the threshold has been enhanced from 100 to 300 workers by state amendments, have been protected in the Code. The Code also proposes setting up of a “re-skilling fund” for training of retrenched employees. The retrenched employee would be paid 15 days’ wages from the fund within 45 days of retrenchment. An industrial establishment will have to contribute an amount equal to 15 days’ wages or such other days as may be notified by the central government, to this fund for every worker retrenched. The labor ministry is of the view that the proposed amendments will make it easier for an employer to engage/disengage workers based on requirement. On the other hand, it is also being ensured that the retrenched worker is provided an opportunity of acquiring new skills through the re-skilling fund to enhance employability. ""The ease of compliance of labor laws will promote setting up of more enterprises, thus catalyzing the creation of employment opportunities in the country,"" it said.
Q. Sara is a worker in a small enterprise that makes jute bags for wholesale for various industries. She was let off her job due to over hiring laborers causing budget constraint to the employer. Which of the below is not one of the benefits she might be given under the above act?
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Darshna asked   •  2 hours ago

Every night my father took the path from the cemetery to our house. I pretended to be asleep while he looked for the stick that he used to hide in my closet. I left the door open for him and played an amusing game with him – he left his eyes in his grave and every time I hid his stick in a different place. I watched him with half an eye until he gave up. Then he curled up on the floor, miserable and tired. I got out of bed, took his hand and walked him back to the cemetery gate before the people of the house woke up. He walked through the gate confidently and with assurance, and I watched him from a short distance as he disappeared among the graves. I’d never thought of getting rid of the stick. On the contrary, I’d taken extra care of it since my father’s night visits began. After each visit I got rid of one of the scars he had given me with it. I had gotten rid of all but one scar that was left at the bottom of the list. I didn’t know where it was, on the skin or beneath it. One last visit from him and it would all be over and I would have eliminated them all. This time I would leave him lying curled up miserably in the corner of the room for longer than usual. I might wait until dawn or until he swallowed his pride and asked me openly to escort him back to his grave before the sun came up. But he didn’t come for three nights. His absence made me very anxious. On the fourth night I decided to look for him. But this would be his last visit to us and then I would leave his stick-on top of his grave and he wouldn’t bother walking around at night dead and blind. At two o’clock in the morning I left my room quietly, taking care not to wake my mother, who leaves the door of her bedroom ajar. I didn’t think about how I was going to persuade my father to visit us for one last time. But what dead person doesn’t hope to be invited out for a walk at night so that they can breathe cool refreshing air? At the cemetery gate I spotted two shadows moving in the distance. It was my mother laying into my father with the stick. My father was trying to avoid her blows but he wasn’t moving from where he was or making any noise. From my hiding place I heard her say, “You bastard, I told you not to hit him on the head. Don’t hit him on the head or you’ll kill him.” I felt my head and found a deep wound covered with dried blood. I went through the cemetery gate and disappeared among the graves sunk in darkness.
Q. Which of the following cannot be true, based on the above passage?
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Farha Naaz asked   •  2 hours ago

