Human Races, Others Products and Tribal Groups in India UPSC Notes | EduRev

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UPSC : Human Races, Others Products and Tribal Groups in India UPSC Notes | EduRev

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Human Races
Caucasoids
• This group includes the European people, the Semitic People (Arabs and Jews) and the Indo-Aryans.

Skin colour varies from very fair, as in the North European peoples to brown in India and South West Asia.
• The hair is straight or wavy (or sometimes frizzy) and may be blonde, brown or black. The nose is generally long and narrow.
• Numerous sub-types are recognised within this group such as
(a) the tall fair-haired, blue eyed Nordic peoples;
(b) the stocky, brown-haired, brown-eyed Alpine peoples and
(c) the short, slightly built Mediterranean peoples with dark hair and eyes. These three groups, now inextricably inter-mixed, inhabit Europe and the Middle East.

Negroids
• The Negroid peoples live chiefly in Africa, South of the Sahara and include many sub-groups such as the Nilotic and Hamitic peoples of eastern Africa, the Bantus of Central and Southern Africa and various groups of West Africa.
• They also include a number of minor groups such as the Bushmen, the Pygmies and the Negrito peoples of India and south-east Asia as well as the Melanesians of the south-west pacific.
• All these people have crinkly or frizzy hair and broad, rather flat noses.
• They are generally long headed, i.e. their heads are longer than they are broad and their skin colour varies from black to brown or yellowish.
• Their stature too is varied; the negroes of Sudan and Central Africa are probably the tallest people, on average, in the world, but the Pygmies, also of Central Africa are the shortest.

Mongoloids
• The Mongoloid peoples inhabit northern, eastern and south-eastern Asia and were the original inhabitants of the Americas.
• The eye, with its characteristic fold of skin on the upper lid, and the hair type, which is lank and straight, are the chief distinguishing features, but there are many minor differences between sub-groups. Short-stature is a less reliable factor.
• The Mongols of Central Asia gave their name to the group, which also includes the Chinese, Japanese, Burmese, Thais, Vietnamese, Kampucheans and Malays.
• It also includes the Eskimos and similar peoples of northern Siberia such as the Yakuts and Samoyeds, the Red Indians of North America and the Amerindians of South America.
• Many of the American groups have evolved differently in isolation so that while the people of Tierra del Fuego at the southern tip of South America look almost exactly like Chinese people; the tall, bronze skinned, hook-nosed Indians, of the Great plains have less in common with Asian groups.

Races and Migration
• G. Taylor, the recognised geographer of the 210th century, had contributed a great deal towards the development of raciology. He has evolved a theory, known as the “Migration Zone Theory of Race Evolution”. He has given Five principles of Race evolution.
• “The most Primitive races are found pushed, to the periphery” i.e. in Tasmania, Cape Colony, Greenland and Brazil. This is the first principle of his race evolution.
• “The last evolved races are found in the centre, where stimuli leading to evolution have been greatest throughout the ages.”
•  “Where the racial evolution has progressed farthest, the buried strata of more primitive tribes will be most numerous.” (This buried evidence includes skeletons, artefacts, place-names, folk-lore etc.)
•  “The order of evolution is the same, whether we move outwards from the centre of evolution across the zones or downwards at the centre of the evolution through the strata.”
• The fifth principle of race evolution—”It follows that the primitive races are found alive pre cisely where they did not originate.” The evidence in Europe, Africa, South Asia and Australia shows an age-long centrifugal movement from central Asia, American evidence is more complex but of the same kind.
• Europe exhibits through an abundance of relics, the existence of Neanderthal as the earl-iest and most primitive man. The Neanderthal is traced almost everywhere in Southern, western and central Europe. This race can, therefore, be graded as Stratum I, which has an association with the early paleolithic, in the study of races of the old world.
• The Negrito race, the evidence of which is increasing year after year, comes next in the study of races of the old world. This race, therefore, graded by Taylor in Stratum II.
• The Third stratum is the Negroid. Towards the end of the Paleolithic age these would have been quite abundant. Their existence is universal through Africa to Melanesian.
• The Stratum IV, which has a world-wide existence and which has probably penetrated through America, is the Australiod.
• The presence of this type through Australia, Indonesia, south-east Asia and south India, indicates its universality. Some types similar to the Australian were common in Europe in the early Paleolithic.
• The Stratum V, labelled as Mediterranean has an affiliation ‘with the pro-Magnon folk of upper Paleolithic age.
• Stratum VI represents the Nordics which, according to Taylor, is a specialised upper zone of the Mediterranean.
• Stratum VII or the latest stratum represents the most abundant of living races of Alpine or Mongolian.

