United Nations & other World Organisations CLAT Notes | EduRev

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UNITED NATIONS ORGANISATION
United Nations & other World Organisations CLAT Notes | EduRev
• World’s largest international organisation and a successor of League of Nations (League of Nations was formed after the Ist world War, but it failed).
• The Charter of the UN was signed at San Francisco on June 26, 1945, at a meeting of the representatives of 50 states, representing 2/3rd of the world population.
• The name United Nations was given at the instance of US President Roosevelt.
• The Charter or Constitution was formed at Dumbarton Oaks (Washington DC) Conference by USSR, UK, US and China.
• Formally came into existence on Oct 24, 1945.
• First regular session was held in London in Jan, 1946 and Trygve Lie (Norway) was elected as the first Secretary-General.
• Headquarters located at First Avenue, UN Plaza, New York City, New York, US. It is a 17 acre tract of land donated by John D. Rockfeller. The building is 39 storeys.
• The present membership of UN is 193. Switzerland was the 190th (in2002), East Timor was the 191st (in 2002), Montenegro became the 192nd member in 2006 & South Sudan became the 193rd in 2011.

NOTE
• US, UK, China, France and Russia are the permanent members of the Security Co

SOME IMPORTANT U.N.AGENCIES

Sr. No. Name of AgencyEstablished inHeadquartersPurpose
1International Labour Organisation (ILO)1919GenevaTo improve conditions and living standard of workers.
2World Health Organisation (WHO)1948GenevaAttainment of highest possible level of health by all people.
3United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)1946ParisTo promote collaboration among nations through education, science and culture.
4International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)1957ViennaTo promote peaceful uses of atomic energy.
5United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF)1946New YorkTo promote children’s welfare all over the world.
6United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)1950GenevaTo provide protection to refugees.
7United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA)1967New YorkFor formulating population policies.
8International Fund for Agricultural Development1977RomeFor financing agricultural projects in the world to raise the economic growth.
9United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)1964GenevaPromotes international trade to accelerate economic growth of developing countries.
10International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO)1947MontrealPromotes safety of international aviation.
11International Monetary Fund (IMF)1945Washington D. C.Promotes international monetary cooperation.
12International Finance Corporation (IFC)1956Washington D. C.Promotes economic development by encouraging private enterprise in its member countries.
13Universal Portal Union (UPU)1947BerneImprove various postal services in the world.
14United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP)1972NairobiPromotes international co-operation in human environment.
15United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO)1967GenevaSets international regulations for radio, telegraph, and telephone and space radio communication.
16Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO)1945RomeTo improve living condition of total population.
17International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)1945Washington D. C.Development of Economies of members by facilitating investment of capitals by providing loans.
18World Meteorological Organisation (WMO)1950GenevaPromote international exchange of weather reports.
19World Trade Organisation (WTO)1995GenevaSetting rules for world trade to reduce tariffs.
20United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) New YorkHelp developing countries increase the wealth producing capabilities of their natural and human resources.
21Inter Government Maritime Consultative Organisation (IMCO)1958LondonPromotes co-operation on technical matters of maritime safety, navigation and encourages anti-pollution measures.
22International Development Association (IDA)1960Washington D. C.An affiliate of the World Bank. Aims to help under- developed countries raise living standards.
23International Tele-communication Union (ITU)1947GenevaSets international regulations for radio telegraph, telephone and space radio communications.
24United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)1965New YorkProvides training and research to help facilitate UN objectives of world peace and security and of economic and social progress.
25United Nations Relief and Work for Palestine Refugees (UNRWA)1949New YorkProvides basic amenities and education for the victims of Arab-Israel War
26United Nations Fund For Population Activities (UNFPA)1967New YorkStudying population dynamics, collecting population data, formulating and evolving population policies, family planning and related programmes.


