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Features of Indian constitution Related: NCERT Textbook - Constituti...
The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. It is a living document, an instrument which makes the government system work. It lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles, establishes the structure, procedures, powers and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles and the duties of citizens. It is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world, containing 449 articles in 25 parts, 12 schedules, 5 appendices and 101 Amendments.
Salient Features of the Indian Constitution.
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Features of Indian constitution Related: NCERT Textbook - Constituti...
Features of the Indian Constitution


The Indian Constitution, as outlined in the NCERT textbook "Constitution: Why and How?" for Class 11 Political Science, is a comprehensive document that lays down the framework for the functioning of the Indian government. It incorporates several key features that make it unique and significant.

1. Lengthy and Detailed

- The Indian Constitution is one of the lengthiest and most detailed constitutions in the world, consisting of a Preamble and 470 articles, divided into 25 parts.
- It covers a wide range of topics, including fundamental rights, directive principles, the structure of the government, emergency provisions, and more.

2. Federal System with Unitary Features

- The Indian Constitution establishes a federal system of government, where power is divided between the central government and the state governments.
- However, it also includes unitary features that give more power to the central government, such as the ability to override state laws under certain circumstances.

3. Parliamentary Form of Government

- India follows a parliamentary form of government, where the President is the head of state and the Prime Minister is the head of government.
- The President is a nominal executive while the Prime Minister is the real executive who exercises most of the executive powers.

4. Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles

- The Indian Constitution guarantees fundamental rights to its citizens, including the right to equality, freedom of speech and expression, and the right to constitutional remedies.
- It also includes directive principles of state policy, which provide guidelines for the government to achieve social, economic, and political justice.

5. Secular State

- The Indian Constitution declares India as a secular state, ensuring equal treatment of all religions and prohibiting the state from favoring any particular religion.
- It allows individuals the freedom to practice and propagate any religion of their choice.

6. Independent Judiciary

- The Constitution establishes an independent judiciary, with the Supreme Court as the highest judicial body in the country.
- The judiciary acts as a guardian of the Constitution, interpreting and upholding its provisions, and ensuring justice and fairness.

7. Rigidity and Flexibility

- The Constitution has a mix of rigidity and flexibility. Some provisions can be amended by a special majority of the Parliament, while others require the consent of a majority of states.
- This allows for the Constitution to adapt to changing needs and circumstances while maintaining its core principles.

Overall, the Indian Constitution is a remarkable document that reflects the aspirations and values of its diverse population. Its features ensure a democratic, secular, and inclusive system of governance that upholds the rights and welfare of all citizens.
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Features of Indian constitution Related: NCERT Textbook - Constitution : Why and How?, Class 11, Political Science
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