Major Products of Various Natural Regions
•  Equatorial Region: These regions have dense forests of evergreen trees but they are not suitable for human habitation. Some medicinal forest products are gathered.
•  Tropical Grasslands: Agriculture and cattle-rearing are the chief occupations and wool, skins and hides the chief commercial products.
•  Tropical Monsoon Regions: Agriculture is the most important occupation and rice, jute and sugarcane the chief crops.
•  Tropical Deserts: Situated on the western side of the continents near the tropics, these regions are harsh from the human comfort point of view. Agriculture is possible only with the help of irrigation. Date is an important food product. Oil is the chief mineral resource of the middle-eastern countries.
•  Mediterranean Region: These regions are most famous for citrus fruits, grapes and the cultivation of cereals. Sheep and goats are also important.
•  Mid-latitude Deserts: In these regions, pastoral nomadic tribes rear cattle. Agriculture has not been developed.
•  Temperate Grasslands: These areas (steppes) of rich soil are good for the cultivation of cereals such as wheat. Extensive mechanised farming is practised in the temperate grasslands of North America, South America and Russia. Meat, wool and dairy products are also important commercial products.
•  Cool Temperate Regions: On the western margins of continents in these regions, cereals are grown. Cattle are raised for dairy products and fishing is also important. In the eastern margins, coniferous forests provide soft wood. Lumbering, fishing and farming are also important.
•  Cold Temperate Regions: Temperate type forests grow here. Lumbering, fishing, hunting and trapping are important. The paper industry has also developed.
•  Polar Tundra Regions: Too cold for most human activity. Only mineral extraction can attract a large concentration of people in the future. Gold and oil are found in Alaska and nickel in Siberia.

Chief Agricultural Products and the Chief Producers
•  Wheat: Grows better in the prairie and Steppe regions and areas with temperate climate. Chief producers—China, USA and Russia.
•  Rice: A crop of humid and hot-to-warm climates and grown mainly in regions of tropical monsoon climate. Chief producers—China and India.
•  Maize: The most important crop among coarse grains. Chief producers—USA and China.
•  Millets: This group of crops includes jowar, bajra and ragi. Chief producers—India and China.
•  Barley: Rich source of protein. Chief producers—Baltic countries, Russia and USA.
•  Oil Seeds: Most of these are tropical and sub-tropical crops. India is the leading producer of groundnuts, USA and China of soyabean, and India and Brazil of castor seed.
•  Tea: A crop raised in monsoon  climates on mountain slopes. Chief producers—India and Sri Lanka.
•  Coffee: Also grown in tropical (humid) climate. Chief producers—Brazil and Colombia.
•  Sugarcane: Mainly a tropical crop. Chief producers—India, Cuba and Brazil.
•  Tobacco: Grows in various types of climate. Chief producers—China and USA.
•  Rubber: Requires humid tropical climate. Chief producers—Malaysia and Indonesia.
•  Cocoa: Needing a tropical climate, it is grown mainly in Africa. Chief producers—Ghana and Nigeria.
•  Cotton: Chief producers—USA, Russia and China. The leading producers of long staple cotton are USA and Egypt. Cotton requires tropical and subtropical climate.
•  Jute: Also a crop of the tropical climate. Chief producers—Bangladesh and India.
•  Flax: A fibre crop of the countries of northern Europe.
•  Hemp: Also a fibre crop. Chief producers—Russia, Baltic States, Poland and Italy.
•  Silk: The rearing of silkworms for silk is called sericulture and has been traditionally an occupation of the Orient. Chief producers of raw silk—Japan and China.
•  Grapes: Grown in Mediterranean temperate climate. Chief producers—France and Italy.
•  Apples: Require temperate climate. Chief producers—France and USA.
•  Potatoes: Also need temperate climate. Chief producers—Russia and Poland.

