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All questions of Geography for UPSC CSE Exam

Latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India is?
  • a)
    33 degree
  • b)
    35 degree
  • c)
    30 degree
  • d)
    32 degree
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Shail Chavan answered
Latitudinal and Longitudinal Extent of India

India is a country located in South Asia and is the seventh-largest country in the world in terms of land area. The latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India is given below:

Latitude:
- The latitudinal extent of India is between 8° 4' N and 37° 6' N.
- The Tropic of Cancer passes through the middle of the country at 23° 30' N.
- India is located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere.

Longitude:
- The longitudinal extent of India is between 68° 7' E and 97° 25' E.
- India is located mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere but a small portion of the country lies in the Western Hemisphere.

Significance of Latitudinal and Longitudinal Extent:
- The latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India determines its climate, topography, and vegetation.
- It helps in understanding the time zone of the country as India has a single time zone.
- It helps in understanding the location of India with respect to neighboring countries and oceans.

Conclusion:
In conclusion, the latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India is 30° N and 77° E respectively. It is important to understand the latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India as it helps in understanding the geography, climate, and location of the country.
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Consider the following statements:
1. North-South extent of India is lesser than the East-West extent.
2. India is located in the Eastern hemisphere.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
  • a)
    1 only
  • b)
    2 Only
  • c)
    Both 1 and 2
  • d)
    None of these
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Amit Kumar answered
Explanation:

1. The North-South extent of India is more than the East-West extent. India extends from 8°4'N to 37°6'N latitudes from south to north, making it about 3,214 kilometers. On the other hand, it extends from 68°7'E to 97°25'E longitudes from west to east, which is about 2,933 kilometers. So, the first statement is incorrect.

2. India is located in the Eastern hemisphere. The Prime Meridian (0° longitude) divides the world into the Eastern and Western hemispheres. India, being located between 68°7'E to 97°25'E longitudes, falls in the Eastern hemisphere. So, the second statement is correct.
 

Consider the following statements:
1. Constellations are groups of all celestial bodies.
2. Sun is not a part of a constellation.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
  • a)
    1 only
  • b)
    2 only
  • c)
    Both 1 and 2
  • d)
    Neither 1 nor 2
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Shahid Bhat answered
Group of stars making a familiar pattern like that of an animal is known as a constelation. Ex. Ursa Major- the greater bear and Ursa Minor- the lesser bear.
Sun is not part of constelation. It is a part of Galaxy , the milky way.
Hope the answer of tge question.

A landmass bounded by the sea on three sides is referred to as:
  • a)
    Coast
  • b)
    Peninsula
  • c)
    Island
  • d)
    None of the above
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Explanation:
A landmass bounded by the sea on three sides is referred to as a peninsula. The word peninsula comes from the Latin words "paene" meaning almost and "insula" meaning island. A peninsula is a landform surrounded by water on three sides and connected to a mainland on one side. Peninsulas are formed by various geological processes, such as erosion, submergence of land, and volcanic activity.

Characteristics of a Peninsula:
Some of the key characteristics of a peninsula are:

1. Surrounded by water on three sides: A peninsula is a landform that is surrounded by water on three sides. This means that it is connected to a larger landmass on one side.

2. Diverse geography: Peninsulas can have diverse geography, including mountains, hills, valleys, plains, and coastal areas.

3. Rich biodiversity: Due to their varied geography, peninsulas often have a rich biodiversity. They are home to numerous plant and animal species, including many that are endemic to the region.

4. Strategic location: Due to their location, peninsulas have often been strategic locations for trade, military, and political purposes.

Examples of Peninsulas:
Some of the well-known peninsulas in the world are:

1. Arabian Peninsula: The Arabian Peninsula is located in Southwest Asia and is surrounded by the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, and the Arabian Sea.

2. Balkan Peninsula: The Balkan Peninsula is located in Southeast Europe and is surrounded by the Adriatic Sea, the Aegean Sea, and the Black Sea.

3. Iberian Peninsula: The Iberian Peninsula is located in Southwest Europe and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.

4. Indian Peninsula: The Indian Peninsula is located in South Asia and is surrounded by the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea, and the Indian Ocean.

Conclusion:
In conclusion, a landmass bounded by the sea on three sides is known as a peninsula. Peninsulas have diverse geography, rich biodiversity, and are often strategic locations for trade, military, and political purposes. Some of the well-known peninsulas in the world are the Arabian Peninsula, the Balkan Peninsula, the Iberian Peninsula, and the Indian Peninsula.

Which of the following defines the northern frontiers of India?
  • a)
    Himalayan mountain range
  • b)
    Karakoram Range
  • c)
    Aravali Range
  • d)
    Satpura Range
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Rajat Gupta answered
Explanation:
India is a vast country that stretches from the Himalayan mountain ranges in the north to the Indian Ocean in the south. The northern frontier of India is defined by the Himalayan mountain range.

Himalayan Mountain Range:
The Himalayan mountain range is the longest and highest mountain range in the world. It stretches for over 2,500 kilometers from the Indus River in the west to the Brahmaputra River in the east. The Himalayas are home to several of the world's highest peaks, including Mount Everest and K2.

Importance of Himalayan Mountain Range:
The Himalayan mountain range plays a vital role in the geography and climate of India. It acts as a natural barrier, separating India from the rest of Asia. The mountains also help to regulate the climate of the Indian subcontinent by blocking cold winds from the north and trapping monsoon rains.

