A major telecom company recently hired a new Chief Financial Officer to take command of the company’s finances. This move came against the backdrop of national and global economic crises.
The CFO is charged with the responsibility of realigning the finances of the largest Strategic Business Unit which deals with network solutions to major corporate clients in the country. In wake of the overall financial slump, many of the corporate clients have been delaying the payment of their recurring dues for the monthly network and internet services utilised. The local account managers handling those clients and their respective Regional Managers had been given the authority to maintain client relations and if necessary allow the delayed payments with a view to continue a long-term relationship with the key clients. However, the new CFO after taking stock of the situation decided to put an affirmative end to this practice. He sent a mail to every regional and local account manager asking them to discontinue services to the defaulting clients. In spite of such a strong communication, most major clients delayed the payments in the next month. As a response to this, the CFO resent his earlier mail asking for comments. In the next month, the single largest client defaulted on the payment and the regional manager promptly asked the technology company to terminate services to that client. The regional manger merely informed the client that the delay in payment was responsible for the termination of services and the service would be reconstituted on payment of the dues.
The client faced severe difficulties due to discontinuation of the internet and local network services. The CEO of that company wrote a scathing email to the Chairman of the telecom company.
The CEO pointed out the sudden, mishandled and improperly communicated decision and its severe impact on his company’s business. He pointed out that they were one of the largest clients of the telecom company. The CEO also hinted that his company would want to reconsider their future engagement. The Chairman decided to maintain the relations with that important client and yet protect his company’s image. He promptly restarted the network services and yet requested the client to clear the dues within a week and to avoid major delays especially in these times of crisis. The client replied to this communication, agreeing to the specified norms. However, the Chairman decided to severely reprimand the Regional Manager and suspended him for 2 weeks. He also severely questioned the CFO for his error. At the next board of directors meeting, there was support for the Chairman’s action in spite of protests by some senior directors who defended the CFO and the Regional Manager's actions.
Q. How can the Chairman’s order of suspending the Regional Manager be justified to the board?
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Paramjeet Kaur answered  •  5 hours ago
Solution: The Chairman attributed the actual responsibility of effectively communicating the need for prompt payment on the Regional Manager. The Regional Manager had the option of forcefully defending the client’s importance to the CFO and also communicating the CFO’s stand to the client. Most importantly the discontinuation of services without proper intimation was incorrect. The arbitrariness of that decision was improper.Options 1 and 2 appear correct at first glance, but are however not genuine. Both the options cannot be justified as being correct reasons for suspending the Regional Manager. Here, we have to assume the business acumen of the Chairman.Options 4 and 5 are sub-parts of the bigger issue- which has been encapsulated in option 3.Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

You are the newly appointed financial controller in LMB Ltd., a large private engineering company. This is your first appointment in industry having undertaken your training at a large accountancy firm where most of your experience was gained in the audit of large NSE 500 clients. LMB Ltd. makes components which are used in the manufacture of various household products and it has a wide customer base from large household names through to small local private businesses.
One of your first tasks is to undertake a view of aged debtors. Whilst undertaking your review you find that a small number of customers have credit balances on their sales ledger accounts. The amounts relate to invoices which are now over 9 months old and which appear to have been paid twice. You find this odd and decide to raise the issue with your boss, Dushyant, the Financial Director, at your next meeting.
The following morning, Dushyant calls you into his office and asks you how you are settling into your position. You respond that, although you are still finding your feet, you have been making a major effort to get up to speed with the company's business and systems and controls. Dushyant appreciates your enthusiasm and is pleased that he has managed to recruit someone so enthusiastic.
Dushyant then asks whether anything has come to your attention so far. You advise him of what you have found in relation to the customers who appear to have paid twice. Dushyant laughs and tells you that it balances out in the end.
Furthermore, he produces copies of letters from a file which are addressed to the Financial Directors at the respective customers informing them of their company's overpayment. You return to your desk - rather bewildered by his comments. Customers have overpaid and he knows this to be the case, yet he has no intention of returning their money unless prompted by the customer. 
You find it perplexing to think that the Financial Directors of the companies that have overpaid have not responded on being notified about the outstanding invoices.
Q. A&M Ltd. was one of the customers that had paid twice. Despite being notified about the same, the company had not responded to the formal communication sent by LMB Ltd. Yet, the Financial Director of A&M Ltd is very distraught that LMB Ltd. did not issue a refund sooner, especially when the two companies continued their association. A&M Ltd. has now threatened to exit all contracts with LMB Ltd.Which of the following steps would you take to salvage the situation? 
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Nirmala Devi answered  •  5 hours ago
Solution: Option 1 can be eliminated since it is not required that LMB Ltd. should apologize since both parties are at fault.Option 2 can be ruled out too since it is not required that the company pay an interest to A&M Ltd.Options 3 and 4 are incorrect since they would not salvage the situation in any manner. Asking for an apology or refusing a refund will not pacify A&M Ltd. as they have already threatened to stop all business with the company. Option 5 alone holds since it not only pacifies A&M Ltd. by offering them a better deal, but it also ensures that they continue their association with LMB Ltd.Hence, the correct answer is option 5.

In how many ways can six different coloured rings be worn on five fingers of a hand such that all six rings are to be worn and more that one ring can be worn on a single finger?
  • a)
    56
  • b)
    30
  • c)
    10P6
  • d)
     None of the above.
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Naresh answered  •  5 hours ago
Solution: The first thing to note is that the rings are different coloured and thus, the order of the rings on a finger will have to be considered. Also, it is not necessary that one finger necessarily have one ring.
The first ring can be worn in 5 ways.
The second ring can be worn above or below the first ring or on any of the four other fingers. Hence, it can be worn in 6 ways.
Similarly, the third ring can be worn in 7 ways and so on.
Thus, the total number o f ways = 5 x 6 x 7 x 8 x 9 x 1 0 =10!/4! = 10P
Hence, option 3.

Choose the correct antonym for the word below from the options provided.
Urbane
  • a)
    Uncouth
  • b)
    Rural
  • c)
    Debonair
  • d)
    Nimble
  • e)
    Ingenious
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Ranjeet Kaur answered  •  5 hours ago
“Urbane” means ‘refined or sophisticated’. “Uncouth”, which means ‘lacking refinement’, is antonymous to “urbane”. “Debonair” is a synonym of “urbane”. “Nimble” and “ingenious” are both words that refer to a skill. “Rural” is the opposite of ‘urban’, not “urbane” .
Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

Vidha Devi asked   •  3 hours ago

InstructionsThe passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
Scientists recently discovered that Emperor Penguins—one of Antarctica’s most celebrated species—employ a particularly unusual technique for surviving the daily chill. As detailed in an article published today in the journal Biology Letters, the birds minimize heat loss by keeping the outer surface of their plumage below the temperature of the surrounding air. At the same time, the penguins’ thick plumage insulates their body and keeps it toasty.
The researchers analyzed thermographic images taken over roughly a month during June 2008. During that period, the average air temperature was 0.32 degrees Fahrenheit. At the same time, the majority of the plumage covering the penguins’ bodies was even colder: the surface of their warmest body part, their feet, was an average 1.76 degrees Fahrenheit, but the plumage on their heads, chests and backs were -1.84, -7.24 and -9.76 degrees Fahrenheit respectively. Overall, nearly the entire outer surface of the penguins’ bodies was below freezing at all times, except for their eyes and beaks. The scientists also used a computer simulation to determine how much heat was lost or gained from each part of the body - and discovered that by keeping their outer surface below air temperature, the birds might paradoxically be able to draw very slight amounts of heat from the air around them. The key to their trick is the difference between two different types of heat transfer: radiation and convection.
The penguins do lose internal body heat to the surrounding air through thermal radiation, just as our bodies do on a cold day. Because their bodies (but not surface plumage) are warmer than the surrounding air, heat gradually radiates outward over time, moving from a warmer material to a colder one. To maintain body temperature while losing heat, penguins, like all warm-blooded animals, rely on the metabolism of food. The penguins, though, have an additional strategy. Since their outer plumage is even colder than the air, the simulation showed that they might gain back a little of this heat through thermal convection—the transfer of heat via the movement of a fluid (in this case, the air). As the cold Antarctic air cycles around their bodies, slightly warmer air comes into contact with the plumage and donates minute amounts of heat back to the penguins, then cycles away at a slightly colder temperature.
Most of this heat, the researchers note, probably doesn’t make it all the way through the plumage and back to the penguins’ bodies, but it could make a slight difference. At the very least, the method by which a penguin’s plumage wicks heat from the bitterly cold air that surrounds it helps to cancel out some of the heat that’s radiating from its interior. And given the Emperors’ unusually demanding breeding cycle, every bit of warmth counts. Since [penguins trek as far as 75 miles to the coast to breed and male penguins] don’t eat anything during [the incubation period of 64 days], conserving calories by giving up as little heat as possible is absolutely crucial.
Q. All of the following, if true, would negate the findings of the study reported in the passage EXCEPT:
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Group Question
Answer the following question based on the information given below.