Passage-1:-  In the second week of august 1998, just a few days after the incidents of bombing the US embassies in Nairobi & Dar-er-Salaam, a high powered, brainstorming session was held near Washington DC, to discuss various aspects of terrorism. The meeting was attended by ten of America’s leading experts in various fields such as germ & chemical warfare, public health, disease control & also by the doctor and the law enforcing officers. Being asked to describe the horror of possible bio-attack, one of the experts narrated the following "gloomy" scenario.
A culprit in a crowded business centre or in a busy shopping mall of a town empties a test tube containing some fluid, which in turn creates an unseen cloud of germ of a dreaded disease like anthrax, capable of inflicting a horrible death within 5 days on anyone who inhales it. At first, 500 or son victims felt that they have mild influenza which may recede after a day or two. Then the symptoms return again and their lungs start filling with fluid. They rush to local hospitals for treatment, but the panic stricken people may find that the Medicare services run quickly out of drugs due to excessive demand. But no one would be able to realize that a terrorist attack has occurred. One cannot deny the possibility that the germ involved would be of contagious variety capable of causing an epidemic. The meeting concluded that "such attacks", apart from causing immediate human tragedy, would have dire long term effect on the political & social fabric of a country by way of ending people’s trust on the competence of the government.
The experts also said that the bombs used in Kenya & Tanzania were of the old fashion variety & involved large quantities of high explosives, but new terrorism will prove to be more deadly & probably more "elusive" than hi jacking an aero-plane or a gelignite or previous decades.  According to Bruce Hoffman, an American specialist on political violence, old terrorism generally had a specific manifesto to overthrow a colonial power or the capitalist system and so on. These terrorists were not shy about planting a bomb or hijacking an aircraft and they set some limit to their brutality. Killing so many innocent people might turn their natural supporters off. Political terrorists want a lot of people watching, but not a lot of people dead. Old terrorism sought to change the word while the new sort is often practiced by those who believe that the world has gone beyond redemption, he added.
Hoffman says, “New Terrorism has no long term agenda, but is ruthless in its short term intentions”. It is often just a "cacophonous cry" of protest or an outburst of religious intolerance or a protest against the west in general & the US in particular. Its may be religious fanatics or die-hard opponents of a government and see no reason to show restraint. They are simply intent on inflicting the maximum amount of pain on the victim.
The phrase, such attacks, as mentioned in the last sentence of second paragraph, refers to
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Shashi Bala asked   •  2 hours ago

Notable as important nineteenth-century novels by women, Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein and Emily Bronte’s Wuthering Heights treat women very differently. Shelley produced a “masculine” text in which the fates of subordinate female characters seem entirely dependent on the actions of male heroes or anti-heroes. Bronte produced a more realistic narrative, portraying a world where men battle for the favors of apparently high-spirited, independent women. Nevertheless, these two novels are alike in several crucial ways. Many readers are convinced that the compelling mysteries of each plot conceal elaborate structures of allusion and fierce, though shadowy, moral ambitions that seem to indicate metaphysical intentions, though efforts by critics to articulate these intentions have generated much controversy. Both novelists use a storytelling method that emphasizes ironic disjunctions between different perspectives on the same events as well as ironic tensions that inhere in the relationship between surface drama and concealed authorial intention, a method I call an evidentiary narrative technique.
Q. Which of the following narrative strategies best exemplifies the “evidentiary narrative technique” mentioned in the passage?
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Krish Raghav asked   •  2 hours ago

India has come a long way since the Bengal Famine of 1943. The food situation in India, once characterised by "chronic" shortages and the spectre of famines, has changed dramatically over the years. From being the biggest recipient of PL -480 and during the 1950s and 1960s, India today is relatively self-sufficient in foodgrain at the given level of incomes and prices; in fact, it has marginal surpluses. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) has been signed, with India as one of the signatories, under which all countries will have to gradually open up their agricultural sectors.
It is, therefore, neither feasible nor desirable to keep India's foodgrain sector insulated from world markets. In fact, this is an appropriate opportunity for India to "integrate" its agriculture with global agriculture, and make use of private trade (both domestic and foreign) as an important instrument for efficiently allocating her resources as well as providing food security to her people at the lowest economic cost. The time to change gears in food policy has come.
Food security, in a broader context, means that people have physical and economic access to food. Since foodgrains have the largest share in the food basket of the poor in a developing country like India, it is the availability of foodgrains that lies at the heart of food security. The first step in this direction, therefore, is to make foodgrains physically available to the people. This can be done by augmenting production, or through imports and transportation of grain to people wherever they are.
There are several ways of achieving these targets. One may rely on private entrepreneurship by letting the individual farmers produce, traders trade/import and make it available to consumers far and wide; or the government may directly intervene in the production and /or the trade process. In the former case, the government follows policies that provide appropriate market signals while in the latter, it acts as producer, importer and trader itself. Indian policy makers have followed a mix of both these options. For production, they have "relied" on the farmers while the government has retained control over imports. For distribution, it created public agencies to do the job along with private trade, thus creating dual market structure.
Providing economic access to food is the second part of the concept of food security. This can be best "obtained" by adopting a cost-effective technology in production so that the real price of foodgrains come down and more people have access to it. In case it still fails to reach the larger sections of the population, the government can directly subsidise food for the poor, "launch" a drive to augment their incomes, or try a combination of the two strategies.India has followed both these policies.