Conclusion:
In conclusion, the northern frontiers of India are defined by the Himalayan mountain range. The range plays a crucial role in the geography and climate of India, making it an essential part of the country's physical and cultural identity.

Seasonal migration of people with their animals is called:
  • a)
    Farmers
  • b)
    Jhumming
  • c)
    Transhumance
  • d)
    Labours
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Rahul Desai answered
  • Transhumance is a pastoral practise that is organized around the movement of livestock between winter and summer pastures.
  • In montane areas, it means movement between lower valleys during winters and higher fields in summers.
  • The herders who practice seasonal pastoralism have a permanent settlement where their families live, and only a small group of people migrate with the herd.
  • Transhumance is common in the highlands, mountains, and regions that are too cold to be utilized and inhabited except during summer.

Consider the following statements:
1. Earth is the largest inner planet.
2. Mercury is the hottest planet of the Solar system.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
  • a)
    1 only
  • b)
    2 only
  • c)
    Both 1 and 2
  • d)
    Neither 1 nor 2
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Preethi Shah answered
**Statement 1: Earth is the largest inner planet.**

The inner planets, also known as the terrestrial planets, are the four planets closest to the Sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. These planets are primarily composed of rocky material and have solid surfaces.

Among these inner planets, Earth is the largest in terms of both diameter and mass. Earth has a diameter of about 12,742 kilometers and a mass of about 5.97 x 10^24 kilograms. It is approximately 1.3 times the size of its closest neighbor, Venus, which has a diameter of about 12,104 kilometers.

Therefore, statement 1 is correct.

**Statement 2: Mercury is the hottest planet of the Solar system.**

The temperature of a planet is influenced by various factors, including its distance from the Sun, its atmosphere, and its composition.

While it is true that Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun, it does not make it the hottest planet in the Solar system. In fact, Venus holds the title for the hottest planet in our Solar system.

Venus has a thick atmosphere composed mainly of carbon dioxide, with traces of sulfuric acid clouds, which creates a strong greenhouse effect. This greenhouse effect traps heat, causing the surface temperature of Venus to soar to an average of about 462 degrees Celsius (864 degrees Fahrenheit). This makes Venus hotter than even the closest planet to the Sun, Mercury.

Therefore, statement 2 is incorrect.

**Conclusion:**

Based on the above analysis, we can conclude that statement 1 is correct, but statement 2 is incorrect. Therefore, the correct answer is option 'A' - 1 only.

Which of the following National Highway connects the four metro cities of India (Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai)?
  • a)
    National Highway 44
  • b)
    National Highway 47A
  • c)
    Golden Quadrilateral (GQ)
  • d)
    North-South Corridor of NHDP
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

  • Golden Quadrilateral (GQ) stretch which connects the four metro cities of India (Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai). One of the achievements of the Indian government is the 5846-km Golden Quadrilateral (GQ) highway.
  • It is designated as one of the longest highways in the world.

Consider the following statement(s) is/are related to the Chota Nagpur Plateau
I. It is situated in eastern India, covering much of Jharkhand and adjacent parts of Odisha, Bihar and Chhattisgarh.
II. The natural vegetation in most of the peninsula is xeric scrub, part of the Northwestern thorn scrub forest ecoregion.
Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?
  • a)
    Only I
  • b)
    Only II
  • c)
    Both I and II
  • d)
    Neither I nor II
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Meera Kapoor answered
  • Chota Nagpur, a plateau in eastern India, in northwestern Chhattisgarh and central Jharkhand states.
  • The plateau is composed of Precambrian rocks (i.e., rocks more than about 540 million years old).
  • Chota Nagpur is the collective name for the Ranchi, Hazaribagh, and Koderma plateaus, which collectively have 25,293 square miles (65,509 square km).
  • Its largest division is the Ranchi Plateau, which has an average elevation of about 2,300 feet (700 metres). In its entirety, the Chota Nagpur plateau lies between the basins of the Ganges (Ganga) and Son rivers to the north and the Mahanadi River to the south.

A narrow channel of the sea which separates two landmasses is known as:
  • a)
    Mound
  • b)
    Pass
  • c)
    Strait
  • d)
    Valley
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Avik Mukherjee answered
Explanation:

A narrow channel of the sea that separates two landmasses is known as a strait. A strait is a naturally formed narrow waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. The strait can be found between two land masses or between an island and a continent. The strait may be formed by the movement of tectonic plates, volcanic activity, erosion, or other natural processes.

Example:

The Strait of Gibraltar is a good example of a strait. It is a narrow waterway that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea. It is located between the southern tip of Spain and the northern coast of Morocco. The strait is just 7.7 nautical miles wide at its narrowest point, making it a significant shipping lane.

Importance:

A strait is an essential waterway for trade and commerce. It provides a shorter route for ships to reach their destination. It also plays a vital role in the movement of marine life, which can help maintain the ecosystem of the surrounding areas.

Conclusion:

In conclusion, a strait is a narrow channel of the sea that separates two landmasses. It plays an essential role in trade, commerce, and the movement of marine life. The Strait of Gibraltar is a good example of a strait.