Rakesh, Rajesh, Rupesh, Paresh and Suresh were hired by Glotel information as sales officers to sell simcards on a contract basis. For each simcard sold on day 1 and day 2, each sales officer was given Rs. 25; and an amount of Rs. 5 was deducted for each unsold simcard from the amount they had earned in the day. On the 1st day, each sales officer was given 25 simcards to sell.
On the 2nd day, each sales officer was allowed to sell any number of simcards from Glotel information at the cost of Rs. 5 per simcard, from the money earned on day 1. 
 
 
Q. How many simcards did Rajesh sell on day 1?
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Kanta Devi answered  •  5 hours ago
Each sales officer got 25 simcards to sell on day 1.
If a sales officer sold x number of simcards on day 1, then the profit earned by him on day 1 is: = 25x - 5(25 - x) = 30x - 125 Let y be the number of simcards acquired by Rajesh to sell on day 2.
Since Rajesh sold 7 simcards on day 1 and day 2, the number of simcards sold by him on day 2 will be (7 - x).
Profit earned by him on day 2 = [25(7 - x) - 5 { y - (7 - x)}] And the total profit earned by him = Rs. 55. Therefore  ( 30 x - 125 - 5y) + [25(7 - x) - 5 { y - (7 - x)}] = 55. So  30 x - 125 - 5y + 175 - 2 5 x - 5 y + 35 - 5x = 55
⇒y = 3
The number of simcards Rajesh bought on day 2 is 3, that means Rajesh could have sold at most 3 simcards on day 2. 
Rajesh could have sold 4, 5, 6 or 7 simcards on day 1. Hence, option 5.

Modes of transport between Cities
Distance between cities in kms
Mode of Transport and Cost
 
 
Q. Which of the following cities can be reached from C in the least time?
  • a)
    B
  • b)
    D
  • c)
    F
  • d)
    A
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Kela answered  •  5 hours ago
This question can be answered by direct observation. From the table, wr.r.t C, A is the closest among the four cities mentioned and the mode of transportation there is airplane, which is the fastest mode.
Thus, C - A takes the least possible time.
Hence, option 4.

Select the odd man out from the given alternatives.
  • a)
    Antiquity
  • b)
    Archaic
  • c)
    Anachronistic
  • d)
    Venerable
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Sakina answered  •  18 hours ago
The words “archaic”, “antiquity” and “venerable” refer to something that is prehistoric. “Anachronistic” refers to ‘something that is not in its correct historical or chronological time.’ Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

Group Question
Fill in the blanks in the passage with the most appropriate set of words from the options for each blank.
For a millennium or so, cool has meant low in temperature, and temperature itself has long been a/an______A______for psychological and emotional states (a cool reception, hot-headed). Chaucer, the Oxford English Dictionary_____B____us, used cool to describe someone’s wit, Shakespeare said, “More than cool reason ever comprehends.” But starting around the 1930s, cool began appearing in American English as an extremely casual_____C_____to mean something like ‘intensely good.’ This usage also distinguished the speaker,______D______their apartness from mainstream culture.
 
Q.A
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Anita Devi answered  •  18 hours ago
According to the passage, the word “cool”, which earlier meant low temperature, has also long been used to refer to psychological states of mind. Therefore, the word in the blank must be aligned to this reference.
A “metaphor” is a figure of speech in which a term or phrase is applied to something to which it is not literally applicable in order to suggest a resemblance. Option 1 aptly fits into the first blank.
“Synecdoche” refers to a figure of speech in which a part is used to refer to the whole or vice versa. In this context, temperature & psychology share no such association and hence, option 2 can be eliminated.
An "example" refers to 'an instance serving as an illustration'. Temperature is not used as an illustration for "psychological and emotional states" and hence, option 3 can be eliminated.
A "gesture" refers to 'any action intended for effect'. Here, temperature does not act as a gesture towards or of emotional states and hence, option 4 can be eliminated. "Reminder" refers to 'something that helps one recall'. Temperature cannot help one recall a mental state of mind and hence, option 5 can be eliminated.
Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

The statement given below is followed by two statements. Analyze all of them and determine the correct combination of a course of action.

Q.Illegal hunting of tigers has caused the tiger population of India towards reaching alarming levels.
A. Environmental groups should spread awareness about this fact.
B. The government should enforce stricter measures towards upholding the existing tiger poaching laws. 
  • a)
    A is the best course of action.
  • b)
    B is the best course of action.
  • c)
    A followed by B is the best course of action.
  • d)
    Either A or B is the best course of action.
  • e)
    Neither A nor B is a relevant course of action.
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Kailasho Devi answered  •  18 hours ago
Both of these statements seem useful as courses of action when it comes to tiger poaching. However, this situation is very specific and so generic actions are not relevant in this case.
Statement A will definitely result in people being more aware of dropping tiger populations and start caring more but such awareness among the general population may or may not actually reduce the number of tigers being hunted illegally. Statement B, on the other hand, targets the crux of the problem, that is upholding laws more strictly so that the people who hunt these tigers are caught and stopped from hunting any more tigers. Between these two, statement B is a more relevant course of action than statement A. Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

In December 2010 I appeared on John Stossel’s television special on scepticism on Fox Business News, during which I debunked numerous pseudoscientific beliefs. Stossel added his own scepticism of possible financial pseudoscience in the form of active investment fund managers who claim that they can consistently beat the market. In a dramatic visual demonstration, Stossel threw 30 darts into a page of stocks and compared their performance since January 1,2010, with stock picks of the 10 largest managed funds. Results: Dartboard, a 31 percent increase; managed funds, a 9.5 percent increase. Admitting that he got lucky because of his limited sample size, Stossel explained that had he thrown enough darts to fully represent the market he would have generated a 12 percent increase — the market average — a full 2.5 percentage points higher than the 10 largest managed funds average increase. As Princeton University economist Burton G. Malkiel elaborated on the show, over the past decade ‘more than two thirds of actively managed funds were beaten by a simple low-cost indexed fund [for example, a mutual fund invested in a large number of stocks], and the active funds that win in one period aren’t the same ones who win in the next period.’
Stossel cited a study in the journal Economics and Portfolio Strategy that tracked 452 managed funds from 1990 to 2009, finding that only 13 beat the market average. Equating managed fund directors to ‘snake-oil salesmen’, Malkiel said that Wall Street is selling Main Street on the belief that experts can consistently time the market and make accurate predictions of when to buy and sell. They can’t. No one can. Not even professional economists and not even for large-scale market indicators. As economics Nobel laureate Paul Samuelson long ago noted in a 1966 Newsweek column: ‘Commentators quote economic studies alleging that market downturns predicted four out of the last five recessions. That is an understatement. Wall Street indexes predicted nine out of the last five recessions!’ 
Even in a given tech area, where you might expect a greater level of specific expertise, economic forecasters fumble. On December 22, 2010, for example, the Wall Street Journal ran a piece on how the great hedge fund financier T. Boone Pickens (chair of BP Capital Management) just abandoned his ‘Pickens Plan’ of investing in wind energy. Pickens invested $2 billion based on his prediction that the price of natural gas would stay high. It didn’t, plummeting as the drilling industry’s ability to unlock methane from shale beds improved, a turn of events even an expert such as Pickens failed to see. Why are experts (along with us nonexperts) so bad at making predictions? The world is a messy, complex and contingent place with countless intervening variables and confounding factors, which our brains are not equipped to evaluate. We evolved the capacity to make snap decisions based on short-term predictions, not rational analysis about long-term investments, and so we deceive ourselves into thinking that experts can foresee the future. This self-deception among professional prognosticators was investigated by University of California, Berkeley, professor Philip E. Tetlock, as reported in his 2005 book Expert Political Judgment. After testing 284 experts in political science, economics, history and journalism in a staggering 82,361 predictions about the future, Tetlock concluded that they did little better than ‘a dart-throwing chimpanzee’. There was one significant factor in greater prediction success, however, and that was cognitive style: ‘foxes’ who know a little about many things do better than ‘hedgehogs’ who know a lot about one area of expertise. Low scorers, Tetlock wrote, were ‘thinkers who “know one big thing”, aggressively extend the explanatory reach of that one big thing into new domains, display bristly impatience with those who “do not get it”, and express considerable confidence that they are already pretty proficient forecasters.’ High scorers in the study were ‘thinkers who know many small things (tricks of their trade), are sceptical of grand schemes, see explanation and prediction not as deductive exercises but rather as exercises in flexible “ad hocery” that require stitching together diverse sources of information, and are rather diffident about their own forecasting prowess.’ Being deeply knowledgeable on one subject narrows focus and increases confidence but also blurs the value of dissenting views and transforms data collection into belief confirmation. One way to avoid being wrong is to be sceptical whenever you catch yourself making predictions based on reducing complex phenomena into one overarching scheme. This type of cognitive trap is why I don’t make predictions and why I never will.
 
