A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.
India played a key role in establishing the Non-Aligned Movement in 1961. Though India pursued close relations with both USA and USSR, it decided not to join any major power bloc and refrained from joining military alliances. After the Sino-lndian War and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, India made considerable changes to its foreign policy. It developed a close relationship with the Soviet Union and started receiving massive military equipment and financial assistance from the USSR. This had an adverse effect on the Indo-USA relationship. The United States saw Pakistan as a counter-weight to pro-Soviet India and started giving the former military assistance. This created an atmosphere of suspicion between India and USA. The USA-India relationship suffered a considerable setback during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan when India openly supported the Soviet Union. Relations between India and the United States came to an all-time low during the early 1970s. Despite reports of atrocities in East Pakistan, and being told, most notably in the Blood telegram, of genocidal activities being perpetrated by Pakistani forces, U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and U.S. President Richard Nixon did nothing to discourage then Pakistani President Yahya Khan and the Pakistan Army. Kissinger was particularly concerned about Soviet expansion into South Asia as a result of a treaty of friendship that had recently been signed between India and the Soviet Union, and sought to demonstrate to the People’s Republic of China the value of a tacit alliance with the United States.
During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Indian Armed Forces, along with the Mukti Bahini, succeeded in liberating East Pakistan which soon declared independence. Richard Nixon, then USA President, feared that an Indian invasion of West Pakistan would mean total Soviet domination of the region, and that it would seriously undermine the global position of the United States and the regional position of America’s new tacit ally, China. In order to demonstrate to China the bona fides of the United States as an ally, and in direct violation of the USA Congress-imposed sanctions on Pakistan, Nixon sent military supplies to Pakistan, routing them through Jordan and Iran, while also encouraging China to increase its arms supplies to Pakistan. When Pakistan’s defeat in the eastern sector seemed certain, Nixon sent the USS Enterprise to the Bay of Bengal, a move deemed by the Indians as a nuclear threat.
The Enterprise arrived on station on December 11, 1971. On 6 December and 13 December, the Soviet Navy dispatched two groups of ships, armed with nuclear missiles, from Vladivostok; they trailed U.S. Task Force 74 into the Indian Ocean from 18 December 1971 until 7 January 1972. The Soviets also sent a nuclear submarine to ward off the threat posed by USS Enterprise in the Indian Ocean. Though American efforts had no effect in turning the tide of the war, the incident involving USS Enterprise is viewed as the trigger for India’s subsequent nuclear program. American policy towards the end of the war was dictated primarily by a need to restrict the escalation of war on the western sector to prevent the ‘dismemberment’ of West Pakistan. Years after the war, many American writers criticized the White House policies during the war as being badly flawed and ill-serving the interests of the United States. India carried out nuclear tests a few years later resulting in sanctions being imposed by United States, further drifting the two countries apart. In recent years, Kissinger came under fire for comments made during the Indo-Pakistan War in which he described Indians as “bastards.” Kissinger has since expressed his regret over the comments.
Q.
Which of the following is FALSE according to the passage?
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Sarbjit Kaur answered  •  4 hours ago
Option 1 is true from, “It developed a close relationship with the Soviet Union and started receiving massive military equipment and financial assistance from the
USSR.” Option 2 is true. The following extract, “...and that it would seriously undermine the global position of the United States and the regional position of America's new tacit ally, China. In order to demonstrate to China the bonafides of the United States as an ally...” corroborates it.
Option 4 is true from, “....the incident involving USS Enterprise is viewed as the trigger for India's subsequent nuclear program and India carried out nuclear tests a few years later”.
It is mentioned in the passage that the US sent military aid to Pakistan despite the sanctions- “Nixon sent military supplies to Pakistan, routing them through Jordan and Iran”.
Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

Choose the kangaroo word that carries a smaller version of the word with a very similar meaning.
  • a)
    sharp
  • b)
    caustic
  • c)
    severe
  • d)
    acrid 
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Krishna Devi answered  •  4 hours ago
The kangaroo word is “acrid”, which contains the smaller word “acid”. Both these words mean ‘sharp or caustic, especially in speech or nature’.
Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

Fill in the blanks with the most appropriate word/set of words from the given options.
The most efficient way to handle pollen______is by preventing______ with the material.
  • a)
    sensitivity, brush
  • b)
    allergy, contact
  • c)
    reaction, collision
  • d)
    disease, impact
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Siksha Devi answered  •  4 hours ago
Pollen is not a “disease”, therefore option 4 can be eliminated.
Looking at the options for the second blank, “brush” is incorrect since it would require a determiner. “Collision” is too violent a word to be considered suitable.
Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

Choose the word which is OPPOSITE in meaning to the word given in CAPITAL LETTERS:COMESTIBLE 
  • a)
    Feasible
  • b)
    Inedible
  • c)
    Comfortable
  • d)
    Kinship
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Nanhi Devi answered  •  4 hours ago
 “Comestible” means ‘edible; that can be eaten’. “Inedible” means ‘that which cannot be eaten’ and is the perfect antonym of “comestible”. “Feasible” means ‘realistic’. “Comfortable” is ‘relaxed’. “Kinship” means ‘relationship’. Eliminate options 1, 3 and 4.
Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