Concerning commerce, which is the busiest ocean?
  • a)
    Pacific ocean
  • b)
    Atlantic ocean
  • c)
    Indian ocean
  • d)
    Arctic ocean
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Siddharth Nair answered
Introduction:
The busiest ocean in terms of commerce is the Atlantic Ocean. It serves as a vital trade route connecting the Americas, Europe, and Africa. The Atlantic Ocean plays a crucial role in facilitating global trade, transportation, and communication.

Reasons why the Atlantic Ocean is the busiest ocean:

1. Strategic Location:
The Atlantic Ocean is strategically located between North America, South America, Europe, and Africa. This positioning allows for efficient trade routes and easy access to major ports in these continents. The ocean provides a direct route for goods and services to be transported between these regions.

2. Major Trade Routes:
The Atlantic Ocean is home to several major trade routes that connect various countries and continents. The most notable trade route is the North Atlantic route, which connects North America with Europe. This route is heavily utilized by cargo ships, container vessels, and oil tankers, making it one of the busiest trade routes in the world.

3. Ports and Infrastructure:
The Atlantic Ocean is surrounded by numerous major ports, including New York, Rotterdam, Hamburg, Lisbon, and Rio de Janeiro. These ports serve as crucial hubs for international trade and handle a significant volume of cargo and containers. The presence of well-developed port infrastructure ensures smooth logistics and efficient movement of goods.

4. Economic Importance:
The countries bordering the Atlantic Ocean, such as the United States, Canada, Brazil, Germany, France, and the United Kingdom, are major economic powers. These countries have strong trade relations with each other and rely on the Atlantic Ocean for their import and export activities. The economic significance of these countries contributes to the high volume of commerce in the Atlantic Ocean.

5. Natural Resources and Energy:
The Atlantic Ocean is rich in natural resources, including oil, gas, fish, and minerals. The extraction of these resources requires extensive maritime activity, leading to increased commerce in the region. Additionally, offshore wind farms and other renewable energy projects are being developed in the Atlantic Ocean, further boosting economic activity.

Conclusion:
The Atlantic Ocean's strategic location, major trade routes, well-developed ports, economic importance of the surrounding countries, and abundance of natural resources contribute to its status as the busiest ocean in terms of commerce. The ocean serves as a lifeline for global trade, facilitating the movement of goods, energy, and resources between continents.

It can be obtained by building dams at narrow openings of the sea:
  • a)
    Geothermal Energy
  • b)
    Hydel Energy
  • c)
    Tidal Energy
  • d)
    Wind Energy
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Samarth Das answered
Explanation:

Tidal energy is a form of renewable energy that is generated by the movement of tides. It is one of the least exploited sources of energy, but it has the potential to make a significant contribution to the world's energy needs. Tidal energy is generated by building dams at narrow openings of the sea.

How does it work?

When the tide comes in, water is allowed to flow into a reservoir through turbines. The turbines then spin, generating electricity. When the tide goes out, the water flows back out of the reservoir, again turning the turbines and generating electricity.

Advantages of Tidal Energy:

- Tidal energy is a renewable source of energy that is not dependent on fossil fuels. It does not produce any harmful pollutants or greenhouse gases, making it an environmentally friendly source of energy.

- Tidal energy is predictable and reliable. Tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the moon and the sun, and their patterns can be accurately predicted. This means that tidal energy can be harnessed consistently, unlike wind or solar energy, which can be unpredictable.

- Tidal energy is a constant source of energy. Unlike wind or solar energy, which are intermittent, tidal energy is generated continuously, making it a reliable source of energy.

Disadvantages of Tidal Energy:

- The construction of tidal energy plants can be expensive and disruptive to marine life. The building of dams can create barriers for fish and other marine animals, disrupting their migration patterns.

- Tidal energy plants can only operate in areas where there are large tidal differences. This limits the areas where tidal energy can be harnessed.

- Tidal energy plants can be affected by extreme weather conditions, such as storms and hurricanes, which can damage the turbines and other equipment.

Conclusion:

Tidal energy has the potential to make a significant contribution to the world's energy needs. It is a reliable and predictable source of energy that is environmentally friendly. However, the construction and operation of tidal energy plants must be carefully managed to minimize the impact on marine life and to ensure that the plants can operate safely and efficiently.

Which of the following conditions are to be satisfied for a dwarf planet?
1. Mass enough to assume a nearly round shape.
2. Should not be a moon.
3. Has cleared the neighbourhood around its orbit.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
  • a)
    1 and 2 only
  • b)
    2 only
  • c)
    2 and 3 only
  • d)
    All of the above
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Anu Nambiar answered
To be classified as a dwarf planet, an astronomical object needs to meet certain conditions. Let's discuss each condition in detail:

1. Mass enough to assume a nearly round shape:
- The first condition for an object to be considered a dwarf planet is that it must have enough mass to assume a nearly round shape. This means that the object's gravity should be strong enough to pull it into a spherical or spheroidal shape.
- Spherical or spheroidal shapes are formed when an object's gravity pulls it equally in all directions, resulting in a balanced shape. This is why planets, including dwarf planets, are generally round.
- An object that does not have enough mass to pull itself into a round shape, like many asteroids or irregularly shaped rocks, would not be classified as a dwarf planet.

2. Should not be a moon:
- The second condition for an object to be considered a dwarf planet is that it should not be a moon. Moons are natural satellites that orbit planets or other celestial bodies.
- While moons can be spherical or spheroidal in shape, they do not meet the definition of a dwarf planet because they orbit around larger bodies.
- For example, the Moon is not classified as a dwarf planet because it orbits around the Earth.