 
Q. What does Paul Samuelson’s statement ‘Wall Street indexes predicted nine out of the last five recessions!’ imply?
I. Wall Street indexes are too pessimistic in their predictions.
II. Wall Street indexes need to be more optimistic about their predictions.
III. Wall Street indexes are much better at predicting recessions than anyone realizes.
IV. Wall Street indexes make plenty of extreme predictions, out of which only some come true.
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Bimla Devi answered  •  18 hours ago
Refer to the first few paragraphs, and even more so from the following lines - “the main point is that the predictions of Wall Street indexes are not very accurate.” In this particular quotation, Paul Samuelson points out that the predictions were far too pessimistic compared to what actually happened. Therefore, statement I is correct. Eliminate options 2 and 3.
Statement II is not entirely accurate - the predictions of Wall Street indexes need to be more realistic, not necessarily more optimistic. Eliminate option 4.
Statement III completely contradicts the passage, and can therefore be ruled out.
Statement IV correctly captures the main gist of the first few paragraphs.
Therefore only statements I and IV are correct.
Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

Probability that three missiles A, B and C hitting a target are P(A) = 0.3, P(B) = 0.4, P(C) = 0.8. Find the probability that at least two missiles hit the target.
  • a)
    0.488
  • b)
    0.568
  • c)
    0.468
  • d)
    0.588
  • e)
    0.506 
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Sheela Devi answered  •  18 hours ago
Probability that A misses the target = P(A’) = 0.7,
Similarly, P(B’) = 0.6 and P(C’) = 0.2 Probability that at least two missiles hit the target = 1 - (Probability that none hit the target) - (Probability that exactly one missile hit the target)
Probability that none hit the target = 0.7 x 0.6 x 0.2 = 0.084
Probability that exactly one missile hit the target = 0.3 x 0.6 x 0.2 + 0.7 x 0.4 x 0.2 + 0.7 x 0.6 x 0.8
= 0.428
Probability that at least two missiles hit the target = 1 — 0.084 - 0.428 = 0.488
Hence, option 1.

A school has an elaborate marking system that takes into account the performance of a student in the theory paper, practicals and their rank. The first table below shows the theory marks obtained by the first four ranked students in this school. The total theory marks for a student are an aggregation of the actual marks and the theory bonus as a percentage of the actual marks. The second table below shows the marks that a student can get based on his/her accuracy in the practicals. The final table shows the bonus marks that a student can get based on his rank.
 
The total score of a student for inter-school level ranking is calculated as: 30% of actual theory marks + 20% of Bonus marks for rank + 10% of Practical marks. The total score for intra-school ranking is simply the sum of the marks in theory, practical and bonus taken together.
Also,
1. Prachi was from section A and had the least accuracy in the practicals.
2. Prema and Suyash were from sections D and C respectively.
3. Sujyoti had lower marks in Practicals compared to Suyash. Sujyoti scored 80 marks in the Practicals.
4. The student from Section A was ranked first, the student from section C was ranked third and the student from section B was ranked fourth.
5. Rank may not be indicative of the total score, at intra-school or inter-school level.
 
Q.If Prema’s inter-school score increased by 20%, what was the corresponding increase in her intra-school score?
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Gurmeet Kaur answered  •  18 hours ago
Consider the solution to the first question.
Prema’s new inter-school = 1.2 x 40 = 48
However, this could have increased due to a change in either one or two or all three among actual theory marks, practical marks and rank bonus.
Since it is not known as to which of these parameters changed and by how much, the new intra-school score cannot be found.
Hence, the required percentage change cannot be found.
Hence, option 5.

A new contagious disease called ‘Abby’s Monstrous Flu’ (AMF) is spreading all over Mumbai. The doctors aiAmrith Nursing Home are getting several new cases of AMF every day. However, even those people with a common cold are getting themselves tested. This often causes a delay in the results of those who are actually suffering from the disease. After a lot of research, the doctors have devised the following set of symptoms in order to quickly determine whether a patient must be tested for AMF. If a patient shows symptom I and at least three symptoms other than I, he/she may have contracted AMF and hence must be tested.
I. The patient complains of severe headache.
II. The patient has low blood pressure.
III. The patient consumed a total of at least 300 mL of an alcoholic drink for a period of one week before the test.
IV. The patient is suffering with cough and cold. The patient must also have at least 102 degrees Fahrenheit fever since the past 5 days.
V. The patient has suffered from ‘Amy’s Deadly Flu’ (ADF) in the past 5 years.
If the patient shows only two symptoms other than I, and does not show:
a. V, but has a history of extreme chest pain, the patient must be tested for pneumonia.
b. II, but feels extremely fatigued with body aches, the patient must be put under quarantine.
c. Ill, but smokes at least 5 cigarettes a week, the patient must be tested for bronchitis. 
On January 29, 2015, the following cases were reported at Amrith Nursing Home. The doctors had to decide the appropriate course of action only based on the information provided by the patients.
 
 
Q. Charu Malik is a 30 year old man from Indore. He has recently arrived at Mumbai. His journey left him completely exhausted. He is pretty sure that he has contracted AMF. He became extremely paranoid after celebrating his 26th birthday admitted in a hospital due to an ADF infection. Charu does not drink alcohol but smokes a cigar every day. Charu was taking medicines since the past one week to curb multiple disorders including severe headache and 105 degrees fever. He also caught a cold accompanied with cough after arriving in Mumbai.
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Boti Devi answered  •  18 hours ago
Since Charu has severe headaches, 105 degrees fever, cough and cold since the past one week, he shows symptoms (I) and (IV). Since his current age is 30, his 26th birthday must have definitely occurred within the past 5 years. Hence, he has suffered from ADF in the past 5 years. Hence, he shows symptom (V) as well.
Charu was exhausted but it is not known whether he had body ache as well. Also, it is not known whether he suffers from low blood pressure. Hence, he neither shows (II) nor shows (b).
Charu does not drink alcohol. However, he also does not smoke 5 cigarettes in a week. Hence, he neither shows (III) nor shows (c).
A person can be tested for AMF only if he shows at least three symptoms other than (I).
Hence, Charu should not be tested for AMF. Hence, option 2.

Over a period of 15 days, the records of criminal cases registered in six states was observed to initiate further directives on law and order in these states.
The states identified were: Maharashtra, Bihar, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh.
The different categories of criminal cases were from: Petty theft, Burglary, Forgery, Money Laundering, Murder, Rape, Drunken Driving and Communal Violence.
In Rajasthan, the total cases registered were 10 and they belonged to Communal violence, Money laundering, burglary, Murder and Forgery categories.
In Gujarat, the total cases registered were 27 and they belonged to Petty theft, Drunken driving, Rape, Communal violence, Money laundering categories.
In Maharashtra, the number of registered cases was 19 from the categories: Rape, burglary, Forgery, Petty theft, Drunken driving.
In Bihar, the number was 13 and the cases belonged to Drunken driving, Petty theft, Rape, Forgery, Murder categories.
In Uttar Pradesh, the cases numbering to 18 belonged to Communal violence, Forgery, burglary, Petty theft, Money laundering categories.
In Madhya Pradesh the cases were 28 in number and belonged to burglary, Murder, Money laundering, Drunken driving and Communal violence categories.
Surprisingly in none of the states, the number of registered cases in Petty theft category was less than two and more than six.
Apart from the mentioned categories, there were no cases registered in any other categories for any of the states.
 