Nitesh Sharma asked   •  28 minutes ago

Understanding where you are in the world is a basic survival skill, which is why we, like most species come hard-wired with specialised brain areas to create cognitive maps of our surroundings. Where humans are unique, though, with the possible exception of honeybees, is that we try to communicate this understanding of the world with others. We have a long history of doing this by drawing maps - the earliest versions yet discovered were scrawled on cave walls 14,000 years ago. Human cultures have been drawing them on stone tablets, papyrus, paper and now computer screens ever since.
Given such a long history of human map-making, it is perhaps surprising that it is only within the last few hundred years that north has been consistently considered to be at the top. In fact, for much of human history, north almost never appeared at the top, according to Jerry Brotton, a map historian... "North was rarely put at the top for the simple fact that north is where darkness comes from," he says. "West is also very unlikely to be put at the top because west is where the sun disappears."
Confusingly, early Chinese maps seem to buck this trend. But, Brotton, says, even though they did have compasses at the time, that isn't the reason that they placed north at the top. Early Chinese compasses were actually oriented to point south, which was considered to be more desirable than deepest darkest north. But in Chinese maps, the Emperor, who lived in the north of the country was always put at the top of the map, with everyone else, his loyal subjects, looking up towards him. "In Chinese culture the Emperor looks south because it's where the winds come from, it's a good direction. North is not very good but you are in a position of subjection to the emperor, so you look up to him," says Brotton.
Given that each culture has a very different idea of who, or what, they should look up to it's perhaps not surprising that there is very little consistency in which way early maps pointed. In ancient Egyptian times the top of the world was east, the position of sunrise. Early Islamic maps favoured south at the top because most of the early Muslim cultures were north of Mecca, so they imagined looking up (south) towards it. Christian maps from the same era (called Mappa Mundi) put east at the top, towards the Garden of Eden and with Jerusalem in the centre.
So when did everyone get together and decide that north was the top? It's tempting to put it down to European explorers like Christopher Columbus and Ferdinand Megellan, who were navigating by the North Star. But Brotton argues that these early explorers didn't think of the world like that at all. "When Columbus describes the world it is in accordance with east being at the top," he says. "Columbus says he is going towards paradise, so his mentality is from a medieval mappa mundi." We've got to remember, adds Brotton, that at the time, "no one knows what they are doing and where they are going."
Q.
The role of natural phenomena in influencing map-making conventions is seen most clearly in​
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A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.
In Western literature, the term "renga" has been applied to alternating accretive poetry, not necessarily in the classical Japanese form. Examples include Octavio Paz and Charles Tomlinson's sonnet-renga "Airborne", 1979, and to the work of Canadians P. K. Page and Philip Stratford, whose collaboration between 1997 and 1999 became the sonnet collection "And Once More Saw The Stars", 2001.

With the rise of the internet, renga is once again becoming a popular form. People from anywhere at any time can easily contribute to a work. An early online collaborative renga, done by many writers on the fly was White Roads led by Jane Reichhold in 1996. Live renga are being conducted increasingly in the West, including in the UK where artists/poets including Alec Finlay, Gavin Wade, Gerry Loose, and Paul Conneally explore and develop the form. Finlay has created two dedicated renga platforms for renga days, at the hidden gardens, Glasgow, and Garden Station, near Hexham. His press, Platform Projects, has published two collections of renga, Verse Chain and Shared Writing. Finlay has collaborated with a number of renga poets to expand the renga form, composing what he refers to as word-map renga which describe specific locations; some of these poems are typeset in the shapes or forms of the place in question - coastline, river or a skyline. He is currently working on a renga word-map of The Peak District in England.
Finlay has also collaborated on hyakuin renga 24 hour renga; and, with Linda France, solo and duet year-long renga.
The first magazine devoted entirely to renga in English was started by Jim Wilson of Monte Rio, California, in 1986. It was called APA- RENGA because it was a continuation of the Amateur Press Association model magazines in which all members could post whatever they wanted. This meant that the members would read the renga being offered and then could write a connecting link. Wilson tabulated these links and then all the possible links were sent back to the participants. This meant that instead of having linear links, the renga expanded outward into many versions of the same poem. When Wilson passed APA-RENGA on to Terri Lee Grell in 1989, she renamed the magazine Lynx and added short stories and other poetry and published quarterly. In 1992 Grell passed Lynx on to Jane and Werner Reichhold.
Q.
What can we deduce about the definition of Rengas from the passage?
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Santosh answered  •  4 hours ago
Option 1 mentions the Renga to be “prose” when it’s clearly poetry - “the term "renga" has been applied to alternating accretive poetry.” There is nothing in the passage about a comparison between a Renga and a haiku as indicated in option 2. Option 4 can be eliminated as Renga existed even before the Internet.
The passage states, “An early online collaborative renga, done by many writers on the fly was White Roads led by Jane Reichhold in 1996.” Any form of Renga, according to the passage, has at least two contributors. Also, we know that it was embraced by the West, because of the passage’s many mentions of it being used in countries like the UK and USA. Furthermore, we know that it is Japanese because the passage states that it was embraced “not necessarily in the classical Japanese form.”
Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

Read each of the short passages given below and answer the question that follows each.
Words that need to be spoken should not accumulate inside. The hurt, pain or jealousy a person feels cannot hide.
Sorrow and anger can be and will be suppressed.
But this only leads to a person feeling depressed.
Anger is a deadly toxin in which the body it flows.
When it takes over limb by limb, everyone knows.
 
Q. Which of the following is certainly NOT implied in the above verse?
  • a)
    Anger can destroy people.
  • b)
    The mind controls one’s body.
  • c)
    Jealousy can never hide successfully.
  • d)
    Sorrow and anger accumulate inside.
  • e)
    Words of hurt, pain, or jealousy should not be spoken.
Correct answer is option 'E'. Can you explain this answer?

Santosh Rani answered  •  4 hours ago
“Words that need to be spoken should not accumulate inside.” These words are then related by the poet to “hurt, pain, and jealousy”, the poet seems to say they should not be suppressed. Therefore it follows that these words should be spoken. Hence option 5, which states the exact opposite, is certainly not implied.
The other options are implied or stated.
The words “deadly toxin” sufficiently justify option 1.
Though option 2 may be considered debatable, it can be accommodated, since all these feelings are in the mind and then they “take over limb by limb”.
Option 3 can be inferred from the second line.
Option 4 is justified since sorrow and anger when suppressed lead to the person feeling depressed, that is, they accumulate inside.
Hence, the correct answer is option 5.