3. Has cleared the neighbourhood around its orbit:
- The third condition for an object to be considered a dwarf planet is that it must have cleared the neighbourhood around its orbit.
- This condition refers to the ability of an object to dominate its orbit by clearing out debris, such as smaller objects or asteroids, from its path.
- Planets and dwarf planets have enough gravitational influence to either absorb or deflect other objects in their orbit, clearing the area around them.
- Objects that have not cleared their orbit, such as asteroids or comets, are not considered dwarf planets.

Based on the above conditions, the correct answer is option 'A' - 1 and 2 only. The object must have enough mass to assume a nearly round shape and should not be a moon. The condition of clearing its orbit (condition 3) is not necessary for an object to be classified as a dwarf planet.

Tropical rain forests always appear green because?
  • a)
    They receive rain throughout the year.
  • b)
    They never shed their leaves.
  • c)
    Different species of trees shed leaves at different times of the year.
  • d)
    Trees are of different heights.
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Rain forests always appear green because different species of trees shed leaves at different times of the year.

Rain forests are known for their lush, green appearance. This is primarily due to the fact that the trees in these forests have adapted to shed their leaves at different times of the year.

Shedding leaves at different times
- In a rain forest, there is no distinct dry season, and rainfall occurs throughout the year. As a result, the trees in these forests have evolved to shed and replace their leaves continuously.
- Different species of trees have different growth and reproductive cycles, leading to variations in leaf shedding patterns. Some species shed their leaves during the wettest months, while others shed them during drier periods.
- This means that at any given time, there are always trees with green leaves in the forest canopy, ensuring a constant green appearance.

Diversity of tree species
- Rain forests are known for their incredible biodiversity, and this extends to the variety of tree species present.
- Each tree species has its own unique leaf shedding schedule, which contributes to the overall greenness of the forest.
- The diversity of tree species in rain forests ensures that even if one species is shedding leaves, there are others that remain green, maintaining the overall green appearance.

Continuous growth and regeneration
- The continuous shedding and replacement of leaves in rain forests is related to the rapid growth and regeneration that occurs in these ecosystems.
- The constant availability of moisture and nutrients allows trees to grow and replace their leaves quickly, maintaining a green canopy throughout the year.

Conclusion
In conclusion, rain forests always appear green because different species of trees shed leaves at different times of the year. This adaptation ensures a continuous green appearance, even in the absence of distinct dry seasons. The diversity of tree species and the rapid growth and regeneration in rain forests further contribute to their lush, green appearance.

Through which of the following countries Ural mountains pass through?
1. Russia
2. Finland
3. Kazakhstan
4. Belarus
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
  • a)
    1, 2 and 3 only
  • b)
    2, 3 and 4 only
  • c)
    1 and 3 only
  • d)
    All of the above
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Sounak Menon answered
The correct answer is option 'C' - 1 and 3 only. The Ural Mountains pass through Russia and Kazakhstan.

1. Russia:
- The Ural Mountains are primarily located in Russia, running from the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and Kazakhstan.
- These mountains form a natural boundary between the European and Asian continents, with the western side of the range lying in Europe and the eastern side in Asia.
- The Ural Mountains are an important geographical feature of Russia, dividing the country into two distinct regions - European Russia and Asian Russia.

3. Kazakhstan:
- The Ural Mountains also extend into the country of Kazakhstan.
- The easternmost part of the Ural Mountains in Kazakhstan is known as the Southern Ural Mountains.
- These mountains are part of the larger Ural-Mugodzhar Hills system, which includes both the Ural Mountains and the Mugodzhar Hills.

2. Finland and 4. Belarus:
- Finland and Belarus do not have the Ural Mountains passing through their territories.
- Finland is located in Northern Europe, and its nearest mountain range is the Scandinavian Mountains, not the Ural Mountains.
- Belarus, on the other hand, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe and does not have any significant mountain ranges within its borders.

In conclusion, the Ural Mountains pass through Russia and Kazakhstan, making option 'C' the correct answer.

Consider the following statements:
1. All meridians are of equal length.
2. All latitudes and longitudes intersect at 90°.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
  • a)
    1 only
  • b)
    2 only
  • c)
    Both 1 and 2
  • d)
    Neither 1 nor 2
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Lekshmi Dey answered
Explanation:

  • All meridians are of equal length: This statement is true as all meridians converge at the poles and are therefore of equal length.

  • All latitudes and longitudes intersect at 90°: This statement is incorrect as latitudes and longitudes intersect at right angles, but not necessarily at 90°. The angle of intersection depends on the location on the Earth's surface.

  • Therefore, both statements are not true, except that all meridians are of equal length.

  • Thus, the correct answer is option 'C'.

Consider the following statement(s) is/are related to the Thar Desert
1. The desert continues into Pakistan as the Cholistan Desert.
2. Most of the Thar Desert is situated in Rajasthan, covering 61% of its geographic area.
Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?
  • a)
    Only 1
  • b)
    Only 2
  • c)
    Both 1 and 2
  • d)
    Neither 1 nor 2
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Abhishek Das answered
The correct answer is option 'C', i.e., both statements 1 and 2 are correct.

Explanation:
The Thar Desert is a large arid region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. Let's analyze each statement to understand why both are correct:

Statement 1: The desert continues into Pakistan as the Cholistan Desert.
- This statement is correct. The Thar Desert extends beyond the international border into Pakistan, where it is known as the Cholistan Desert. The Cholistan Desert is a continuation of the Thar Desert and covers a significant portion of southeastern Pakistan.