Q. In how many states both Money Laundering and Communal Violence are criminal categories ?
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Smt Indira Rani answered  •  18 hours ago
Rajasthan, Madhya pradesh, Gujarat and UP have both Money Laundering and Communal Violence as their common criminal categories.
Hence, option 2.

Shankar, Sunil, and Suman are three friends each having different professions and each being either tall or dark or handsome. Among them Suman is older than the handsome one but younger than the businessman. Shankar is younger than the dark one but Sunil is older than the tall one. The martial arts instructor is the actor’s younger brother. Which of the following statements is true?
  • a)
    Sunil is tall.
  • b)
    Suman is dark.
  • c)
    Shankar is handsome.
  • d)
    Shankar is the businessman.
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Manjit Kaur answered  •  18 hours ago
It is given that Suman is older than the handsome one but younger than the businessman.
This implies that Suman is second in terms of age
∴ Handsome is the characterstic of the youngest person and businessman is the profession of the oldest person.
The Martial Arts instructor is the Actor’s younger brother and the businessman is the oldest person. .'.
∴ The actor is the second oldest.
∴ Suman is the actor and the youngest person is a martial arts instructor,
∵ It is given that Shankar is younger than the dark one.
∴ Shankar is not dark and not the oldest.
∴ He is the youngest and the martial arts instructor and hence handsome.
∵ Sunil is older than the tall one.
∴ Sunil is the oldest and the dark one.
∴ Suman is the tall one.
∴ Only option 3 is true.
Hence, option 3.

Tamanna Muskan asked   •  6 hours ago

Vijay has just started saving enough money and he wants to learn how to invest it in the best possible manner. His friend Amit has agreed to help him. Amit tells Vijay that he invests his money in four broad categories: fixed deposits, equities, equity mutual funds and debt mutual funds. Amit saves Rs. 40,000 every year and deposits all of it across these four categories on 1st April of every year. He started investing in 2004 with equal amounts in the four categories, but since then, the break-up of his deposits across these four categories has differed. However, he ensures that 50% of his yearly savings go into equities and equity mutual funds and the remaining 50% in the other 2 categories.
Also, Amit maintains a data table recording the total amount he has in each of these four categories as on 1st April of every year (table given below). It is also known that the interest rates on fixed deposits have been decreasing: they were 10%, 9% and 8% per annum in the years 2004-05, 2005-06, and 2006-07 respectively. Amit also remembers that the percentage returns on equities in 2006-07 were five times the percentage returns on debt mutual funds in the same year and the percentage returns on equity mutual funds in 2004-05 and 2005-06 were half of the percentage returns on equities in 2005-06 and 2006-07 respectively. Amit does not remember too many details besides that.
Q. What were the percentage returns on debt mutual funds in the year 2005-06?
    Correct answer is '12'. Can you explain this answer?

    Yadnyesh Chaudhari asked   •  9 hours ago

    Eight friends: Ajit, Byomkesh, Gargi, Jayanta, Kikira, Mamk, Prodosh and Tapesh are going to Delhi from Kolkata by a flight operated Py Cheap Air. In the flight, sitting is arranged in 30 rows, numbered 1 to 30, each consisting of 6 seats, marked by letters A to F from left to right, respectively. Seats A to C are to the left of the aisle (the passage running from the front of the aircraft to the back), and seats D to F are to the right of the aisle. Seats A and F are by the windows and referred to as Window seats, C and D are by the aisle and are referred to as Aisle seats while B and E are referred to as Middle seats. Seats marked by consecutive letters are called consecutive seats (or seats next to each other). A seat number is a combination of the row number, followed by the letter indicating the position in the row; e.g., 1A is the left window seat in the first row, while 12E is the right middle seat in the 12th row.
    Cheap Air charges Rs. 1000 extra for any seats in Rows 1, 12 and 13 as those have extra legroom. For Rows 2­10, it charges Rs. 300 extra for Window seats and Rs. 300 extra for Aisle seats. For Rows 11 and 14 to 20, it charges Rs. 200 extra for Window seats and Rs. 400 extra for Aisle seats. All other seats are available at no extra charge.
    The following are known:
    1. The eight friends were seated in six different rows.
    2. They occupied 3 Window seats, 4 Aisle seats and 1 Middle seat.
    3. Seven of them had to pay extra amounts, totaling to Rs. 4600, for their choices of seat. One of them did not pay any additional amount for his/her choice of seat.
    4. Jayanta, Ajit and Byomkesh were sitting in seats marked by the same letter, in consecutive rows in increasing order of row numbers; but all of them paid different amounts for their choices of seat. One of these amounts may be zero.
    5. Gargi was sitting next to Kikira, and Mamk was sitting next to Jayanta.
    6. Prodosh and Tapesh were sitting in seats marked by the same letter, in consecutive rows in increasing order of row numbers; but they paid different amounts for their choices of seat. One of these amounts may be zero.
    Q.
    In which row was Manik sitting?
    ... more

    Neha Makhija asked   •  15 hours ago

    Very early in our education we are made familiar with the distinction between verse and prose. The conviction gradually forces itself on us that when we mean what we say we write prose, and that verse is an ingenious but fundamentally perverse way of distorting ordinary prose statements. The conviction does not come to us from school so much as from our accumulated experience of observing prose and verse in action, and embedded in it is the assumption that prose is the language of ordinary speech. But this is not the case. In the history of literature we notice that developed techniques of verse normally precede, sometimes by centuries, developed techniques of prose.
    Prose is the expression or imitation of directed thinking or controlled description in words, and its unit is the sentence. It does not follow that all prose is descriptive or thoughtful, much less logical, but only that prose imitates, in its rhythm and structure, the verbal expression of a rational mind. Prose, therefore, is not ordinary speech, but ordinary speech on its best behavior, aware of an audience and with its relation to that audience prepared beforehand. It is the habitual language of fully articulate people who have mastered its difficult idiom. Nonetheless, when they speak, even they will avoid stilted speech or “talking like a book”; their speech rhythm shows the influence of something that is not prose. If we are lost in a strange town and ask someone for directions, even the most articulate person will not respond in prose. We get instead a speech rhythm that is prolix and repetitive, and in which the verbal unit is no more a prose sentence than it is a poetic stanza.
    Ordinary speech is concerned mainly with putting into words what is loosely called the stream of consciousness: the daydreaming, remembering, worrying, associating, brooding, and mooning that continually flow through the mind and which we often speak of as thought. This ordinary speech is mainly concerned with self-expression. Whether from immaturity, preoccupation, or the absence of a hearer, it is imperfectly aware of an audience. Full awareness of an audience makes speech rhetorical, and rhetoric means a conventionalized rhythm. The irregular rhythm of ordinary speech may be conventionalized in two ways. One way is to impose a pattern of recurrence on it; the other is to impose the logical and semantic pattern of the sentence. We have verse when the arrangement of words is dominated by recurrent rhythm and sound, prose when it is dominated by the syntactical relation of subject and predicate. Of the two, verse is much the simpler and more primitive type, which accounts for its being historically earlier than prose.
    Q. The reasoning employed in which one of the following situations is most analogous to the author’s reasoning in explaining the fact that prose developed later than verse?
    ... more