According to the author, food at affordable price could be made available to poor by which of the following measures?
I. Reducing the cost of production of foodgrains by using appropriate technology.
II. Offering foodgrains at lower cost and offering economic support for maintaining lower cost.
III. Raising the earning of the poor.
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Prachi Patil asked   •  3 hours ago

Software and intellectual property have come a long way to provided new dimension to the markets. For a firm to be satisfied with the performance and functionality of an existing product was to risk losing market share to a competitor that targeted the same market. The nature of competition in the industry has been such that, if there is a perceived market for a particular software product, “someone will build it, and someone else will, as well, “said Harry C. Reinstein, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Aion Corp.
While many software firms were aware of what intellectual property protection applied to software primarily trade secret law and copyright law, the actions of most of the firms suggested the legal concerns rarely entered into product-development decisions. The collective behavior of firms served to achieve the constitutional aim on which intellectual property law based: “to promote the progress of science and the useful arts”. More specifically, the software industry achieved the intent of intellectual property law, that is, to advance the public good, an objective widely interpreted to mean the generation and wide dissemination of ideas and innovations.
Today’s legal ferment indicates that software firms are much more attuned to intellectual property issues. And why not copyright law and patent law exist to encourage innovation. Both award limited monopolies to those who invest their resources, effort, and ingenuity in developing products that society may deem useful. Thus intellectual property law offers the potential for private financial gain as an incentive for undertaking the risks of innovation.
To Francis D. Fisher, adviser to the Educational Technology Group at the Harvard Law School concerns that intellectuals property protection seem at odds with the industry’s historically high rate of innovation.” It is not enough to suggest that the incentives of monopoly are needed,” Fisher maintained. “We need evidence. We need to shift the burden of proof, so that those who believe that the public interest gains from extending property rights to software must prove their case.” Among those who believe this case is unproven is Richard Stallman, whose Free Software Foundation and League for Progra-mming Freedom provide a test of his conviction that innovation is best served absent prices based on commercial monopoly. While Firms be unconvinced of the need to accord strict intellectual property right to software, by competitors and user is widespread. Firms trying to position themselves in the market to earn returns on their investment often devote considerable thought to protection strategies.
Which one of the following could be a possible conclusion in the light of arguments led by Harry C. Rein Stein, Richard Stallman, and Francis D. Fisher?
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Komal Varne asked   •  3 hours ago

In the middle of a pandemic, the geopolitics of the world‘s most troubled region took a historic turn this week, when the UAE and Israel, under the benevolent gaze of US President Donald Trump, signed an agreement to “normalise” relations. The deal opens up new opportunities for India to play a much larger role in the regional security and stability in the Gulf, where New Delhi enjoys special relations with both Abu Dhabi and Jerusalem. The barebones of the deal envisages establishing regular diplomatic relations between the UAE, the rising influential power in the Gulf, and Israel, the “Incredible Hulk” of the region, but a country officially not on speaking terms with most of its Arab neighbours. In his first tweet, Crown Prince Mohammed bin Zayed said: ‘During a call with President Trump and Prime Minister Netanyahu, an agreement was reached to stop further Israeli annexation of Palestinian territories. The UAE and Israel also agreed to cooperation and setting a roadmap towards establishing a bilateral relationship.” In return, Israel agreed to “suspend” its annexation plans for West Bank that would have been deeply destabilising. Benjamin Netanyahu gets a diplomatic victory, which may be short-lived, given the nature of Israeli politics. But Israel gets a diplomatic and economic opening with the big power in the Gulf that could open other doors, give its security interests legitimacy and, perhaps, open the door to Middle East peace.
Many of the other Arab powers, such as Oman, Bahrain, Egypt and Jordan, apart from the big global powers, and India, have welcomed the deal. Iran has slammed it, as have Turkey and Syria. Saudi Arabia has been very quiet. Given the close ties between Mohammed bin Zayed and Mohammed bin Salman, it is unthinkable that KSA was not consulted, particularly when the US is the third pole in this agreement. The deal gives UAE pole position as the premier Gulf Arab power, with diplomatic leverage with Israel and the US. “This deal is about positioning in Washington, DC,” said James Dorsey, Gulf and Middle East expert.
Q. The peace deal between Israel and UAE can also be seen as a great opportunity for India in the Middle East region. Which of the following is not related to strategic goals of India in the Middle East?
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Mr All Rounder asked   •  3 hours ago