Answer the following question based on the information given below.
Six classes, namely: Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D, Class E and Class F of a certain Management Institute were supposed to select exactly three specializations from Marketing, Finance, Human Resources, IT Management, Operations Management and Retail Management. All the students in any particular class selected the same set of specializations and further each specialization was selected by atleast one of the six classes. Also, 1. Students of Class B selected exactly one specialization which the students of Class E rejected. 2. There were exactly two specializations that were chosen by Class A as well as Class C. 3. There were exactly three specializations that were not chosen by Class C as well as Class F. 4. The students of Class F chose Marketing and Operations Management while the students of Class E did not choose IT Management.
The table below gives the details of the number of classes that opted for the specializations.
In the above table: M: Marketing, F: Finance, H: Human Resources, I: IT Management, O: Operations Management.
Q.
What would be the value of H2 +R2?
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Saroj answered  •  4 hours ago
The number of specializations chosen by each of the class is exactly three.
Hence, we have: M + F + H + I + 0 + R= 18.
Hence, R = 4.
R2 + H2 = 42 + 22 = 20
Hence, option 3.

A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.
In the early 1970s, a group of people led by Robert H. Rines obtained some underwater photographs. Two were rather vague images, perhaps of a rhomboid flipper (though others have dismissed the image as air bubbles or a fish fin). The alleged flipper was photographed in different positions, indicating movement. On the basis of these photographs, British naturalist Peter Scott announced in 1975 that the scientific name of the monster would henceforth be Nessiteras rhombopteryx (Greek for "The Ness monster with diamond-shaped fin"). Scott intended that this would enable Nessie to be added to a British register of officially protected wildlife. Scottish politician Nicholas Fairbairn pointed out that the name was an anagram for "Monster hoax by Sir Peter S".
The underwater photos were reportedly obtained by painstakingly examining the loch depths with sonar for unusual underwater activity. A submersible camera with an affixed, high-powered light (necessary for penetrating Loch Ness's notorious murk) was deployed to record images below the surface. Several of the photographs, despite their obviously murky quality, did indeed seem to show an animal resembling a plesiosaur in various positions and lightings. One photograph appeared to show the head, neck and upper torso of a plesiosaur-like animal. A rarely publicised photograph depicted two plesiosaur-like bodies. Another photo seemed to depict a horned "gargoyle head", consistent to that of several sightings of the monster. Some believe the latter to be a tree stump found during Operation Deepscan.
A few close-ups of what is to be the creature's supposed diamondshaped fin were taken in different positions, as though the creature was moving. But the "flipper photograph" has been highly retouched from the original image. The Museum of Hoaxes shows the original unenhanced photo. Team member Charles Wyckoff claimed that someone retouched the photo to superimpose the flipper, and that the original enhancement showed a much smaller flipper. No one is exactly sure how the original came to be enhanced in this way.
Q.
Why is the word “alleged” used in the statement “The alleged flipper was photographed in different positions, indicating movement.”?
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Sumitra answered  •  4 hours ago
The correct answer is 3 - this is a classic case of transferred epithet; the flipper is alleged because the monster itself is alleged, and whether or not the photograph is real depends on the monster’s existence. Eliminate option 4.
Option 1 is wrong as there is no proof to support this.
Option 2 is wrong as we know that the photograph exists - “In the early 1970s, a group of people led by Robert H.
Rines obtained some underwater photographs.”
Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

The distance between Mumbai and Pune is 120 km. Rahul begins to cycle through this distance from Mumbai to Pune at a speed of 10 km/h at 12 noon. As soon as he starts, a State transport bus passes by at a speed of 20 km/h. State transport buses ply from Mumbai to Pune at the same speed at a frequency of half-an-hour. At the same time, an Interstate bus, which plies from Pune to Mumbai at a frequency of an hour and travelling at a speed of 30 km/h passes him by. How many times during the whole journey from beginning to end will Rahul find a State Transport bus and an Interstate bus passing him at the same time?
  • a)
    4
  • b)
    5
  • c)
    6
  • d)
    10
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Geeta Devi answered  •  4 hours ago
Consider only Rahul and the State Transport.
When Rahul starts at 12 noon, a State Transport just passes him by.
After half an hour, i.e., at 12:30 pm Rahul would have travelled 5 km without meeting any State Transport bus, and the next State Transport bus he would meet would have started at Mumbai.
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Answer the following question based on the information given below.
India ranks 4th in carbon emission among nations worldwide. For a developing nation like India, it seems impossible to bring a significant reduction in carbon emissions in near future. The Environment Protection Act, 1986, was one of the first legislations brought about by the legislature to protect the environment from degradation caused by the ever-increasing pollution. The next decade was a witness to economic liberalisation which in turn resulted in industrialisation and a revolutionary increase in automobiles on the road.
The Delhi government recently applied the odd and even plan for automobiles. The odd and even scheme of the Delhi government is laudable for the sheer fact that it takes courage to take such an antipopulist measure. The scheme may not have had a drastic impact on the pollution, but it has indeed resulted in a reduction in both the traffic and the resultant pollution. There are certain sections of society who are still miffed with the government, but then constructive criticism is a sign of a healthy democracy.
Taking a lesson from the successful implementation of odd and even rule, governments across the country should board the reform bandwagon. These days we see many advertisements making people aware of the ill-impact of various particulate matters from vehicles as well as from industry. The government should continue with them and should spread awareness among the masses.
Every developing township is getting clogged with the ever increasing traffic on their roads. Cities which have already acquired a shape can be restructured through implementing metro rail-based mass rapid transit systems (MRTS). It has been observed that road- based MRTS is less effective in the urban centres in India. Most of the Indian cities have developed in a haphazard manner and there is no or little scope for implementation of road-based MRTS.
The use of CNG vehicles should be increased and people should be encouraged to use more and more of it. It could be fuelled further by asking auto manufacturers to assign CNG fitting stations from where people can install CNG kits in their cars without losing their warranty. Conversion percentage of vehicles into CNG will get a shot in the arm with this initiative.
However, it seems impossible for governments to act on their own because unlike the Delhi government, very few governments in the states enjoy such absolute majority. The reason for judicial intervention is the avaricious attitude of the people. The court should reassume its role and put its act together to save them from the self-destructive ways and should pave a way in which pollution could be curbed in India.
Q.
Delhi’s approach in curbing pollution could be termed as
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Chander Kala answered  •  15 hours ago
The passage clearly says that the odd and even plan for automobiles did not execute to have a drastic effect on pollution which indicates that the plan was a reactive measure against the ever increasing pollution of Delhi as prevention is far-fetched in this case.
The passage does not elaborate on the active involvement of the government in the implementation of the odd-even plan. Thus option 3 is eliminated.
Though possibly insufficient, the government is seen to be making efforts to curb pollution, and hence can’t be termed indifferent in its approach. Thus option 4 is eliminated.
Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