    Nirmala Devi asked   •  17 hours ago

    The annual labour of every nation is the fund which originally supplies it with all the necessaries and conveniencies of life which it annually consumes, and which consist always either in the immediate produce of that labour, or in what is purchased with that produce from other nations.
    According, therefore, as this produce, or what is purchased with it, bears a greater or smaller proportion to the number of those who are to consume it, the nation will be better or worse supplied with all the necessaries and conveniencies for which it has occasion.
    But this proportion must in every nation be regulated by two different circumstances: first, by the skill, dexterity, and judgment with which its labour is generally applied; and, secondly, by the proportion between the number of those who are employed in useful labour, and that of those who are not so employed. Whatever be the  soil, climate, or extent of territory of any particular nation, the abundance or scantiness of its annual supply must, in that particular situation, depend upon those two circumstances.
    The abundance or scantiness of this supply, too, seems to depend more upon the former of those two circumstances than upon the latter. Among the savage nations of hunters and fishers, every individual who is able to work is more or less employed in useful labour, and endeavours to provide, as well as he can, the necessaries and conveniencies of life, for himself, and such of his family or tribe as are either too old, or too young, or too infirm, to go a-hunting and fishing.
    Such nations, however, are so miserably poor, that, from mere want, they are frequently reduced, or at least think themselves reduced, to the necessity sometimes of directly destroying, and sometimes of abandoning their infants, their old people, and those afflicted with lingering diseases, to perish with hunger, or to be devoured by wild beasts. Among civilized and thriving nations, on the contrary, though a great number of people do not labour at all, many of whom consume the produce often times, frequently of a hundred times, more labour than the greater part of those who work; yet the produce of the whole labour of the society is so great, that all are often abundantly supplied; and a workman, even of the lowest and poorest order, if he is frugal and industrious, may enjoy a greater share of the necessaries and conveniencies of life than it is possible for any savage to acquire.
    The causes of this improvement in the productive powers of labour, and the order according to which its produce is naturally distributed among the different ranks and conditions of men in the society, make the subject of the first book of this Inquiry.
    Whatever be the actual state of the skill, dexterity, and judgment, with which labour is applied in any nation, the abundance or scantiness of its annual supply must depend, during the continuance of that state, upon the proportion between the number of those who are annually employed in useful labour, and that of those who are not so employed. The number of useful and productive labourers, it will hereafter appear, is everywhere in proportion to the quantity of capital stock which is employed in setting them to work, and to the particular way in which it is so employed. The second book, therefore, treats of the nature of capital stock, of the manner in which it is gradually accumulated, and of the different quantities of labour which it puts into motion, according to the different ways in which it is employed.
    Nations tolerably well advanced as to skill, dexterity, and judgment, in the application of labour, have followed very different plans in  the general conduct or direction of it; and those plans have not all been equally favourable to the greatness of its produce. The policy of some nations has given extraordinary encouragement to the industry of the country; that of others to the industry of towns. Scarce any nation has dealt equally and impartially with every sort of industry. Since the down-fall of the Roman empire, the policy of Europe has been more favourable to arts, manufactures, and commerce, the industry of towns, than to agriculture, the Industry of the country. The circumstances which seem to have introduced and established this policy are explained in the third book.
    Though those different plans were, perhaps, first introduced by the private interests and prejudices of particular orders of men, without any regard to, or foresight of, their consequences upon the general welfare of the society; yet they have given occasion to very different theories of political economy; of which some magnify the importance of that industry which is carried on in towns, others of that which is carried on in the country. Those theories have had a considerable influence, not only upon the opinions of men of learning, but upon the public conduct of princes and sovereign states. I have endeavoured, in the fourth book, to explain as fully and distinctly as I can those different theories, and the principal effects which they have produced in different ages and nations.
     
     
    Q. Nations following different methods of employing labour have done so out of: 
    ... more

    Bhagwanti asked   •  17 hours ago

    India’s GDP per capita (in terms of purchasing power parity) almost doubled between 2007 and 2016, from $3,587 to $6,599. Growth slowed after the 2008 crisis, hitting a decade low in 2012-2013. But if anything, this provided the country with the opportunity to rethink its policies and engage more firmly in the reforms necessary to improve its competitiveness. Growth rebounded in 2014, and in 2015 surpassed that of China.
    India’s overall competitiveness score was rather stagnant between 2007 and 2014, and the country slipped down the rankings in the Global Competitiveness Report as others made improvements.
    However, improvements since 2014 have seen it climb to 39th in this year’s edition of the report - up from 48th in 2007-2008. Its overall score improved by 0.19 points in that time.
    Improvements in health, primary education and infrastructure contributed most to this improvement - although this is partly explained by the relatively large weight these “basic requirements” components have until now been given in factor-driven economies, each accounting for 15% of the final score.
    Improvements in infrastructure were small and faltering until 2014, when the government increased public investment and accelerated approval procedures to attract private resources. Macroeconomic conditions - the third-biggest positive contributor - followed a similar path: the recent slump in commodity prices has helped India to keep inflation below its target of 5%, while rebalancing its current account and decreasing its public deficit. Another improvement over the past decade has been increased market size (the adoption of new PPP estimates by the IMF in 2014 also contributed to the upward increase in the measure of market size used in the GCI). 
    In other areas, India has not yet recovered to 2007 levels, with the biggest shortfall coming in financial market development - this pillar taking 0.03 points off India’s 2016 score in comparison to 2007 (a reduced pillar score of 0.52 points, multiplied by a pillar weight of 6%). The Reserve Bank of India has helped increase financial market transparency, shedding light on the large amounts of non-performing loans previously not reported on the balance sheets of Indian banks. However, the banks have not yet found a way to sell these assets, and in some cases need large recapitalizations.
    The efficiency of the goods market has also deteriorated, as India failed to address long-running problems such as different local sales and value added taxes (this is set to finally change as of 2017 if the Central GST and Integrated GST bills currently in parliament are fully implemented). Another area of concern is India’s stagnating performance in technological readiness, a pillar on which it scores one full point lower than any other. These three pillars will be key for India to prosper in its next stage of development, when it will no longer be possible to base its competitiveness on low-cost, abundant labour. Higher education and training has also shown no improvement.
     
     
    Q. According to the passage, which of the following is true with regards to the Reserve Bank of India?
    ... more

    Munni asked   •  17 hours ago

    Instructions
    Comprehension:
    For two years, I tracked down dozens of . . . Chinese in Upper Egypt [who were] selling lingerie. In a deeply conservative region, where Egyptian families rarely allow women to work or own businesses, the Chinese flourished because of their status as outsiders. They didn’t gossip, and they kept their opinions to themselves. In a New Yorker article entitled “Learning to Speak Lingerie,” I described the Chinese use of Arabic as another non-threatening characteristic. I wrote, “Unlike Mandarin, Arabic is inflected for gender, and Chinese dealers, who learn the language strictly by ear, often pick up speech patterns from female customers. I’ve come to think of it as the lingerie dialect, and there’s something disarming about these Chinese men speaking in the feminine voice.” . . .
    When I wrote about the Chinese in the New Yorker, most readers seemed to appreciate the unusual perspective. But as I often find with topics that involve the Middle East, some people had trouble getting past the black-and-white quality of a byline. “This piece is so orientalist I don’t know what to do,” Aisha Gani, a reporter who worked at The Guardian, tweeted. Another colleague at the British paper, Iman Amrani, agreed: “I wouldn’t have minded an article on the subject written by an Egyptian woman—probably would have had better insight.” . . .
    As an MOL (man of language), I also take issue with this kind of essentialism. Empathy and understanding are not inherited traits, and they are not strictly tied to gender and race. An individual who wrestles with a difficult language can learn to be more sympathetic to outsiders and open to different experiences of the world. This learning process— the embarrassments, the frustrations, the gradual sense of understanding and connection—is invariably transformative.
    In Upper Egypt, the Chinese experience of struggling to learn Arabic and local culture had made them much more thoughtful. In the same way, I was interested in their lives not because of some kind of voyeurism, but because I had also experienced Egypt and Arabic as an outsider. And both the Chinese and the Egyptians welcomed me because I spoke their languages. My identity as a white male was far less important than my ability to communicate.
    And that easily lobbed word—“Orientalist”—hardly captures the complexity of our interactions. What exactly is the dynamic when a man from Missouri observes a Zhejiang native selling lingerie to an Upper Egyptian woman? . . . If all of us now stand beside the same river, speaking in ways we all understand, who’s looking east and who’s looking west?
    Which way is Oriental?
    For all of our current interest in identity politics, there’s no corresponding sense of identity linguistics. You are what you speak—the words that run throughout your mind are at least as fundamental to your selfhood as is your ethnicity or your gender. And sometimes it’s healthy to consider human characteristics that are not inborn, rigid, and outwardly defined. After all, you can always learn another language and change who you are.
    Q. The author’s critics would argue that:
    ... more