In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev, launched an ill-fated anti-alcohol campaign in the then Soviet Union. The anti-alcohol campaign had some beneficial public health consequences: Crime fell and life expectancy rose. But the campaign was a political and economic disaster. Gorbachev forgot that the addict ion of the state to alcohol revenue was even more incurable than the addiction of some citizens to alcohol itself. The budgetary losses created an economic crisis. Historians suspect that more than the loss of the Soviet Empire, it was this campaign that delegitimised Gorbachev. An old Soviet joke went like this: A disaffected and angry citizen, fed up of standing in lines for vodka, decided to go assassinate Gorbachev. He soon came back and ruefully reported that the lines to assassinate Gorbachev were even longer than the lines for Vodka. As the lockdown eased in India, and social distancing went for a toss at alcohol outlets, we were reminded of how difficult an issue alcohol is to rationally discuss in India. The stampede was caused by the ineptness with which the opening was handled in most cities. Alcohol has also migrated from being a question of personal freedom and choice to an issue in broader cultural wars, an odd site on which we measure progressivism in India. It is also a window on how liberalism has been misunderstood. Liberals should, rightly, be suspicious of prohibition on moral and practical grounds. Government grossly exceeds its legitimate power when it interferes with the rights of individuals to lead their lives as they please, and fashion their selves after their own ideals, interests and preferences. And certainly, moralism or puritanism on alcohol cannot be the basis of state policy. That moralism has no basis, and it violates the dignity and freedom of individuals.
Q. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage above?
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Drishti asked   •  3 hours ago

Tension prevailed in the Jawahar area in Palghar district after three Mumbai residents, travelling in a Ford Ecosport to Silvassa, were allegedly lynched late on Thursday night. The Kasa police said the incident occurred near Gadakchinchale village under their jurisdiction. “Information received by us indicates that the three occupants of the SUV hailed form Kandivali in Mumbai and were going to attend a funeral in Silvassa,” Superintendent of Police Gaurav Singh, Palghar police said. A large mob of villagers surrounded the car within a matter of minutes and started attacking it with sticks, irons rods and their bare hands, leading to the death of all three occupants. “One of our patrolling vehicles later spotted the severely injured trio lying on the road and stopped to find out the matter. However, our team was also attacked by the mob and the vehicle pelted with stones. Our personnel had to flee and were unable to rescue to the victims,” an officer with the Kasa police said. A wireless alert was sent out later apprising all po lice stations and units of the incident fo llowing which reinforcements were sent to the village and a combing operation was undertaken. “Prima facie information indicates that the trio were mistaken for thieves and attacked. The villagers were on edge due to the ongoing lockdown and unavailability of essential supplies. For the past few days, several rumours have been doing the rounds on social media about thieves and dacoits targetting villages on the highway. As a result, villagers have been patrolling the highway and stopping late night travellers on suspicion,” the officer said.
Q. Assertion (A): Mob Lynching can be just ified only in circumstances where the religious sentiments or feelings of a large group of people is associated.
Reason (R): Religious sentiments and feelings are of paramount consideration for the state and should not be interfered with.
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Veera asked   •  3 hours ago