Group Question
Answer the following question based on the information given below.
The table below shows the top four coffee producers in India, in terms of production and sales. All other smaller coffee producers are clubbed under ‘Others’.
Q.
What is the total production capacity of the companies falling under ‘Others’ (in ‘000 3 tonnes)?
  • a)
    5.89
  • b)
    7.12
  • c)
    12.48
  • d)
     6.44
  • e)
    8.5 
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Shanti Devi answered  •  15 hours ago
Total capacity of coffee industry in India =
 Total capacity of Brooke Bond =
Total capacity of Nestle = 
Total capacity of Lipton = 
Total capacity of  MAC =
All the figures above are in ‘000 tonnes.
∴ Total capacity of companies under Others (in '000 tonnes) = 18.92 - (3.88 + 3.48 + 3
2.53 + 2.59) = 6.44

Hence, option 4.

Group Question Answer the following question based on the information given below.
The chart below shows the income and expenditure (in Rs. crores) of a firm for four successive quarters in an year.
Q.
What is the maximum percentage profit earned by the company in any of the given quarters?
  • a)
    78%
  • b)
    73%
  • c)
    64%
  • d)
    61%
  • e)
    58%
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Sharda Devi answered  •  15 hours ago
This question can be solved faster by observation.
Note that the income is less than expenditure in Q3. Hence, there is a percentage loss in
Q3. Hence, Q3 can be ignored in calculations.
Now, compare Q1 and Q4.
The income in Q4 is more than the income in Ql, while the expenditure in Q4 is less than the expenditure in Ql.
Hence, the percentage profit in Q4 is more than that in Ql and so, Ql can be ignored in calculations.
For Q2: percentage profit = 
For Q4: percentage profit =
Thus, the maximum percentage profit is approximately 61%.
Hence, option 4.

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.
Find the 200th term of the series 3 + 4 + 6 + 9 + 13 + 18 ...... + 200 terms.
  • a)
    19903
  • b)
    19803
  • c)
    20003
  • d)
    18903
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Vedwati answered  •  15 hours ago
► Sn = 3 + 4 + 6 + 9 + 13 + 18 .....Tn
► Sn = 3 + 4 + 6 + 9   + 13 ......Tn-1 + Tn
Subtracting these 2 we get :
► 0 = 3 + ( 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 .......n-1 terms) – Tn
► 
Put n = 200 and T200 = 19903

X can do piece of work in 5 days. Y can do it in 10 days. With the help of Z, they finish the work in 2 days. In how many days Z alone can do the whole work?
  • a)
    3
  • b)
    4
  • c)
    5
  • d)
    6
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Geeta Devi answered  •  15 hours ago
►Efficiency of A = 20% = 100 / 5
►Efficiency of B = 10% = 100 / 10
►Efficiency of A,B and C = 50%
►∴ Efficiency of C = (Efficiency of A,B and C) – (Efficiency of A and B) = (50) - (20 + 10) = 20%
►∴ Number of days required by C to work alone = 100 / 20 = 5 days
Alternatively: Go through options and satisfy the values.

Spectator comfort at the cricket venue is a rare benevolence. Intrusive security, mostly insensitive, can discourage the most faithful of spectators from coming to the stadium. Yet they throng, with an unmistakable passion to stretch their vocal chords and cheer their heroes.
They have been doing it for years, most loyally, but have always been accorded second class treatment. Yet they throng!
Why do they come? S. Ganesh, an avid cricket fan, does not anymore. “It is degrading,” is his acerbic response. He has been a regular at cricket venues, many times overseas, but the modern trend to make noise and indulge in jingoism does not appeal to him. It compels him to stay “indoors” and enjoy the fare on the small screen. “In mute mode,” he insists.
Mute when indoors; vociferous at the venue. Such variance among cricket fans, or spectators, is uncommon in other sport. “In India, it is all about cacophony,” quips G.B. Lai, a veteran from Patna. He has watched “quality” cricket in Patna and Calcutta but just can't come to terms with the modern I PL (Indian Premier League) cricket fan.
Faces painted and sentiments expressed through banners and placards, the cricket fan of today comes in all hues and shapes at the I PL games. Most reputable experts are appalled that the cricket fan at the I PL is so starkly different from the spectator at a Test match. There has been a marked transformation in the character of a cricket follower. The emphasis now is on entertainment and it explains why there is an unending surge at matches that promise a result.
Is it erosion of cricket culture? The boisterous cricket fan, supporting Delhi Daredevils or Chennai Super Kings, has little regard for the man occupying the next seat. “They don't come to watch cricket skills. They want to shout, wave like mad, jump and dance, all mainly to be seen on the television. It can be irritating for someone who wants to follow the action seriously. Half the time you miss a clear view because of this breed of spectators who just go wild at the sight of a camera,” says Ganesh, who has watched cricket at Kotla by queuing up at 6 in the morning for a day's play at a Test.
Cricket watching is not a pleasure anymore. “It was fun. I could carry my snacks, lunch and single malt in a hip flask,” remembers Anurag Mathur, a club cricketer. Not anymore! “I can only carry myself,” laments Praveen Kaushik, who has always bought a ticket to a cricket match in a city where acquiring a complimentary pass is a status symbol.
 