    Guljaro asked   •  17 hours ago

    Instructions
    Comprehension:
    The magic of squatter cities is that they are improved steadily and gradually by their residents. To a planner’s eye, these cities look chaotic. I trained as a biologist and to my eye, they look organic. Squatter cities are also unexpectedly green. They have maximum density—1 million people per square mile in some areas of Mumbai—and have minimum energy and material use. People get around by foot, bicycle, rickshaw, or the universal shared taxi.
    Not everything is efficient in the slums, though. In the Brazilian favelas where electricity is stolen and therefore free, people leave their lights on all day. But in most slums recycling is literally a way of life. The Dharavi slum in Mumbai has 400 recycling units and 30,000 ragpickers. Six thousand tons of rubbish are sorted every day. In 2007, the Economist reported that in Vietnam and Mozambique, “Waves of gleaners sift the sweepings of Hanoi’s streets, just as Mozambiquan children pick over the rubbish of Maputo’s main tip. Every city in Asia and Latin America has an industry based on gathering up old cardboard boxes.” . . .
    In his 1985 article, Calthorpe made a statement that still jars with most people: “The city is the most environmentally benign form of human settlement. Each city dweller consumes less land, less energy, less water, and produces less pollution than his counterpart in settlements of lower densities.” “Green Manhattan” was the inflammatory title of a 2004 New Yorker article by David Owen. “By the most significant measures,” he wrote, “New York is the greenest community in the United States, and one of the greenest cities in the world . . . The key to New York’s relative environmental benignity is its extreme compactness. . . . Placing one and a half million people on a twenty - three - square-mile island sharply reduces their opportunities to be wasteful.” He went on to note that this very compactness forces people to live in the world’s most energy-efficient apartment buildings. . . .
    Urban density allows half of humanity to live on 2.8 per cent of the land. . . . Consider just the infrastructure efficiencies.
    According to a 2004 UN report: “The concentration of population and enterprises in urban areas greatly reduces the unit cost of piped water, sewers, drains, roads, electricity, garbage collection, transport, health care, and schools.” . . . [T]he nationally subsidised city of Manaus in northern Brazil “answers the question” of how to stop deforestation: give people decent jobs. Then they can afford houses, and gain security. One hundred thousand people who would otherwise be deforesting the jungle around Manaus are now prospering in town making such things as mobile phones and televisions. . . .
    Of course, fast-growing cities are far from an unmitigated good. They concentrate crime, pollution, disease and injustice as much as business, innovation, education and entertainment. . . . But if they are overall a net good for those who move there, it is because cities offer more than just jobs. They are transformative: in the slums, as well as the office towers and leafy suburbs, the progress is from hick to metropolitan to cosmopolitan . . .
    Q. From the passage it can be inferred that cities are good places to live in for all of the following reasons EXCEPT that they:
    ... more

    Heera Devi asked   •  17 hours ago

    Instructions
    Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
    The only thing worse than being lied to is not knowing you’re being lied to. It’s true that plastic pollution is a huge problem, of planetary proportions. And it’s true we could all do more to reduce our plastic footprint. The lie is that blame for the plastic problem is wasteful consumers and that changing our individual habits will fix it.
    Recycling plastic is to saving the Earth what hammering a nail is to halting a falling skyscraper. You struggle to find a place to do it and feel pleased when you succeed. But your effort is wholly inadequate and distracts from the real problem of why the building is collapsing in the first place. The real problem is that single-use plastic—the very idea of producing plastic items like grocery bags, which we use for an average of 12 minutes but can persist in the environment for half a millennium—is an incredibly reckless abuse of technology. Encouraging individuals to recycle more will never solve the problem of a massive production of single-use plastic that should have been avoided in the first place.
    As an ecologist and evolutionary biologist, I have had a disturbing window into the accumulating literature on the hazards of plastic pollution. Scientists have long recognized that plastics biodegrade slowly, if at all, and pose multiple threats to wildlife through entanglement and consumption. More recent reports highlight dangers posed by absorption of toxic chemicals in the water and by plastic odors that mimic some species’ natural food. Plastics also accumulate up the food chain, and studies now show that we are likely ingesting it ourselves in seafood. . . .
    Beginning in the 1950s, big beverage companies like Coca-Cola and Anheuser-Busch, along with Phillip Morris and others, formed a non-profit called Keep America Beautiful. Its mission is/was to educate and encourage environmental stewardship in the public. . . . At face value, these efforts seem benevolent, but they obscure the real problem, which is the role that corporate polluters play in the plastic problem. This clever misdirection has led journalist and author Heather Rogers to describe Keep America Beautiful as the first corporate greenwashing front, as it has helped shift the public focus to consumer recycling behavior and actively thwarted legislation that would increase extended producer responsibility for waste management. . . . [T]he greatest success of Keep America Beautiful has been to shift the onus of environmental responsibility onto the public while simultaneously becoming a trusted name in the environmental movement. . . .
    So what can we do to make responsible use of plastic a reality? First: reject the lie. Litterbugs are not responsible for the global ecological disaster of plastic. Humans can only function to the best of their abilities, given time, mental bandwidth and systemic constraints. Our huge problem with plastic is the result of a permissive legal framework that has allowed the uncontrolled rise of plastic pollution, despite clear evidence of the harm it causes to local communities and the world’s oceans. Recycling is also too hard in most parts of the U.S. and lacks the proper incentives to make it work well.
    Q. Which of the following interventions would the author most strongly support:
    ... more

    Ompatti Devi asked   •  17 hours ago

    Instructions
    Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:

    When researchers at Emory University in Atlanta trained mice to fear the smell of almonds (by pairing it with electric shocks), they found, to their consternation, that both the children and grandchildren of these mice were spontaneously afraid of the same smell. That is not supposed to happen. Generations of schoolchildren have been taught that the inheritance of acquired characteristics is impossible. A mouse should not be born with something its parents have learned during their lifetimes, any more than a mouse that loses its tail in an accident should give birth to tailless mice. . . .
    Modern evolutionary biology dates back to a synthesis that emerged around the 1940s-60s, which married Charles Darwin’s mechanism of natural selection with Gregor Mendel’s discoveries of how genes are inherited. The traditional, and still dominant, view is that adaptations - from the human brain to the peacock’s tail - are fully and satisfactorily explained by natural selection (and subsequent inheritance). Yet [new evidence] from genomics, epigenetics and developmental biology [indicates] that evolution is more complex than we once assumed. . . .
    In his book On Human Nature (1978), the evolutionary biologist Edward O Wilson claimed that human culture is held on a genetic leash. The metaphor [needs revision]. . . . Imagine a dog-walker (the genes) struggling to retain control of a brawny mastiff (human culture). The pair’s trajectory (the pathway of evolution) reflects the outcome of the struggle.
    Now imagine the same dog-walker struggling with multiple dogs, on leashes of varied lengths, with each dog tugging in different directions. All these tugs represent the influence of developmental factors, including epigenetics, antibodies and hormones passed on by parents, as well as the ecological legacies and culture they bequeath. . . .
    The received wisdom is that parental experiences can’t affect the characters of their offspring. Except they do. The way that genes are expressed to produce an organism’s phenotype - the actual characteristics it ends up with - is affected by chemicals that attach to them. Everything from diet to air pollution to parental behaviour can influence the addition or removal of these chemical marks, which switches genes on or off. Usually these socalled ‘epigenetic’ attachments are removed during the production of sperm and eggs cells, but it turns out that some escape the resetting process and are passed on to the next generation, along with the genes. This is known as ‘epigenetic inheritance’, and more and more studies are confirming that it really happens. Let’s return to the almond-fearing mice. The inheritance of an epigenetic mark transmitted in the sperm is what led the mice’s offspring to acquire an inherited fear. . . .
    Epigenetics is only part of the story. Through culture and society, [humans and other animals] inherit knowledge and skills acquired by [their] parents. . . . All this complexity . . . points to an evolutionary process in which genomes (over hundreds to thousands of generations), epigenetic modifications and inherited cultural factors (over several, perhaps tens or hundreds of generations), and parental effects (over single-generation timespans) collectively inform how organisms adapt. These extra-genetic kinds of inheritance give organisms the flexibility to make rapid adjustments to environmental challenges, dragging genetic change in their wake - much like a rowdy pack of dogs.
    Q. The Emory University experiment with mice points to the inheritance of:
    ... more