The appearance of sunspots has been considered to be roughly periodic, with an average cycle of eleven years. Moreover, the incidence of solar flares and the flux of solar cosmic rays, ultraviolet radiation, and x-radiation all vary directly with the sunspot cycle. But after more than a century of investigation, the relation of these and other phenomena, known collectively as the solar-activity cycle, to terrestrial weather and climate remains unclear.
The absence of recorded sunspot activity in the notes kept by European observers in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries has led some scholars to postulate a brief cessation of sunspot activity at that time (a period called the Maunder minimum). The Maunder minimum has been linked to a span of unusual cold in Europe extending from the sixteenth to the early nineteenth centuries. The reality of the Maunder minimum has yet to be established, however, especially since the records that Chinese naked-eye observers of solar activity made at that time appear to contradict it. Scientists have also sought evidence of long-term solar periodicities by examining indirect climatological data, such as fossil records of the thickness of ancient tree rings. These studies, however, failed to link unequivocally terrestrial climate and the solar-activity cycle, or even to confirm the cycle’s past existence.
If consistent and reliable geological or archaeological evidence tracing the solar-activity cycle in the distant past could be found, it might also resolve an important issue in solar physics: how to model solar activity. Currently, there are two models of solar activity. The first supposes that the Sun’s internal motions interact with its large-scale magnetic field to produce a dynamo. The Sun’s large-scale magnetic field is taken to be self-sustaining, so that the solar-activity cycle it drives would be maintained with little overall change for perhaps billions of years. The alternative explanation supposes that the Sun’s large-scale magnetic field is a remnant of the field the Sun acquired when it formed, and is not sustained against decay. In this model, the solar mechanism dependent on the Sun’s magnetic field runs down more quickly. Thus, the characteristics of the solar-activity cycle could be expected to change over a long period of time. Modern solar observations span too short a time to reveal whether present cyclical solar activity is a long-lived feature of the Sun, or merely a transient phenomenon.
Q. Which of the following statements about the two models of solar activity, as described in the passage, is accurate?
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Munni Devi asked   •  4 hours ago

Billed as a clash between the treble-chasers, the coming team of England were up against the most recent non- English serial conquerors of Europe, whose coach, Udo Lattek, was freshly reinstalled to recreate the mid-1970s glory days of three consecutive European Cups. Bayern's disruption tactics were apparent, hot tempered one-on-one confrontations were soon ablaze all over the pitch.
My clearest first-half memory is giving a time-wasting Pfaff evil stare every time he feigned to mis-control my perfectly weighted passes. Acting on Kendall's advice to ""let the Gwladys Street suck the ball in the net"", Everton bombarded Bayern. I played my part, skittling the ball quickly to Southall to maintain the attacking intensity. I was carrying a few pounds extra - in the pockets, the result of scouring the turf at half-time for coins readily donated to the Ball Boy Appreciation Fund.
The European Cup final disaster at Heysel - just 14 days after Rotterdam, where they were crowned Champions - meant this turned out to be the end of an era for Everton, rather than the start. Denied the chance to fully emerge from Liverpool's shadow and contest the European Cup (twice) during the ban on English clubs, Kendall departed for Spain in 1987 and Everton's 1985 triumph proved the final hurrah for English football's golden era.
When the ban ended in the early 90s, Everton's (and England's) dominance was consigned to a different age along with goalkeepers picking up back passes and optional use of shin pads.
Q. Which of the following do you think was the author's profession at the time of the match?
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Sanjeev Kumar asked   •  4 hours ago