Statement 2: Most of the Thar Desert is situated in Rajasthan, covering 61% of its geographic area.
- This statement is also correct. Rajasthan is the largest state in India and a significant portion of it is occupied by the Thar Desert. Approximately 61% of the state's geographic area is covered by the Thar Desert, making it the largest desert in India.

Thus, both statements 1 and 2 are correct. The Thar Desert extends into Pakistan as the Cholistan Desert, and the majority of the Thar Desert is located in Rajasthan, covering 61% of its geographic area.

Which of the following is/are features of tropical evergreen forest?
1. Annual precipitation of over 200 cm
2. No definite time for trees to flowering
3. Absence of stratification
Select the correct answer from the following codes
  • a)
    1 Only
  • b)
    1 and 2 Only
  • c)
    2 and 3 only
  • d)
    1, 2 and 3
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

T.S Academy answered
  • Tropical evergreen forests are found in warm and humid areas with an annual precipitation of over 200 cm and mean annual temperature above 22 degree C.
  • Tropical evergreen forests are well stratified, with layers closer to the ground and are covered with shrubs and creepers, with short structured trees followed by a tall variety of trees. In these forests, trees reach great heights up to 60 m or above. There is no definite time for trees to shed their leaves, flowering and fruition. As such these forests appear green all the year round.

Consider the following statements:
1. Asteroids are found between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
2. Asteroids move around the Sun.
3. Some of the asteroids are the size of planets.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
  • a)
    1 and 2 only
  • b)
    1 and 3 only
  • c)
    3 only
  • d)
    2 and 3 only
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Nandita Pillai answered
Explanation:

The correct answer is option 'A' (1 and 2 only). Let's analyze each statement one by one:

Statement 1: Asteroids are found between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
- This statement is true. The region between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter is known as the asteroid belt, which is a region in the solar system where many asteroids are found.
- The asteroid belt is located approximately 2.2 to 3.2 astronomical units (AU) away from the Sun, with an average distance of about 2.8 AU.
- It is estimated that there are millions of asteroids in the asteroid belt, ranging in size from small rocks to several hundred kilometers in diameter.

Statement 2: Asteroids move around the Sun.
- This statement is also true. Asteroids, like planets and other celestial bodies, orbit the Sun due to the gravitational force exerted by the Sun.
- The orbits of asteroids in the asteroid belt are mostly elliptical, meaning they are not perfect circles. As a result, asteroids have varying distances from the Sun throughout their orbits.
- The time it takes for an asteroid to complete one orbit around the Sun depends on its distance from the Sun and its orbital velocity.

Statement 3: Some of the asteroids are the size of planets.
- This statement is false. While there are some large asteroids in the asteroid belt, none of them are as large as planets.
- The largest asteroid in the asteroid belt is Ceres, which has a diameter of about 940 kilometers. Although Ceres is the largest known asteroid, it is still much smaller than any planet in our solar system.
- Planets like Earth, Mars, and Jupiter are significantly larger than even the largest asteroids.

Therefore, the correct answer is option 'A' (1 and 2 only) because statements 1 and 2 are true, while statement 3 is false.

Consider the following statements
1. Moist deciduous forests in India are found in North eastern states along foothills of Himalayas.
2. Teak is one of the main species of moist deciduous forest in India.
Select the correct answer from the following codes
  • a)
    1 Only
  • b)
    2 Only
  • c)
    Both 1 and 2
  • d)
    Neither 1 nor 2
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Om Basu answered
Moist Deciduous Forests in India

Moist deciduous forests are found in areas with a moderate to high rainfall. These forests are found in many parts of India and are characterized by a mix of broad-leaved and evergreen trees. They are an important habitat for many species of animals and birds.

Statement 1: Moist deciduous forests in India are found in North eastern states along foothills of Himalayas.

This statement is partially correct. While moist deciduous forests are found in the northeastern states of India, they are not limited to this region alone. They are also found in other parts of the country, such as the Western Ghats and the Chota Nagpur Plateau.

Statement 2: Teak is one of the main species of moist deciduous forest in India.

This statement is correct. Teak is one of the most common tree species found in moist deciduous forests in India. Other important species include sal, shisham, and khair.

Conclusion

Both statements are partially correct and partially incorrect. While moist deciduous forests are found in many parts of India, teak is indeed one of the main species found in these forests.

Which state of India shares the longest border with Pakistan?
  • a)
    Jammu and Kashmir
  • b)
    Rajasthan
  • c)
    Gujarat
  • d)
    Punjab
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Zara Khan answered
  • Jammu and Kashmir, the state of India shares the longest border with Pakistan having a length of 1222 km, followed by Rajasthan with 1170 km. Gujarat has 506 km, while Punjab has 425 km.
  • The borders of Pakistan were drawn just after two days of partition that is on 17 August, 1947. Let us tell you that the Radcliffe Line was officially announced on August 17, 1947, a few days after the independence of India and Pakistan. Indian states that share boundaries with Pakistan are: Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Punjab.