Animal Products and Chief Producers
•  Among animal products, wool, cattle, meat, pork and mutton, dairy products and fish are the most important.
•  Wool: Wool is of different types (classified on the basis of quality) and different countries produce wool of different grade. On the whole Australia and Russia are the leading producers.
•  Cattle Meat: Although India has the largest cattle population in the world, it does not stand anywhere in the production of cattle meat. USA and Russia are the largest producers of beef. Chicago, USA is the largest meat market of the world and is called ‘Meat City’.
•  Pork and Mutton: The largest producer of pork is China followed by Russia. The leading producers of mutton are New Zealand and Australia.
•  Dairy Products: The dairy industry is well-developed in temperate lands. The largest producers of butter are Baltic States, Russia and France, and the biggest quantity of cheese comes from USA and India.
•  Fish: The largest producers of fish, in terms of total catch, are Japan, China, Russia and Norway. The most important fishing grounds are the North and South Atlantic and
North Pacific regions.

Important Minerals and Leading Producers
•  Aluminium: Obtained from bauxite which is the ore (the raw material of any mineral). Chief producers—Australia, USA and Russia.
•  Asbestos: Canada and Rhodesia.
•  Bauxite: Australia and Jamaica.
•  Coal: An important energy mineral. Chief producers—USA, China, Ukraine and Russia.
•  Copper: USA, Chile and Armenia.
•  Chromium: South Africa and Russia.
•  Diamonds: Zaire and South Africa.
•  Gold: South Africa and USA.
•  Iron Ore: USA and Australia. Iron ore is the basic raw material for the iron and steel industry.
•  Lead: Lead occurs in association with zinc. Chief producers—USA, Russia and Australia.
•  Manganese: South Africa, Russia and India. Manganese is important for the iron and steel industry.
•  Mercury: A metal which normally occurs in a liquid state. Chief producers—Italy and Spain.
•  Mica: India and USA.
•  Mineral Oil: Commonly called the petroleum or crude oil. Chief producers—USA and Saudi Arabia.
•  Natural Gas: Also a source of energy like mineral oil. These are mixtures of carbon and other combustible gases and are called hydro-carbons. Chief producers—USA and Russia.
•  Nickel: Canada and USA.
•  Petroleum Products: Made by refining crude oil. Chief producers—Japan and USA.
•  Phosphate: An important source of fertilisers. Chief producers—USA and Russia.
•  Platinum: A precious metal. Chief producers—Canada and South Africa.
•  Silver: Mexico and Canada.
•  Sulphur: Italy and Japan.
•  Salt (Rock Salt): USA and China.
•  Tin: Malaysia and Bolivia.
•  Tungsten: China.
•  Uranium: Basic raw material for atomic energy. Chief producers—Canada and USA.
•  Zinc: Canada, Peru, Australia and USA.