The questions in this section are based on a single passage. The questions are to be answered on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage.
Please note that for some of the questions, more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question. However, you are to choose the best answer; that is, the response that most accurately and completely answers the question.
Passage for Question
In 1954, a Bombay economist named A.D. Shroff began a Forum of Free Enterprise, whose ideas on economic development were somewhat at odds with those then influentially articulated by the Planning Commission of the Government of India. Shroff complained against the ‘indifference, if not discouragement’ with which the state treated entrepreneurs.
At the same time as Shroff, but independently of him, a journalist named Philip Spratt was writing a series of essays in favour of free enterprise. Spratt was a Cambridge communist who was sent by the party in 1920s to foment revolution in the subcontinent. Detected in the act, he spent many years in an Indian jail. The books he read in the prison, and his marriage to an Indian woman afterwards, inspired a steady move rightwards. By the 1950s, he was editing a pro-American weekly from Bangalore, called MysIndia. There he inveighed against the economic policies of the government of India. These, he said, treated the entrepreneur ‘as a criminal who has dared to use his brains independently of the state to create wealth and give employment’. The state’s chief planner, P.C. Mahalanobis, had surrounded himself with Western leftists and Soviet academicians, who reinforced his belief in ‘rigid control by the government over all activities’. The result, said Spratt, would be ‘the smothering of free enterprise, a famine of consumer goods, and the tying down of millions of workers to soul-deadening techniques.’
The voices of men like Spratt and Shroff were drowned in the chorus of popular support for a model of heavy industrialization funded and directed by the governments. The 1950s were certainly not propitious times for free marketers in India. But from time to time their ideas were revived. After the rupee was devalued in 1966, there were some moves towards freeing the trade regime, and hopes that the licensing system would also be liberalized. However, after Indira Gandhi split the Congress Party in 1969, her government took its ‘left turn’, nationalizing a fresh range of industries and returning to economic autarky.
Q. Which of the following statements can most reasonably be inferred from the information available in the passage:
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Dayawati asked   •  4 hours ago

Religious admonitions against sexual relations between same-sex individuals (particularly men) long stigmatized such behaviour, but most legal codes in Europe were silent on the subject of homosexuality. The judicial systems of many predominantly Muslim countries invoked Islamic law (Shariat) in a wide range of contexts, and many sexual or quasi-sexual acts were criminalized in those countries with severe penalties, including execution.
Beginning in the 16th century, lawmakers in Britain began to categorize homosexual behaviour as criminal rather than simply immoral. In the 1530s, during the reign of Henry VIII, England passed the Buggery Act, which made sexual relations between men a criminal offense punishable by death. In Britain sodomy remained a capital offense punishable by hanging until 1861. In 1885, Parliament passed an amendment sponsored by Henry Du Pré Labouchere, which created the offense of “gross indecency” for same-sex male sexual relations, enabling any form of sexual behaviour between men to be prosecuted. Likewise, in Germany in the early 1870s, when the country was integrating the civil codes of various disparate kingdoms, the final German penal code included Paragraph 175, which criminalized same-sex male relations with punishment including prison and a loss of civil rights.
Before the end of the 19th century there were scarcely any “movements” for gay rights. Indeed, in his 1890s poem “Two Loves,” Lord Alfred Douglas, Oscar Wilde’s lover, declared “I [homosexuality] am the love that dare not speak its name.” Homosexual men and women were given voice in 1897 with the founding of the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee in Berlin. Their first activity was a petition to call for the repeal of Paragraph 175 of the Imperial Penal Code. The committee published emancipation literature, sponsored rallies, and campaigned for legal reform throughout Germany, as well as in The Netherlands and Austria, developing some 25 local chapters by 1922. Its founder was Magnus Hirschfeld, who in 1919 opened the Institute for Sexual Science, which anticipated by decades other scientific centres (such as the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction, in the United States) that specialized in sex research. He also helped sponsor the World League of Sexual Reform, which was established in 1928 at a conference in Copenhagen. Despite Paragraph 175 and the failure of the WhK to win its repeal, homosexual men and women experienced a certain amount of freedom in Germany, particularly during the Weimar period, between the end of World War I and the Nazi seizure of power. In many larger German cities, gay nightlife became tolerated, and the number of gay publications increased; indeed, according to some historians, the number of gay bars and periodicals in Berlin in the 1920s exceeded that in New York City six decades later.
Q. What is the main purpose of the above passage?
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Sube Singh asked   •  4 hours ago