Consider the following statements
1. Chotanagpur plateau extends into North eastern parts of India.
2. Karbi Anglong and the Meghalaya Plateau in the northeast are extensions of the Peninsular block.
Select the correct answer from the following codes
  • a)
    Only 1
  • b)
    Only 2
  • c)
    Both 1 and 2
  • d)
    Neither 1 nor 2
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Meera Datta answered
Explanation:
The correct answer is option B, i.e., only statement 2 is correct.

Chotanagpur plateau:
- Chotanagpur plateau is a plateau in eastern India, covering the states of Jharkhand, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh and Odisha.
- It is not an extension of the Peninsular block but a separate plateau formed due to volcanic activity.

Karbi Anglong and Meghalaya Plateau:
- Karbi Anglong is a district in the state of Assam, while the Meghalaya Plateau is a part of the state of Meghalaya.
- Both these regions are not extensions of the Peninsular block but are part of the Himalayan mountain range.

Conclusion:
Hence, only statement 2 is correct, while statement 1 is incorrect.

With reference to micro-irrigation, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. Fertilizer/nutrient loss can be reduced.
2. It is the only means of irrigation in dry land farming.
3. In some areas of farming, receding of the groundwater table can be checked.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
  • a)
    Only 1
  • b)
    2 and 3 only
  • c)
    1 and 3 only
  • d)
    1, 2 and 3
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Amit Sharma answered
  • Micro irrigation is a modern method of irrigation; by this method water is irrigated through drippers, sprinklers, foggers and by other emitters on the surface or subsurface of the land. Major components of a micro irrigation system are as follows.
  • Water source, pumping devices (motor and pump), ball valves, fertigation equipment, filters, control valves, PVC joining accessories (Main and sub main) and emitters. In this system water is applied drop by drop nearer the root zone area of the crop.

Which is the deepest point of the Indian ocean?
  • a)
    Mariana trench
  • b)
    Tonga trench
  • c)
    Diamantina trench
  • d)
    Sunda trench
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

The deepest point in the Indian Ocean is the Diamantina Trench, which is located in the eastern part of the ocean, near the coast of Indonesia. Let's break down the answer into headings and bullet points for better understanding:

Diamantina Trench:
- The Diamantina Trench is the deepest point in the Indian Ocean.
- It is located in the eastern part of the ocean, near the coast of Indonesia.
- The trench is roughly 8,047 meters (26,401 feet) deep.

Other trenches in the Indian Ocean:
- Mariana Trench: It is the deepest point in the world and is located in the Pacific Ocean.
- Tonga Trench: It is located in the southwestern part of the Pacific Ocean.
- Sunda Trench: It is located in the eastern part of the Indian Ocean, near the coast of Indonesia.

Importance of the Diamantina Trench:
- The trench is an important area of research for scientists studying the geology and biology of the ocean.
- It is home to a diverse range of marine life, including deep-sea fish, squid, and octopuses.
- The trench also plays a significant role in the formation of tsunamis and earthquakes in the region.

Conclusion:
In conclusion, the Diamantina Trench is the deepest point in the Indian Ocean, located near the coast of Indonesia. It is an important area of research for scientists and is home to a diverse range of marine life. The trench also plays a significant role in the formation of tsunamis and earthquakes in the region.

Which of the statements is/are correct?
1. Tropical Deciduous Forests are the most widespread forest in India.
2. Pine, Silver fir, Spruce and Cedar are the varieties of coniferous trees found in temperate forest.
  • a)
    1 Only
  • b)
    2 Only
  • c)
    Both 1 and 2
  • d)
    Neither 1 nor 2
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Anshika Sarkar answered
Tropical Deciduous Forests and Coniferous Trees in India

Introduction:
India is known for its rich biodiversity and diverse forest cover. Tropical Deciduous Forests and Coniferous Trees are two of the major types of forests found in India.

Tropical Deciduous Forests:
Tropical Deciduous Forests, also known as Monsoon Forests, are the most widespread forest in India. These forests are found in regions with a distinct wet and dry season. The trees shed their leaves during the dry season to conserve water and grow new leaves during the wet season. Some of the common trees found in these forests are Sal, Teak, Neem, Mahua, and Bamboo.

Coniferous Trees:
Coniferous Trees are a type of evergreen tree that produce cones instead of flowers. These trees are found in temperate regions with cold winters and mild summers. In India, the varieties of coniferous trees found in temperate forests are Pine, Silver Fir, Spruce, and Cedar.

Correct Statement:
Both statements are correct. Tropical Deciduous Forests are the most widespread forest in India. Coniferous Trees, including Pine, Silver Fir, Spruce, and Cedar, are found in temperate forests in India.

Consider the following statements:
1. There are nine coastal states in India.
2. The state with the largest coastline in India in Andhra Pradesh.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
  • a)
    1 only
  • b)
    2 only
  • c)
    Both 1 and 2
  • d)
    Neither 1 nor 2
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Ias Masters answered
Nine coastal states are Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and West Bengal. The state with the largest coastline in India is Gujarat. Andhra Pradesh has the second largest coastline in India.