Q.The passage talks about:
A. The dilution of cricket
B. The transformation of cricket fans
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Seema answered  •  15 hours ago
The passage does not say that cricket as a game is being affected. It merely talks about the erosion of cricket culture and the poor experience of cricket watching. Hence, statement A can be ruled out.
Statement B is supported by - “There has been a marked transformation in the character of a cricket follower. The emphasis now is on entertainment and it explains why there is an unending surge at matches that promise a result.” Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

Shanti Devi asked   •  3 hours ago

Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
The endless struggle between the flesh and the spirit found an end in Greek art. The Greek artists were unaware of it. They were spiritual materialists, never denying the importance of the body and ever seeing in the body a spiritual significance. Mysticism on the whole was alien to the Greeks, thinkers as they were. Thought and mysticism never go well together and there is little symbolism in Greek art. Athena was not a symbol of wisdom but an embodiment of it and her statues were beautiful grave women, whose seriousness might mark them as wise, but who were marked in no other way. The Apollo Belvedere is not a symbol of the sun, nor the Versailles Artemis of the moon. There could be nothing less akin to the ways of symbolism than their beautiful, normal humanity. Nor did decoration really interest the Greeks. In all their art they were preoccupied with what they wanted to express, not with ways of expressing it, and lovely expression, merely as lovely expression, did not appeal to them at all.
Greek art is intellectual art, the art of men who were clear and lucid thinkers, and it is therefore plain art. Artists than whom the world has never seen greater, men endowed with the spirit's best gift, found their natural method of expression in the simplicity and clarity which are the endowment of the unclouded reason. “Nothing in excess,” the Greek axiom of art, is the dictum of men who would brush aside all obscuring, entangling superfluity, and see clearly: plainly, unadorned, what they wished to express. Structure belongs in an especial degree to the province of the mind in art, and architectonics were pre-eminently a mark of the Greek. The power that made a unified whole of the trilogy of a Greek tragedy, that envisioned the sure, precise, decisive scheme of the Greek statue, found its most conspicuous expression in Greek architecture. The Greek temple is the creation, par excellence, of mind and spirit in equilibrium.
A Hindoo temple is a conglomeration of adornment. The lines of the building are completely hidden by the decorations. Sculptured figures and ornaments crowd its surface, stand out from it in thick masses, break it up into a bewildering series of irregular tiers. It is not a unity but a collection, rich, confused. It looks like something not planned but built this way and that as the ornament required. The conviction underlying it can be perceived: each bit of the exquisitely wrought detail had a mystical meaning and the temple's exterior was important only as a means for the artist to inscribe thereon the symbols of the truth. It is decoration, not architecture.
Again, the gigantic temples of Egypt, those massive immensities of granite which look as if only the power that moves in the earthquake were mighty enough to bring them into existence, are something other than the creation of geometry balanced by beauty. The science and the spirit are there, but what is there most of all is force, inhuman force, calm but tremendous, overwhelming. It reduces to nothingness all that belongs to man. He is annihilated. The Egyptian architects were possessed by the consciousness of the awful, irresistible domination of the ways of nature; they had no thought to give to the insignificant atom that was man.
Greek architecture of the great age is the expression of men who were, first of all, intellectual artists, kept firmly within the visible world by their mind, but, only second to that, lovers of the human world. The Greek temple is the perfect expression of the pure intellect illumined by the spirit. No other great buildings anywhere approach its simplicity. In the Parthenon straight columns rise to plain capitals; a pediment is sculptured in bold, relief; there is nothing more. And yet-here is the Greek miracle-this absolute simplicity of structure is alone in majesty of beauty among all the temples and cathedrals and palaces of the world. Majestic but human, truly Greek. No superhuman force as in Egypt; no strange supernatural shapes as in India; the Parthenon is the home of humanity! At ease, calm, ordered, sure of itself and the world. The Greeks flung a challenge to nature in the fullness of their joyous strength. They set their temples on the summit of a hill overlooking the wide sea, outlined against the circle of the sky. They would build what was more beautiful than hill and sea and sky and greater than all these. It matters not at all if the temple is large or small; one never thinks of the size. It matters not how much it is in ruins. A few white columns dominate the lofty height at Sunion as securely as the greatmass of the Parthenon dominates all the sweep of sea and land around Athens. To the Greek architect man was the master of the world. His mind could understand its laws; his spirit could discover its beauty.
Q. According to the passage, which of the following best explains why there is little symbolism in Greek art?
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Mahender Singh asked   •  3 hours ago

Answer the questions based on the following information : 
Doranda Institute of Management (DIM) is a college in Ranchi. Its give admission to students who fulfils the following criteria :
A student must: 
1. be a graduate from a recognized university with minimum 54 percent marks. 
2. not be more than 33 years of age as on 1.4.2008. 
3. have secured 60 percent or more marks in the entrance test. 
4. pay one-time deposit fee of Rs. 2,00,000 at time of admission. 
5. pay tuition fee of Rs.4,000 per month. 
Any candidate who fails to fulfill the condition (4) at above, he/she may be referred to the chairman-admission. Any candidate who has scored 80 percent mark in the entrance test but does not fulfill the condition (1) at above, he/she may be referred to the director. Any candidate having work experience of at least 10 years in supervisory cadre and does not satisfy the condition (2) at above, he/she may be admitted under sponsored quota. Given the above information and condition in each of the following questions, you have to decide which of the following course of action should be taken. You should not assume anything in case of any of the candidates. Mark answer 
I. if the candidate is admitted                 
II. if the candidate is not admitted 
III. if the candidate is referred to the director 
IV. if the candidate is referred to the chairman- admission 
V. if the candidate is admitted under sponsor quota 
Q. Kamlesh secured 60 percent marks in graduation and was born on 10th April 1977. He scored 56 percent marks in the entrance test. He can pay one-time deposit of Rs. 2,00,000 and monthly tuition fee of Rs. 4,000. 
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Suresh Kumar asked   •  3 hours ago

