UNITED NATIONS ORGANISATION
• World’s largest international organisation and a successor of League of Nations (League of Nations was formed after the Ist world War, but it failed).
• The Charter of the UN was signed at San Francisco on June 26, 1945, at a meeting of the representatives of 50 states, representing 2/3rd of the world population.
• The name United Nations was given at the instance of US President Roosevelt.
• The Charter or Constitution was formed at Dumbarton Oaks (Washington DC) Conference by USSR, UK, US and China.
• Formally came into existence on Oct 24, 1945.
• First regular session was held in London in Jan, 1946 and Trygve Lie (Norway) was elected as the first Secretary-General.
• Headquarters located at First Avenue, UN Plaza, New York City, New York, US. It is a 17 acre tract of land donated by John D. Rockfeller. The building is 39 storeys.
• The present membership of UN is 193. Switzerland was the 190th (in2002), East Timor was the 191st (in 2002), Montenegro became the 192nd member in 2006 & South Sudan became the 193rd in 2011.
• US, UK, China, France and Russia are the permanent members of the Security Co
SOME IMPORTANT U.N.AGENCIES
|Sr. No.||Name of Agency||Established in||Headquarters||Purpose|
|1||International Labour Organisation (ILO)||1919||Geneva||To improve conditions and living standard of workers.|
|2||World Health Organisation (WHO)||1948||Geneva||Attainment of highest possible level of health by all people.|
|3||United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)||1946||Paris||To promote collaboration among nations through education, science and culture.|
|4||International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)||1957||Vienna||To promote peaceful uses of atomic energy.|
|5||United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF)||1946||New York||To promote children’s welfare all over the world.|
|6||United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)||1950||Geneva||To provide protection to refugees.|
|7||United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA)||1967||New York||For formulating population policies.|
|8||International Fund for Agricultural Development||1977||Rome||For financing agricultural projects in the world to raise the economic growth.|
|9||United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)||1964||Geneva||Promotes international trade to accelerate economic growth of developing countries.|
|10||International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO)||1947||Montreal||Promotes safety of international aviation.|
|11||International Monetary Fund (IMF)||1945||Washington D. C.||Promotes international monetary cooperation.|
|12||International Finance Corporation (IFC)||1956||Washington D. C.||Promotes economic development by encouraging private enterprise in its member countries.|
|13||Universal Portal Union (UPU)||1947||Berne||Improve various postal services in the world.|
|14||United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP)||1972||Nairobi||Promotes international co-operation in human environment.|
|15||United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO)||1967||Geneva||Sets international regulations for radio, telegraph, and telephone and space radio communication.|
|16||Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO)||1945||Rome||To improve living condition of total population.|
|17||International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)||1945||Washington D. C.||Development of Economies of members by facilitating investment of capitals by providing loans.|
|18||World Meteorological Organisation (WMO)||1950||Geneva||Promote international exchange of weather reports.|
|19||World Trade Organisation (WTO)||1995||Geneva||Setting rules for world trade to reduce tariffs.|
|20||United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)||New York||Help developing countries increase the wealth producing capabilities of their natural and human resources.|
|21||Inter Government Maritime Consultative Organisation (IMCO)||1958||London||Promotes co-operation on technical matters of maritime safety, navigation and encourages anti-pollution measures.|
|22||International Development Association (IDA)||1960||Washington D. C.||An affiliate of the World Bank. Aims to help under- developed countries raise living standards.|
|23||International Tele-communication Union (ITU)||1947||Geneva||Sets international regulations for radio telegraph, telephone and space radio communications.|
|24||United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)||1965||New York||Provides training and research to help facilitate UN objectives of world peace and security and of economic and social progress.|
|25||United Nations Relief and Work for Palestine Refugees (UNRWA)||1949||New York||Provides basic amenities and education for the victims of Arab-Israel War|
|26||United Nations Fund For Population Activities (UNFPA)||1967||New York||Studying population dynamics, collecting population data, formulating and evolving population policies, family planning and related programmes.|
OTHER INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS AND GROUPS
|1||The Common Wealth|
|3||Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)|
|4||Asian Development Bank (ADB)|
|5||Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN)|
|6.||Common Wealth of Independent States (CIS)|
|7||Group of 8 or G-8|
|8||Group of 15 (G-15)|
|9||Group of 77 (G-77)|
|10||International Criminal Police Organisation (INTERPOL)|
|11||International Olympic Committee (IOC)|
|12||International Organisation For Standardisation (ISO)|
|13||International Red Cross And Red Crescent Movements|
|14||Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)|
|16||North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)|
|17||Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)|
|18||South Asian Association For Regional Cooperation (SAARC)|
|19||World Meteorological Organisation (WMO)|
|20||Amnesty International (AI)|
|21||Organisation Of The Islamic Conference (OIC)|
|22||Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)|
|23||World Wildlife Fund For Nature (WWF)|