    Bimla Rani asked   •  17 hours ago

    Instructions
    Read the passage carefully and answer the questions given
    . . . “Everybody pretty much agrees that the relationship between elephants and people has dramatically changed,” [says psychologist Gay] Bradshaw. . . . “Where for centuries humans and elephants lived in relatively peaceful coexistence, there is now hostility and violence. Now, I use the term ‘violence’ because of the intentionality associated with it, both in the aggression of humans and, at times, the recently observed behavior of elephants.” . . .
    Typically, elephant researchers have cited, as a cause of aggression, the high levels of testosterone in newly matured male elephants or the competition for land and resources between elephants and humans. But. . . Bradshaw and several colleagues argue. . . that today’s elephant populations are suffering from a form of chronic stress, a kind of species-wide trauma. Decades of poaching and culling and habitat loss, they claim, have so disrupted the intricate web of familial and societal relations by which young elephants have traditionally been raised in the wild, and by which established elephant herds are governed, that what we are now witnessing is nothing less than a precipitous collapse of elephant culture. . . .
    Elephants, when left to their own devices, are profoundly social creatures. . . . Young elephants are raised within an extended, multitiered network of doting female caregivers that includes the birth mother, grandmothers, aunts and friends. These relations are maintained over a life span as long as 70 years. Studies of established herds have shown that young elephants stay within 15 feet of their mothers for nearly all of their first eight years of life, after which young females are socialized into the matriarchal network, while young males go off for a time into an all-male social group before coming back into the fold as mature adults. . . .
    This fabric of elephant society, Bradshaw and her colleagues [demonstrate], ha[s] effectively been frayed by years of habitat loss and poaching, along with systematic culling by government agencies to control elephant numbers and translocations of herds to different habitats. . . . As a result of such social upheaval, calves are now being born to and raised by ever younger and inexperienced mothers. Young orphaned elephants, meanwhile, that have witnessed the death of a parent at the hands of poachers are coming of age in the absence of the support system that defines traditional elephant life. “The loss of elephant elders,” [says] Bradshaw . . . "and the traumatic experience of witnessing the massacres of their family, impairs normal brain and behavior development in young elephants.” What Bradshaw and her colleagues describe would seem to be an extreme form of anthropocentric conjecture if the evidence that they’ve compiled from various elephant researchers. . . weren’t so compelling. The elephants of decimated herds, especially orphans who’ve watched the death of their parents and elders from poaching and culling, exhibit behavior typically associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and other trauma-related disorders in humans: abnormal startle response, unpredictable asocial behavior, inattentive mothering and hyperaggression. . . . [According to Bradshaw], “Elephants are suffering and behaving in the same ways that we recognize in ourselves as a result of violence. . . . Except perhaps for a few specific features, brain organization and early development of elephants and humans are extremely similar.”
    Q. Which of the following statements best expresses the overall argument of this passage?
    ... more

    Mamta Devi asked   •  17 hours ago

    Instructions
    Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
    The only thing worse than being lied to is not knowing you’re being lied to. It’s true that plastic pollution is a huge problem, of planetary proportions. And it’s true we could all do more to reduce our plastic footprint. The lie is that blame for the plastic problem is wasteful consumers and that changing our individual habits will fix it.
    Recycling plastic is to saving the Earth what hammering a nail is to halting a falling skyscraper. You struggle to find a place to do it and feel pleased when you succeed. But your effort is wholly inadequate and distracts from the real problem of why the building is collapsing in the first place. The real problem is that single-use plastic—the very idea of producing plastic items like grocery bags, which we use for an average of 12 minutes but can persist in the environment for half a millennium—is an incredibly reckless abuse of technology. Encouraging individuals to recycle more will never solve the problem of a massive production of single-use plastic that should have been avoided in the first place.
    As an ecologist and evolutionary biologist, I have had a disturbing window into the accumulating literature on the hazards of plastic pollution. Scientists have long recognized that plastics biodegrade slowly, if at all, and pose multiple threats to wildlife through entanglement and consumption. More recent reports highlight dangers posed by absorption of toxic chemicals in the water and by plastic odors that mimic some species’ natural food. Plastics also accumulate up the food chain, and studies now show that we are likely ingesting it ourselves in seafood. . . .
    Beginning in the 1950s, big beverage companies like Coca-Cola and Anheuser-Busch, along with Phillip Morris and others, formed a non-profit called Keep America Beautiful. Its mission is/was to educate and encourage environmental stewardship in the public. . . . At face value, these efforts seem benevolent, but they obscure the real problem, which is the role that corporate polluters play in the plastic problem. This clever misdirection has led journalist and author Heather Rogers to describe Keep America Beautiful as the first corporate greenwashing front, as it has helped shift the public focus to consumer recycling behavior and actively thwarted legislation that would increase extended producer responsibility for waste management. . . . [T]he greatest success of Keep America Beautiful has been to shift the onus of environmental responsibility onto the public while simultaneously becoming a trusted name in the environmental movement. . . .
    So what can we do to make responsible use of plastic a reality? First: reject the lie. Litterbugs are not responsible for the global ecological disaster of plastic. Humans can only function to the best of their abilities, given time, mental bandwidth and systemic constraints. Our huge problem with plastic is the result of a permissive legal framework that has allowed the uncontrolled rise of plastic pollution, despite clear evidence of the harm it causes to local communities and the world’s oceans. Recycling is also too hard in most parts of the U.S. and lacks the proper incentives to make it work well.
    Q. In the first paragraph, the author uses “lie” to refer to the:
    ... more

    Ram Rati asked   •  17 hours ago

    Instructions
    Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
    Economists have spent most of the 20th century ignoring psychology, positive or otherwise. But today there is a great deal of emphasis on how happiness can shape global economies, or — on a smaller scale — successful business practice. This is driven, in part, by a trend in "measuring" positive emotions, mostly so they can be optimized.
    Neuroscientists, for example, claim to be able to locate specific emotions, such as happiness or disappointment, in particular areas of the brain. Wearable technologies, such as Spire, offer data-driven advice on how to reduce stress.
    We are no longer just dealing with "happiness" in a philosophical or romantic sense — it has become something that can be monitored and measured, including by our behavior, use of social media and bodily indicators such as pulse rate and facial expressions.
    There is nothing automatically sinister about this trend. But it is disquieting that the businesses and experts driving the quantification of happiness claim to have our best interests at heart, often concealing their own agendas in the process.
    In the workplace, happy workers are viewed as a "win-win." Work becomes more pleasant, and employees, more productive. But this is now being pursued through the use of performance-evaluating wearable technology, such as Humanyze or Virgin Pulse, both of which monitor physical signs of stress and activity toward the goal of increasing productivity.
    Cities such as Dubai, which has pledged to become the "happiest city in the world," dream up ever-more elaborate and intrusive ways of collecting data on well-being — to the point where there is now talk of using CCTV cameras to monitor facial expressions in public spaces. New ways of detecting emotions are hitting the market all the time: One company, Beyond Verbal, aims to calculate moods conveyed in a phone conversation, potentially without the knowledge of at least one of the participants. And Facebook [has] demonstrated . . . that it could influence our emotions through tweaking our news feeds — opening the door to ever-more targeted manipulation in advertising and influence.
    As the science grows more sophisticated and technologies become more intimate with our thoughts and bodies, a clear trend is emerging. Where happiness indicators were once used as a basis to reform society, challenging the obsession with money that G.D.P. measurement entrenches, they are increasingly used as a basis to transform or discipline individuals.
    Happiness becomes a personal project, that each of us must now work on, like going to the gym. Since the 1970s, depression has come to be viewed as a cognitive or neurological defect in the individual, and never a consequence of circumstances. All of this simply escalates the sense of responsibility each of us feels for our own feelings, and with it, the sense of failure when things go badly. A society that deliberately removed certain sources of misery, such as precarious and exploitative employment, may well be a happier one. But we won't get there by making this single, often fleeting emotion, the over-arching goal.
    Q. According to the author, Dubai:
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    Tarawati asked   •  17 hours ago