Consider the following statements about the population density/growth in India. Which are Correct?
1. Assam and most of the peninsular states have moderate population densities
2. The Northern Plains and Kerala in the south have high to very high population densities
3. Since 1981 the rate of population growth started declining gradually in India
4. Meghalaya is having the highest decadal growth in the 2011 census
  • a)
    1 and 2 only
  • b)
    1, 2 and 4 only
  • c)
    1, 2 and 3 only
  • d)
    All of the above
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Anshu Bose answered
Population Density and Growth in India

Correct statements are:

1. Assam and most of the peninsular states have moderate population densities
2. The Northern Plains and Kerala in the south have high to very high population densities
3. Since 1981 the rate of population growth started declining gradually in India
4. Meghalaya is having the highest decadal growth in the 2011 census

Moderate Population Densities in Assam and Peninsular States

Assam and most of the peninsular states have moderate population densities. The population density in Assam is around 397 persons per square kilometer. The peninsular states include Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, and Kerala. They have a moderate population density ranging from 300 to 500 persons per square kilometer.

High to Very High Population Densities in Northern Plains and Kerala

The Northern Plains and Kerala in the south have high to very high population densities. The Northern Plains include the states of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal. The population density in these states ranges from 700 to 1200 persons per square kilometer. Kerala has the highest population density of all states in India, with around 859 persons per square kilometer.

Declining Population Growth in India

Since 1981, the rate of population growth started declining gradually in India. This is due to various factors such as increasing literacy rates, awareness about family planning, and the adoption of contraceptive methods. The decadal growth rate of population has declined from 24.8% in 1971-81 to 17.7% in 2001-11.

Meghalaya with the Highest Decadal Growth in 2011 Census

Meghalaya is having the highest decadal growth in the 2011 census. Meghalaya is a state in northeast India with a population density of around 132 persons per square kilometer. The decadal growth rate of Meghalaya was 27.8% in the 2011 census, which is higher than the national average of 17.7%.

Resources which can be renewed or reproduced are known as:
  • a)
    Exhaustible Resource
  • b)
    Renewable Resource
  • c)
    Non-Renewable Resource
  • d)
    Useful Resource
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Renewable resources are resources that can be replenished or reproduced naturally within a relatively short period of time. These resources are considered sustainable because their availability is not limited and they can be used indefinitely without depleting their supply. Some examples of renewable resources include solar energy, wind energy, hydropower, biomass, and geothermal energy.

Renewable resources are commonly contrasted with non-renewable resources, which are finite in supply and cannot be replenished once they are depleted. Non-renewable resources, such as fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas), minerals, and metals, take millions of years to form and cannot be replaced within a human lifespan.

The characteristics of renewable resources that make them sustainable and environmentally friendly are as follows:

1. Natural replenishment: Renewable resources have the ability to regenerate or replenish themselves over time. For example, solar energy is constantly being produced by the sun, wind energy is generated by the movement of air masses, and hydropower is generated by the water cycle.

2. Low environmental impact: Renewable resources generally have a lower impact on the environment compared to non-renewable resources. For instance, using solar panels to generate electricity produces no greenhouse gas emissions, while burning fossil fuels for energy results in the release of carbon dioxide and other pollutants.

3. Reduced dependence on non-renewable resources: Utilizing renewable resources helps to reduce our reliance on non-renewable resources, which are finite in supply. This can help to mitigate the negative environmental and economic consequences associated with the extraction and use of non-renewable resources.

4. Potential for local production: Many renewable resources can be harnessed at a local level, allowing communities to generate their own energy and become more self-sufficient. This decentralization of energy production can enhance energy security and reduce dependence on centralized power grids.

Overall, renewable resources play a significant role in promoting sustainable development and addressing global challenges such as climate change and energy security. By harnessing these resources and transitioning to a renewable energy economy, we can create a more sustainable and resilient future.

Which of the above statement (s) is/are correct about climatic conditions for Growing Wheat?
I. Wheat is sown in mid-October-mid-November and harvested in March.
II. Wheat grows well in cool, moist climates and ripens in a warm, dry climate.
  • a)
    1 Only
  • b)
    2 Only
  • c)
    Both 1 and 2
  • d)
    Neither 1 nor 2
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Vandana Shah answered
The correct answer is option 'C' - Both 1 and 2. Let's understand why both statements are correct about the climatic conditions for growing wheat:

I. Wheat is sown in mid-October-mid-November and harvested in March:
- Wheat is a winter crop, and the ideal time for sowing wheat is between mid-October and mid-November in most regions. This allows the crop to establish strong roots and develop during the winter season.
- Sowing wheat during this time ensures that the crop is exposed to the required amount of cold temperature for proper growth and development.
- Wheat takes around 120-150 days to mature, depending on the variety. Hence, it is harvested in March, which is well after the winter season.

II. Wheat grows well in cool, moist climates and ripens in a warm, dry climate:
- Wheat requires a cool, moist climate during the early stages of growth for proper establishment and development of the plant.
- Cool temperatures during the vegetative stage promote the growth of leaves and tillering, which are important for a high yield.
- Moisture is essential for germination and early growth of wheat, and a cool climate helps in retaining soil moisture.
- However, during the ripening stage, wheat requires a warm, dry climate. This allows the grains to dry out and harden, preparing them for harvesting and storage.
- Warm temperatures and low humidity during the ripening stage prevent the risk of fungal diseases and sprouting of grains.

Hence, both statements are correct as they describe the ideal climatic conditions for growing wheat. The crop requires a cool, moist climate during the early stages and a warm, dry climate during the ripening stage. Sowing in mid-October to mid-November and harvesting in March aligns with these requirements, making both statements accurate.