Chief Industrial Products and Leading Producers
•  Agriculture, cattle rearing and mining, all fall under the category of primary activities. Industrial production is referred to as secondary activities. The important industries and leading countries in respect of each of these are:
•  Cotton Textiles: USA and India.
•  Woollen Textiles: Russia and Japan.
•  Silk Textiles: Japan and USA (the US industry is based upon imported raw silk).
•  Rayon Textiles: USA and Japan. Rayon is a man-made fibre.
•  Jute Textiles: The jute industry produces mainly gunny bags and coarse carpets. Now-a-days, it is blended with wool or cotton to produce better quality textiles. Chief producers—India and Bangladesh.
•  Iron and Steel: USA, Japan and Germany.
•  Machine Tools: USA and Germany.
•  Locomotives: USA.
•  Automobile Industry: USA and Japan.
•  Aircraft Industry: USA and UK.
•  Shipbuilding Industry: Japan and Sweden—in terms of tonnage launched.
•  Paper and Pulp Industry: A forestbased industry, located mainly in higher latitudes. Pulp is the basic raw material for paper and, according to the process involved, pulp can be mechanical and chemical. The chief producers of mechanical and chemical pulp are USA and Canada. The chief producers of newsprint are Canada and USA.
•  Cement Industry: USA.
•  Fertilisers: The leading producers of nitrogenous fertilisers and superphosphate are USA and Russia. The chief producers of potash fertilisers are Russia and Germany. On the whole, the leading producers are USA and Russia.

Tribal Groups of the world
•  Bantus: Negroes of central and southern Africa.
•  Bedouins: Nomadic tribe of Arab stock in Africa and Southwest Asia.
•  Berbers: Tribals of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia.
•  Bindibu: Natives of Western Australia.
•  Eskimos: Natives of the Tundra region (very cold high latitude areas) in Canada and Greenland.
•  Gaucho: Nomads of Pampas in Uruguay and Argentina.
•  Hamites: Dark-skinned Muslims in North-West Africa.
•  Kirghiz: People of the steppe-type region in Asia.
•  Kikuyu: A tribe of east Africa.
•  Lapps: People of the European tundra.
•  Masai: A Negro tribe of east Africa.
•  Papuans: Tribals of New Guinea.
•  Pygmies: Extremely short-statured people of the Congo (Zaire) Basin.
•  Red Indians: Aborigines of North America.
•  Samoyeds: People of the Asiatic tundra (northern Russia).
•  Semites: Jews and Ethiopeans.
•  Tartars: A mixed group of people in Siberia.
•  Veddas: The racial stock of Sri Lanka.
•  Yakuts: People in the tundra region in Russia.

Tribal Groups in India
•  There are more than 50 tribal groups in India. Most of the tribes belong basically to the Negrito, Australoid and Mongoloid racial stock. Important tribal groups:.
•  Abors and Aptanis: Arunachal Pradesh.
•  Badagas:Nilgiri (TN).
•  Baiga:Madhya Pradesh.
•  Bhils:Madhya Pradesh and Rajsthan, some in Gujarat  and Maharashtra.
•  Bhot : Himachal Pradesh.
•  Bhotias : Garhwal and Kumaon regions of  U.P.
•  Chakma : Tripura.
•  Chenchus : Andhra Pradesh,  Orissa.
•  Gaddis : Himachal Pradesh.
•  Garos : Meghalaya.
•  Gonds : Madhya Pradesh.  Also in Bihar,  Orissa and A.P.
•  Gujjars : Himachal Pradesh.
•  Jarawas : Little Andamans.
•  Khas : Jaunsar-Babar area in U.P.
•  Khasis : Assam, Meghalaya.
•  Khonds : Orissa.
•  Kol : Madhya Pradesh.
•  Kotas:Nilgiri (Tamil Nadu).
•  Kuke:Manipur.
•  Lepchas:Sikkim.
•  Lushais:Mizoram.
•  Murias:Bastar (Madhya Pradesh).
•  Mikirs : Assam.
•  Mundas:Bihar, Orissa, W.B. .
•  Nagas (Angami, Sema, Ao, Tangkul, Lahora)      : Nagaland, some in Assam and NEFA region.
•  Oraons (also  called Kurukh): Bihar, Orissa, W.B.
•  Onges : Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
•  Santhals : Birbhum region in Bengal, Hazaribagh, Purnea in Bihar, Mayurbhanj in Orissa and Dumka district in Bihar.
•  Sentinelese : Sentinel Island, Andaman and Nicobar.
•  Shompens : Andaman and Nicobar.
•  Todas : Nilgiri (Tamil Nadu).
•  Urails : Kerala.
•  Warlis : Maharashtra.

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