    Instructions
    Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
    The only thing worse than being lied to is not knowing you’re being lied to. It’s true that plastic pollution is a huge problem, of planetary proportions. And it’s true we could all do more to reduce our plastic footprint. The lie is that blame for the plastic problem is wasteful consumers and that changing our individual habits will fix it.
    Recycling plastic is to saving the Earth what hammering a nail is to halting a falling skyscraper. You struggle to find a place to do it and feel pleased when you succeed. But your effort is wholly inadequate and distracts from the real problem of why the building is collapsing in the first place. The real problem is that single-use plastic—the very idea of producing plastic items like grocery bags, which we use for an average of 12 minutes but can persist in the environment for half a millennium—is an incredibly reckless abuse of technology. Encouraging individuals to recycle more will never solve the problem of a massive production of single-use plastic that should have been avoided in the first place.
    As an ecologist and evolutionary biologist, I have had a disturbing window into the accumulating literature on the hazards of plastic pollution. Scientists have long recognized that plastics biodegrade slowly, if at all, and pose multiple threats to wildlife through entanglement and consumption. More recent reports highlight dangers posed by absorption of toxic chemicals in the water and by plastic odors that mimic some species’ natural food. Plastics also accumulate up the food chain, and studies now show that we are likely ingesting it ourselves in seafood. . . .
    Beginning in the 1950s, big beverage companies like Coca-Cola and Anheuser-Busch, along with Phillip Morris and others, formed a non-profit called Keep America Beautiful. Its mission is/was to educate and encourage environmental stewardship in the public. . . . At face value, these efforts seem benevolent, but they obscure the real problem, which is the role that corporate polluters play in the plastic problem. This clever misdirection has led journalist and author Heather Rogers to describe Keep America Beautiful as the first corporate greenwashing front, as it has helped shift the public focus to consumer recycling behavior and actively thwarted legislation that would increase extended producer responsibility for waste management. . . . [T]he greatest success of Keep America Beautiful has been to shift the onus of environmental responsibility onto the public while simultaneously becoming a trusted name in the environmental movement. . . .
    So what can we do to make responsible use of plastic a reality? First: reject the lie. Litterbugs are not responsible for the global ecological disaster of plastic. Humans can only function to the best of their abilities, given time, mental bandwidth and systemic constraints. Our huge problem with plastic is the result of a permissive legal framework that has allowed the uncontrolled rise of plastic pollution, despite clear evidence of the harm it causes to local communities and the world’s oceans. Recycling is also too hard in most parts of the U.S. and lacks the proper incentives to make it work well.
    Q. In the second paragraph, the phrase “what hammering a nail is to halting a falling skyscraper” means:
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    Buta Singh asked   •  17 hours ago

    Instructions
    Read the passage carefully and answer the given questions

    The complexity of modern problems often precludes any one person from fully understanding them. Factors contributing to rising obesity levels, for example, include transportation systems and infrastructure, media, convenience foods, changing social norms, human biology and psychological factors. . . . The multidimensional or layered character of complex problems also undermines the principle of meritocracy: the idea that the ‘best person’ should be hired. There is no best person. When putting together an oncological research team, a biotech company such as Gilead or Genentech would not construct a multiple-choice test and hire the top scorers, or hire people whose resumes score highest according to some performance criteria. Instead, they would seek diversity. They would build a team of people who bring diverse knowledge bases, tools and analytic skills. . . .
    Believers in a meritocracy might grant that teams ought to be diverse but then argue that meritocratic principles should apply within each category. Thus the team should consist of the ‘best’ mathematicians, the ‘best’ oncologists, and the ‘best’ biostatisticians from within the pool. That position suffers from a similar flaw. Even with a knowledge domain, no test or criteria applied to individuals will produce the best team. Each of these domains possesses such depth and breadth, that no test can exist. Consider the field of neuroscience. Upwards of 50,000 papers were published last year covering various techniques, domains of enquiry and levels of analysis, ranging from molecules and synapses up through networks of neurons. Given that complexity, any attempt to rank a collection of neuroscientists from best to worst, as if they were competitors in the 50-metre butterfly, must fail. What could be true is that given a specific task and the composition of a particular team, one scientist would be more likely to contribute than another. Optimal hiring depends on context. Optimal teams will be diverse.
    Evidence for this claim can be seen in the way that papers and patents that combine diverse ideas tend to rank as highimpact. It can also be found in the structure of the so-called random decision forest, a state-of-the-art machine-learning algorithm. Random forests consist of ensembles of decision trees. If classifying pictures, each tree makes a vote: is that a picture of a fox or a dog? A weighted majority rules. Random forests can serve many ends. They can identify bank fraud and diseases, recommend ceiling fans and predict online dating behaviour. When building a forest, you do not select the best trees as they tend to make similar classifications. You want diversity. Programmers achieve that diversity by training each tree on different data, a technique known as bagging. They also boost the forest ‘cognitively’ by training trees on the hardest cases - those that the current forest gets wrong. This ensures even more diversity and accurate forests.
    Yet the fallacy of meritocracy persists. Corporations, non-profits, governments, universities and even preschools test, score and hire the ‘best’. This all but guarantees not creating the best team. Ranking people by common criteria produces homogeneity. . . . That’s not likely to lead to breakthroughs.
    Q. Which of the following conditions, if true, would invalidate the passage’s main argument?
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    Kartar Singh asked   •  20 hours ago

    Group Question
    A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.

    Hecate or Hekate (ancient Greek 'EKCuri [Hekate], "far-shooting") was a popular chthonian Greco-Roman goddess, often associated with magic, witches, ghosts, and crossroads. She is attested in poetry as early as Hesiod's Theogony. An inscription from late archaic Miletus naming her as a protector of entrances is also testimony to her presence in archaic Greek religion. Regarding the nature of her cult, it has been remarked, “She is more at home on the fringes than in the center of Greek polytheism. Intrinsically ambivalent and polymorphous, she straddles conventional boundaries and eludes definition.” She has been associated with childbirth, nurturing the young, gates and walls, doorways, crossroads, magic, lunar lore, torches and dogs. William Berg observes, “Since children are not called after spooks, it is safe to assume that Carian theophoric names involving hekat- refer to a major deity free from the dark and unsavoury ties to the underworld and to witchcraft associated with the Hecate of classical Athens.” But he cautions, “The Laginetan goddess may have had a more infernal character than scholars have been willing to assume.” In Ptolemaic Alexandria and elsewhere during the Hellenistic period, she appears as a three-faced goddess associated with ghosts, witchcraft, and curses. Today she is claimed as a goddess of witches and in the context of Hellenic Polytheistic Reconstructionism. Some neo-pagans refer to her as a “crone goddess,” though this characterization appears to conflict with her frequent characterization as a virgin in late antiquity. She closely parallels the Roman goddess Trivia.
    Hecate has been characterized as a pre-Olympian chthonic goddess. She appears in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter and in Hesiod's Theogony, where she is promoted strongly as a great goddess. The place of origin of her following is uncertain, but it is thought that she had popular followings in Thrace. Her most important sanctuary was Lagina, a theocratic city-state in which the goddess was served by eunuchs. Lagina, where the famous temple of Hecate drew great festal assemblies every year, lay close to the originally Macedonian colony of Stratonikeia, where she was the city's patroness. In Thrace she played a role similar to that of lesser-Hermes, namely a governess of liminal regions (particularly gates) and the wilderness, bearing little resemblance to the night-walking crone she became. Additionally, this led to her role of aiding women in childbirth and the raising of young men. 
     
     
    Q. From the passage, we can conclude that:  
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    Akhil Rawat asked   •  yesterday

    Answer the following question based on the information given below.Animals can habituate to environmental disturbances. What’s more, they can get very good at telling the difference between stimuli that are relevant to them, and those that aren’t. Tree frogs can tell the difference between vibration caused by a predator and vibration caused by rain, even though these cues are extremely similar. Similarly, caterpillars living on leaves can tell the difference between vibrations caused by other caterpillars, predators, wind and rain.Spiders build webs on human-built structures such as pipelines, fences, road signs and wire rods, all of which are made out of materials not present in their evolutionary history. This means that they will absorb vibrations from the environment differently to a more natural place a spider might build its web, for example a plant. If these human-built objects are anywhere near humans (which they are likely to be) they are also probably affected by human noise. For example, a spider that has built a web near a road will be subject to the vibration caused by cars driving by. This matters particularly to spiders because they use vibration so much in guiding their behaviour. Indeed, you can even imagine the web to be an extension of the spider itself, such that the vibrations on the very outside of the web travel down to the spider situated in the centre and tell it whether it’s being ‘touched’ by prey, a mate, wind or rain.
    Q.
     In which of these scenarios would an animal not be able to properly interpret vibrational cues?
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