"The Psychologist seemed about to speak to me but changed his mind. Then the Time Traveler put forth his finger towards the lever. “No,” he said suddenly. “Lend me your hand.” He took the Psychologist’s hand in his own and told him to put out his forefinger. So that it was the Psychologist himself who sent forth the model Time Machine on its interminable voyage, we all saw the lever turn. I am absolutely sure there was no trickery. There was a breath of wind, and the lamp flame jumped. One of the candles on the mantel was blown out, and the little machine suddenly swung round, became indistinct, and was seen as a ghost for a second perhaps, as an eddy of faintly glittering brass and ivory; and it was gone — vanished!
The Psychologist recovered from his stupor and suddenly looked under the table.
We stared at each other. “Do you seriously believe that machine has travelled into time?” said the Medical Man.
“You mean to say that machine has travelled into the future?” said Filby.
“Into the future or the past” said Time Traveler.
After an interval, the Psychologist had an inspiration. “It must have gone into the past if it has gone anywhere,” he said.
“Because I presume that it has not moved in space and if it travelled into the future it would still be here all this time since it must have travelled through this time.”
“But,” said I, “If it travelled into the past it would have been visible when we came first into this room; and last Thursday when we were here; and the Thursday before that; and so forth!”
“That’s a simple point of psychology. It’s plain enough and helps the paradox delightfully. We cannot see it, nor can we appreciate this machine, any more than we can speak of a wheel spinning, or a bullet flying through the air. If it is travelling through time fifty times faster than we are, if it gets through a minute while we get through a second, the impression it creates will, of course, only be one-fiftieth of what it would make if it were not travelling in time.” He passed his hand through the space in which the machine had been.
“Would you like to see the Time Machine itself?” asked the Time Traveler. And therewith, taking the lamp in his hand, he led the way down the long, draughty corridor to his laboratory. “Look here,” said the Medical Man, “are you perfectly serious? Or is this a trick, like that ghost you showed us last Christmas?”
“Upon that machine,” said the Time Traveller, holding the lamp aloft, “I intend to explore time. Is that plain? I was never more serious in my life.
” None of us quite knew how to take it.
I caught Filby’s eye over the shoulder of the Medical Man, and he winked at me solemnly."
Q. Which of the following statements can be inferred from the passage?
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Nirmala Kumari asked   •  4 hours ago

Vodafone Group Plc has won yet another round in its 13-year-long battle with India’s tax authorities. On Friday, an international arbitration tribunal ruled that the Indian government’s efforts to claim more than ₹20,000 crore in tax (including related interest and penalties) from Vodafone using retrospective legislation was in clear breach of the ‘fair and equitable treatment’ protections afforded under Article 4(1) of the Bilateral Investment Treaty between India and the Netherlands. The ruling upholding the British multinational’s stand ought to end India’s protracted and often perverse pursuit of what at the very outset was a highly contentious claim. The dispute began in September 2007 when tax authorities served a demand on Vodafone International Holdings BV for tax that it said Vodafone’s Dutch unit ought to have withheld while acquiring the controlling stake in the erstwhile Hutchison Essar Ltd. from Hutchison Telecommunications International Ltd. Since the stake purchase transaction took place outside India between two overseas entities, Vodafone was emphatic from the start that it was not liable for any tax relating to the deal. Following a setback at the Bombay High Court, Vodafone presented its position to the Supreme Court, which ruled in its favour in 2012. In a move, fraught with implications for all its international investment treaties, the government of the day, however, amended the tax legislation to give retrospective effect to its claims. This was the trigger for the U.K.-based company to seek arbitral recourse.
For Vodafone, the legal win is at best a pyrrhic victory. After having spent about $11 billion in 2007 for acquiring the 67% stake in Hutchison Essar, the telecom services provider has struggled with challenges that forced it, in November 2019, to write down the book value of its Indian holdings to zero. While the Indian operation has gained size and market share including through its merger with the erstwhile Idea Cellular — from, respectively, 44 million subscribers in 2007 to 305 million users, and 26.7% at the end of June — there have been continued losses in the face of intense competition and unviable tariffs. Add to the mix the substantial sum of money it owes the government in the form of adjusted gross revenue dues and the future fund requirements of a rapidly technologically evolving and highly capital intensive industry, Vodafone’s wariness to commit more equity to the Indian venture becomes understandable. The government must not seek to litigate the matter any further. The cost of doing otherwise will surely be bruisingly high, especially at a time when Prime Minister Narenda Modi spares no opportunity to woo foreign investment. Any failure to learn a salutary lesson from this loss would only serve to undermine overseas investors’ faith in India’s commitment to international treaties and the rule of law.
Q. Which of the following is true regarding the tones used by the author in the passage?
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