Read the Following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
The movement to expel the Austrians from Italy and unite Italy under a republican government had been gaining momentum while Garibaldi was away. There was a growing clamour, not just from Giuseppe Mazzini's republicans, but from moderates as well, for a General capable of leading Italy to independence. Even the King of Piedmont, for whom Garibaldi was still an outlaw under sentence of death, subscribed to an appeal for a sword for the returning hero. Meanwhile, the 'year of revolutions', 1848, had occurred in which Louis Philippe had been toppled from the French throne.
In Austria, an uprising triggered off insurrections in Venice and Milan, and the Austrian garrisons were forced out. The King of Piedmont. Charles Albert ordered his troops to occupy these cities. There had also been instruction in Sicily, causing the King Ferdinand II, to grant major constitutional freedoms in 1849, prompting both the Pope and Charles Albert to grant further concessions.Meanwhile, largely ignorant of these developments, Garibaldi was approaching Italy at a leisurely pace, arriving at Nice on 23June 1848 to a tumultuous reception. The hero declared himself willing to fight and lay down his life for Charles Albert, who he now regarded as a bastion of Italian nationalism.
Mazzini and the republicans were horrified, regarding this as outright betrayal: did it reflect Garibaldi's innate simplemindedness,his patriotism in the war against Austria, or was it part of a deal with the monarchy'? Charles Albert had pardoned Garibaldi, but to outward appearances he was still very wary of the General and the ltalian Legion he had amassed of 150 'brigands'.The two men met near Mantua, and the King appeared to dislike him instantly. He suggested that Garibaldi's men should join his army and that Garibaldi should go to Venice and captain a ship as a privateer against the Austrians. Garibaldi, meanwhile, met his former hero Mazzini for the first time, and again the encounter was frosty. Seemingly rebuffed on all sides. Garibaldi considered going to Sicily to fight King Ferdinand II of Naples, but changed his mind when the Milanese offered him the post of General - something they badly needed when Charles Albert's Piedmontese army was defeated at Custoza by the Austrians. With around 1,000 men, Garibaldi marched into  the mountains at Varese, commenting bitterly: 'The King of Sardinia may have a crown that he holds on to by dint of misdeeds and  cowardice, but my comrades and I do not wish to hold on to our lives by shameful actions'.
The King of Piedmont offered an armistice to the Austrians and all the gains in northern Italy were lost again. Garibaldi returned to Nice and then across to Genoa, where he learned that, in September 1848, Ferdinand II had bombed Messina as a prelude to invasion - an atrocity which caused him to be dubbed 'King Bomba'. Reaching Livorno he was diverted yet again and set off  across the Italian peninsula with 350 men to come to Venice's assistance, but on the way, in Bologna, he learned that the Pope had taken refuge with King Bomba. Garibaldi promptly altered course southwards towards Rome where he was greeted once  again as a hero. Rome proclaimed itself a Republic. Garibaldi's Legion had swollen to nearly 1,300 men, and the Grand Duke of Tuscany fled Florence before the advancing republican force.
However, the Austrians marched southwards to place the Grand Duke of Tuscany back on his throne. Prince Louis Napoleon of France -despatched an army of 7,000 men under General Charles Oudinot to the port of Civitavecchia to seize the city. Garibaldi was appointed as a General to defend Rome.The republicans had around 9,000 men, and Garibaldi was given control of more than 4,000 to defend the Janiculum Hill, which was crucial to the defence of Rome, as it commanded the city over the Tiber. Some 5,000 well-equipped French troops arrived on 30 April 1849 at Porta Cavallegeri in the old walls of Rome, but failed to get through, and were attacked from behind by Garibaldi,who led a baton charge and was grazed by a bullet slightly on his side. The French lost 500 dead and wounded, along with some 350 prisoners, to the Italians, 200 dead and wounded. It was a famous victory, wildly celebrated by the Romans into the night,and the French signed a tactical truce.However, other armies were on the march: Bomba's 12,500- strong Neapolitan army was approaching from the south, while the Austrians had attacked Bologna in the north. Garibaldi took a force out of Rome and engaged in a flanking movement across the Neapolitan army's rear at Castelli Romani; the Neapolitans attacked and were driven off, leaving 50 dead. Garibaldi accompanied the Roman General, Piero Roselli, in an attack on the retreating Neapolitan army. Foolishly leading a patrol of his men right out infront of his forces, he tried to stop a group of his cavalry reheating and fell under their horses, with the enemy clashing at him with their sabres. He was rescued by his legionnaires, narrowly having avoided being killed, but Roselli had missed the chance to encircle the Neapolitan army. Garibaldi boldly wanted to carry the fight down into theKingdom of Naples, but Mazzini, who by now was effectively in charge of Rome, ordered him back to the capital to face the danger of Austrian attack from the north. In fact, it was the French who arrived on the outskirts of Rome first, with an army now reinforced by 30,000.
Mazzini realized that Rome could not resist and ordered a symbolic stand within the city itself, rather than surrender, for the purposes of international propaganda and to keep the struggle alive, whatever the cost. On 3 June the French arrived in force and seized the strategic country house, 'Villa Pamphili. Garibaldi rallied his forces and fought feverishly to retake the villa up narrow and steep city streets, capturing it, then losing it again. By the end of the day, the sides had 1,000 dead between them. Garibaldi once again had been in the thick of the fray, giving orders to his troops and fighting, it was said, like a lion. Although beaten off for the moment, the French imposed a siege in the morning, starving the city of provisions and bombarding its beautiful centre. On 30 June the French attacked again in force, while Garibaldi, at the head of his troops, fought back ferociously. But there was no prospect of holding the French off indefinitely, and Garibaldi decided to take his men out of the city to continue resistance inthe mountains. Mazzini fled to Britain while Garibaldi remained to fight for the cause. He had just 4,000 men, divided into two legions, and faced some 17,000 Austrians and Tuscans in the north, 30,000 Neapolitans and Spanish in the south, and 40,000 French in the west. He was being directly pursued by 8,000 French and was approaching Neapolitan and Spanish divisions of some 18,000 men. He stood no chance whatever. The rugged hill country wasideal, however, for his style of irregular guerrilla warfare, and he rnanoeuvred skilfully, marching and counter-marching in different directions, confounding his pursuers before finally aiming for Arezzo in the north. But his men were deserting in droves and local people were hostile to his army: he was soon reduced to 1500 men who struggled across the high mountain passes to San Marino where he found temporary refuge. The Austrians, now approaching, demanded that he go into exile in America. He was determined to fight on and urged the ill and pregnant Anita, his wife, to stay behind in San Marino, but she would not hear of it. The pair set off with 200 loyal soldiers along the mountain tracks to the Adriatic coast, from where Garibaldi intended to embark for Venice which was still valiantly holding out against the Austrians. They embarked aboard 13 fishing boats and managed to sail to within 50 miles of the Venetian lagoon before being spotted by an Austrian flotilla and fired upon. Only two of Garibaldi's boats escaped.
He carried Anita through the shallows to a beach and they moved further inland. The ailing Anita was placed in a cart and they reached a farmhouse, where she died. Her husband broke down into inconsolable wailing and she was buried in a shallow grave near the farmhouse, but was transferred to a churchyard a few days later. Garibaldi had no time to lose; he and his faithful companion Leggero escaped across the Po towards Ravenna.At last Garibaldi was persuaded to abandon his insane attempts to reach Venice by sea and to return along less guarded routes on the perilous mountain paths across the Apennines towards the western coast of Italy. He visited his family in Nice for an emotional reunion with his mother and his three children but lacked the courage to tell them what had happened to their mother.
Q. Find the incorrect statement:
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Sudesh Kumari asked   •  3 hours ago

Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
The endless struggle between the flesh and the spirit found an end in Greek art. The Greek artists were unaware of it. They were spiritual materialists, never denying the importance of the body and ever seeing in the body a spiritual significance. Mysticism on the whole was alien to the Greeks, thinkers as they were. Thought and mysticism never go well together and there is little symbolism in Greek art. Athena was not a symbol of wisdom but an embodiment of it and her statues were beautiful grave women, whose seriousness might mark them as wise, but who were marked in no other way. The Apollo Belvedere is not a symbol of the sun, nor the Versailles Artemis of the moon. There could be nothing less akin to the ways of symbolism than their beautiful, normal humanity. Nor did decoration really interest the Greeks. In all their art they were preoccupied with what they wanted to express, not with ways of expressing it, and lovely expression, merely as lovely expression, did not appeal to them at all.
Greek art is intellectual art, the art of men who were clear and lucid thinkers, and it is therefore plain art. Artists than whom the world has never seen greater, men endowed with the spirit's best gift, found their natural method of expression in the simplicity and clarity which are the endowment of the unclouded reason. “Nothing in excess,” the Greek axiom of art, is the dictum of men who would brush aside all obscuring, entangling superfluity, and see clearly: plainly, unadorned, what they wished to express. Structure belongs in an especial degree to the province of the mind in art, and architectonics were pre-eminently a mark of the Greek. The power that made a unified whole of the trilogy of a Greek tragedy, that envisioned the sure, precise, decisive scheme of the Greek statue, found its most conspicuous expression in Greek architecture. The Greek temple is the creation, par excellence, of mind and spirit in equilibrium.
A Hindoo temple is a conglomeration of adornment. The lines of the building are completely hidden by the decorations. Sculptured figures and ornaments crowd its surface, stand out from it in thick masses, break it up into a bewildering series of irregular tiers. It is not a unity but a collection, rich, confused. It looks like something not planned but built this way and that as the ornament required. The conviction underlying it can be perceived: each bit of the exquisitely wrought detail had a mystical meaning and the temple‟s exterior was important only as a means for the artist to inscribe thereon the symbols of the truth. It is decoration, not architecture.
Again, the gigantic temples of Egypt, those massive immensities of granite which look as if only the power that moves in the earthquake were mighty enough to bring them into existence, are something other than the creation of geometry balanced by beauty. The science and the spirit are there, but what is there most of all is force, inhuman force, calm but tremendous, overwhelming. It reduces to nothingness all that belongs to man. He is annihilated. The Egyptian architects were possessed by the consciousness of the awful, irresistible domination of the ways of nature; they had no thought to give to the insignificant atom that was man.
Greek architecture of the great age is the expression of men who were, first of all, intellectual artists, kept firmly within the visible world by their mind, but, only second to that, lovers of the human world. The Greek temple is the perfect expression of the pure intellect illumined by the spirit. No other great buildings anywhere approach its simplicity. In the Parthenon straight columns rise to plain capitals; a pediment is sculptured in bold, relief; there is nothing more. And yet-here is the Greek miracle-this absolute simplicity of structure is alone in majesty of beauty among all the temples and cathedrals and palaces of the world. Majestic but human, truly Greek. No superhuman force as in Egypt; no strange supernatural shapes as in India; the Parthenon is the home of humanity! At ease, calm, ordered, sure of itself and the world. The Greeks flung a challenge to nature in the fullness of their joyous strength. They set their temples on the summit of a hill overlooking the wide sea, outlined against the circle of the sky. They would build what was more beautiful than hill and sea and sky and greater than all these. It matters not at all if the temple is large or small; one never thinks of the size. It matters not how much it is in ruins. A few white columns dominate the lofty height at Sunion as securely as the greatmass of the Parthenon dominates all the sweep of sea and land around Athens. To the Greek architect man was the master of the world. His mind could understand its laws; his spirit could discover its beauty.
Q. According to the passage, what conception of man can be inferred from Egyptian architecture?
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Krishna asked   •  7 hours ago