OTHER INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS AND GROUPS

1The Common Wealth
  • It was originally known as ‘The British Commonwealth of Nations’. It is an association of sovereign and independent states which formally made up the British Empire.
  • Headquarters: London.
  • Members: 53
  • The British Monarch (Queen Elizabeth II) is the symbolic head of the commonwealth.
  • Commonwealth heads of government meet (CHOGM) is held in every 2 years.
2Arab League
  • Established: March. 22, 1945.
  • Objective: To promote economic, social, political and military cooperation.
  • Members: 22
  • Headquarters: Cairo
3Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
  • Established: Nov, 1989
  • Objective: To promote trade and investment in the Pacific basin.
  • Member: 21
4Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  • Established: Dec. 19, 1966
  • Objective: To promote regional economic cooperation
  • Member: 67
  • Headquarters: Manila
5Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN)
  • Established: Aug. 8, 1967
  • Objective: Regional, economic, social and culture cooperation among the non-communist countries of South-East Asia.
  • Member (10): Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar, Cambodia.
  • Headquarters: Djakarta
6.Common Wealth of Independent States (CIS)
  • Established: Dec. 8, 1991
  • Objective: To coordinate inter-common wealth relations and to provide a mechanism for the orderly dissolution of the USSR.
  • Members: 11
  • Headquarters: Kerava (Belarus)
7Group of 8 or G-8
  • Established: Sept. 22, 1985
  • Objective: To promote co-operation among major non-communist economic powers.
  • Member: France, Germany, Japan, UK, US, Canada, Italy, plus Russia (added later)
8Group of 15 (G-15)
  • Established: 1989
  • Objective: To promote economic co-operation among developing nations.
  • Members: 17
9Group of 77 (G-77)
  • Established: Oct., 1967
  • Objective: To promote economic co-operation among developing nations.
  • Members: 131
10International Criminal Police Organisation (INTERPOL)
  • Established: 1914
  • Objective: To promote international cooperation among criminal police authorities.
  • Members: 190
  • Headquarters: France
11International Olympic Committee (IOC)
  • Established: June. 23, 1894·
  • Objective: To promote the Olympic ideals and administer Olympic Games.
  • Members: 105
  • Headquarters: Switzerland
12International Organisation For Standardisation (ISO)
  • Established: Feb., 1947
  • Objective: To promote the development of international standards
  • Members: 163
  • Headquarters: Switzerland
13International Red Cross And Red Crescent Movements
  • Established: 1928
  • Objective: To promote worldwide humanitarian aid
  • Headquarters: Geneva
14Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)
  • Established: Sept. 1961
  • Objective: Political co-operation and separate itself from both USA and USSR (in the cold-war era)
  • Members:120.
  • The credit of evolving the concept goes to Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru. The other contributors were Marshal Tito (President of Yugoslavia), Dr. Sukarno (President of Indonesia) and General Nasser (President of Egypt). Bandung conference in Indonesia became the forum for the birth of NAM.
15European Union
  • Established: Apr. 8, 1965. Effective on July 1, 1967.
  • Objective: To create a united Europe in which member countries would have such strong economic and political bones that war would cease to be a recurring fact.
  • Members: 28 (The ten new countries which joined in 2004 are Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovania).Croatia joined in 2013.
  • Headquarters: Brussels (Belgium). The common European, currency, Euro, was launched on Jan. 1, 1999.
16North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)
  • Established: April 4, 1949
  • Objective: Mutual defence and cooperation
  • Members: 28
  • Headquarters: Brussels
17Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
  • Established: Sept, 1959
  • Objective: Attempts to set world prices by controlling oil production and also persues member interest in trade and development.
  • Members: 12 (Algeria, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, UAE, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Ecuador and Venezuela).
  • Headquarters: Vienna (Austria)
18South Asian Association For Regional Cooperation (SAARC)
  • Established: Dec. 8, 1985
  • Objective: To promote economic, social and culture cooperation   Members (8): Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan.
  • Headquarters: Kathmandu.
19World Meteorological Organisation (WMO)
  • Established: Oct. 11, 1947, Effective from April 4, 1951.
  • Objective: Specialised UN Agency concerned with meteorological cooperation.
  • Members: 188
  • Headquarters: Geneva
20Amnesty International (AI)
  • Established: 1961
  • Objective: To keep a watch over human rights violation worldwide.  Headquarter: London
  • Got Nobel Prize in 1977 for Peace.
21Organisation Of The Islamic Conference (OIC)
  • Established: 1969
  • Objective: To promote Islamic solidarity among member states and to consolidate cooperation among members.
  • Members: 57
  • Headquarters: Saudi Arabia
22Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)
  • Established: June. 7, 2002.
  • Objective: To develop mutual cooperation.
  • Members: Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kirghizstan and Tajikistan.
23World Wildlife Fund For Nature (WWF)
  • Established: Sept. 11, 1961
  • Objective: To save the wildlife from extinction
  • Members: All the countries of the world
  • Headquarters: Gland (Switzerland)
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