Read the passage carefully and answer within the context
Viruses, infectious particles consisting of nucleic acid packaged in a protein coat (the capsid), are difficult to resist. Unable to reproduce outside a living cell, viruses reproduce only by subverting the genetic mechanisms of a host cell. In one kind of viral life cycle, the virus first binds to the cell’s surface, then penetrates the cell and sheds its capsid. The exposed viral nucleic acid produces new viruses from the contents of the cell. Finally, the cell releases the viral progeny, and a new cell cycle of infection begins. The human body responds to a viral infection by producing antibodies: complex, highly specific proteins that selectively bind to foreign molecules such as viruses. An antibody can either interfere with a virus’s ability to bind to a cell, or can prevent it from releasing its nucleic acid.
Unfortunately, the common cold, produced most often by rhinoviruses, is intractable to antiviral defense. Humans have difficulty resisting colds because rhinoviruses are so diverse, including at least 100 strains. The strains differ most in the molecular structure of the proteins in their capsids. Since disease-fighting antibodies bind to the capsid, an antibody developed to protect against one rhinovirus strain is useless against other strains. Different antibodies must be produced for each strain.
A defense against rhinoviruses might nonetheless succeed by exploiting hidden similarities among the rhinovirus strains. For example, most rhinovirus strains bind to the same kind of molecule (delta-receptors) on a cell’s surface when they attack human cells. Colonno, taking advantage of these common receptors, devised a strategy for blocking the attachment of rhinoviruses to their appropriate receptors. Rather than fruitlessly searching for an antibody that would bind to all rhinoviruses, Colonno realized that an antibody binding to the common receptors of a human cell would prevent rhinoviruses from initiating an infection. Because human cells normally do not develop antibodies to components of their own cells, Colonno injected human cells into mice, which did produce an antibody to the common receptor. In isolated human cells, this antibody proved to be extraordinarily effective at thwarting the rhinovirus. Moreover, when the antibody was given to chimpanzees, it inhibited rhinoviral growth, and in humans it lessened both the severity and duration of cold symptoms.
Another possible defense against rhinoviruses was proposed by Rossman, who described rhinoviruses’ detailed molecular structure. Rossman showed that protein sequences common to all rhinovirus strains lie at the base of a deep “canyon” scoring each face of the capsid. The narrow opening of this canyon possibly prevents the relatively large antibody molecules from binding to the common sequence, but smaller molecules might reach it. Among these smaller, non - antibody molecules, some might bind to the common sequence, lock the nucleic acid in its coat, and thereby prevent the virus from reproducing.
Q. It can be inferred from the passage that a cell lacking delta-receptors will be
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Prachiti Marekar asked   •  9 hours ago

The passage given below is followed by four summaries. choose the option that best captures the author ’s position.
To me, a “classic” means precisely the opposite of what my predecessors understood: a work is classical by reason of its resistance to contemporaneity and supposed universality, by reason of its capacity to indicate human particularity and difference in that past epoch. The classic is not what tells me about shared humanity–or, more truthfully put, what lets me recognize myself as already present in the past, what nourishes in me the illusion that everything has been like me and has existed only to prepare the way for me. Instead, the classic is what gives access to radically different forms of human consciousness for any given generation of readers, and thereby expands for them the range of possibilities of what it means to be a human being.
(2017)
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Satish Karavadi asked   •  14 hours ago

Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.
Mr. Pyare Lal has to schedule six different seminars, one each on a different subject among Management Applications, Qualitative Research, Entrepreneurship, Strategic Marketing, Change Management and Cashless Transactions. Each of these seminars is organized on a different day from Monday to Saturday in a week and each of these seminars is handled by a different professor among Govind Rajan, Amit Shukla, Bharat Jain, Prakash Jha, Sravan Murthy and Gokul Roy.
The following information is also known.
(i) Amit Shukla handled the seminar on Entrepreneurship but not before the seminar handled by Bharat Jain.
(ii) The seminar on Change Management is held either on the first day or on the last day of the week
(iii) Gokul Roy handled the seminar on Thursday.
(iv) The seminars on Strategic Marketing and Qualitative Research are to be organized on two consecutive days and neither of them is organized on Wednesday.
(v) Govind Rajan will handle his seminar on exactly the 3rd day after the day on which Sravan Murthy handles his seminar,
(vi) The seminar on Strategic Marketing is to be held on the immediately next day after Bharat Jain handles his seminar and Bharat Jain will not handle his seminar on the first day.
Q. Who handled the seminar on Qualitative Research?
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Sathvik Hussey asked   •  15 hours ago

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follows:
The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model of first clarifying goals, assessing the problem, formulating options, estimating likelihoods of success, making a decision, and only then taking action to implement the decision. Rather, in their day-by-day tactical manoeuvres, these senior executives rely on what is vaguely termed “intuition” to manage a network of interrelated problems that require them to deal with ambiguity, inconsistency, novelty, and surprise; and to integrate action into the process to thinking.
Generations of writers on management have recognized that some practicing managers rely heavily on intuition. In general, however, such writers display a poor grasp of what intuition is. Some see it as the opposite of rationality; others view it as an excuse for capriciousness.
Isenberg’s recent research on the cognitive processes of senior managers reveals that managers’ intuition is neither of these. Rather, senior managers use intuition in at least five distinct ways. First, they intuitively sense when a problem exists. Second, managers rely on intuition to perform well-learned behaviour patterns rapidly. This intuition is not arbitrary or irrational, but is based on years of painstaking practice and hands-on experience that build skills. A third function of intuition is to synthesize isolated bits of data and practice into an integrated picture, often in an “Aha!” experience. Fourth, some managers use intuition as a check on the results of more rational analysis. Most senior executives are familiar with the formal decision analysis models and tools, and those who use such systematic methods for reaching decisions are occasionally leery of solutions suggested by these methods which run counter to their sense of the correct course of action. Finally, managers can use intuition to bypass in-depth analysis and move rapidly to engender a plausible solution. Used in this way, intuition is an almost instantaneous cognitive process in which a manager recognizes familiar patterns.
One of the implications of the intuitive style of executive management is that “thinking” is inseparable from acting. Since managers often “know” what is right before they can analyze and explain it, they frequently act first and explain later. Analysis is inextricably tied to action in thinking/acting cycles, in which managers develop thoughts about their companies and organizations not by analyzing a problematic situation and then acting, but by acting and analyzing in close concert.
Given the great uncertainty of many of the management issues that they face, senior managers often instigate a course of action simply to learn more about an issue. They then use the results of the action to develop a more complete understanding of the issue. One implication of thinking/acting cycles is that action is often part of defining the problem, not just of implementing the solution.
Q. According to the passage, senior managers use intuition in all of the following ways EXCEPT to
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