Different ways to conserve natural resources are:
Select the incorrect one:
  • a)
    Preventing wastage
  • b)
    Save Water
  • c)
    Deforestation
  • d)
    Afforestation
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Anu Kulkarni answered
Deforestation is the incorrect answer because it does not contribute to the conservation of natural resources. In fact, deforestation is the opposite of conservation as it involves the clearing or removal of forests or trees, leading to the depletion of natural resources. Let's discuss this in more detail.

1. Preventing wastage:
- One effective way to conserve natural resources is by preventing wastage. This includes reducing, reusing, and recycling materials to minimize the use of resources and decrease the amount of waste generated.
- By practicing responsible consumption and adopting sustainable habits, individuals and businesses can help conserve natural resources.

2. Save Water:
- Water conservation is crucial for the sustainable use of this valuable resource. By adopting water-saving measures such as fixing leaks, using efficient irrigation systems, and practicing responsible water usage, we can conserve water resources.
- Conserving water not only helps preserve freshwater sources but also reduces energy consumption associated with water treatment and distribution.

3. Deforestation:
- Deforestation refers to the clearance of forests or trees, usually for the purpose of agriculture, urbanization, or logging. This activity leads to the loss of forest ecosystems, biodiversity, and valuable natural resources.
- Deforestation contributes to environmental degradation, soil erosion, loss of habitat for wildlife, and increased greenhouse gas emissions. It disrupts the natural balance of ecosystems and negatively impacts the availability of resources such as timber, fuelwood, and medicinal plants.

4. Afforestation:
- Afforestation refers to the process of establishing forests in areas where there were none before. It involves planting trees and nurturing their growth.
- Afforestation is an effective way to conserve natural resources as it helps restore ecosystems, prevent soil erosion, enhance biodiversity, and mitigate climate change by sequestering carbon dioxide.
- Forests provide numerous benefits, including the provision of timber, fuelwood, food, and medicinal plants. They also regulate water cycles, maintain soil fertility, and provide habitat for a wide range of species.

In conclusion, while preventing wastage, saving water, and afforestation are effective ways to conserve natural resources, deforestation is an activity that depletes these resources. It is essential to prioritize sustainable practices and protect our natural resources for the well-being of current and future generations.

Consider the following statement(s) is/are related to the Thar Desert
I. The desert continues into Pakistan as the Cholistan Desert.
II. Most of the Thar Desert is situated in Rajasthan, covering 61% of its geographic area.
Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?
  • a)
    Only I
  • b)
    Only II
  • c)
    Both I and II
  • d)
    Neither I nor II
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Lohit Matani answered
  • The Thar Desert, also called the Great Indian Desert, is an arid region of rolling sandhills on the Indian subcontinent.
  • It is located partly in Rajasthan state, northwestern India, and partly in Punjab and Sindh (Sind) provinces, eastern Pakistan.
  • The Thar Desert covers some 77,000 square miles (200,000 square km) of territory. The irrigated Indus River plain borders it to the west, the Punjab Plain to the north and northeast, the Aravalli Range to the southeast, and the Rann of Kachchh to the south.

Consider the following statements:
1. All outer planets are made up of gases and liquids.
2. All outer planets rotate faster than all inner planets.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
  • a)
    1 only
  • b)
    2 only
  • c)
    Both 1 and 2
  • d)
    Neither 1 nor 2
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Sravya Gupta answered
Explanation:

Statement 1: All outer planets are made up of gases and liquids.
This statement is true. The outer planets in our solar system, also known as the gas giants, are composed primarily of gases and liquids. These planets include Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. They have a relatively small solid core surrounded by thick atmospheres of hydrogen and helium, with various layers of gases and liquids. The presence of these gases and liquids gives these planets their characteristic appearance and behavior, such as the presence of colorful bands and storms on their surfaces.

Statement 2: All outer planets rotate faster than all inner planets.
This statement is false. The rotation speeds of planets vary, and there is no strict rule that states that all outer planets rotate faster than all inner planets. For example, Venus, which is an inner planet, has a very slow rotation speed, taking about 243 Earth days to complete one rotation. On the other hand, Jupiter, which is an outer planet, has a fast rotation speed, completing one rotation in about 10 hours. Similarly, other outer planets like Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune also have different rotation speeds.

Conclusion:
Based on the above analysis, we can conclude that statement 1 is true, as all outer planets are indeed made up of gases and liquids. However, statement 2 is false, as the rotation speeds of planets are not solely determined by their location (inner or outer) but can vary from planet to planet. Therefore, the correct answer is option 'C' - Both 1 and 2.

Which of the following industries was de-reserved in 1993?
  • a)
    Atomic energy
  • b)
    Atopic minerals
  • c)
    Mining of copper and zinc
  • d)
    Railways
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Avi Sharma answered
In 1993, the industry that was de-reserved was the mining of copper and zinc. This means that the government relaxed its control over this industry and allowed private players to participate and invest in it. The de-reservation of this industry was a significant step towards liberalization and opening up of the Indian economy.

The de-reservation of the mining of copper and zinc industry had several implications and benefits for the Indian economy:

Promotion of Private Investment:
- The de-reservation allowed private players to invest in the mining of copper and zinc industry, encouraging competition and promoting private sector participation.
- This led to increased investment in the industry, which resulted in technological advancements and improved productivity.

Economic Growth:
- The mining of copper and zinc industry plays a crucial role in the Indian economy as these minerals are essential for various industries like construction, manufacturing, and infrastructure development.
- With the de-reservation, the industry witnessed growth, leading to increased production and availability of these minerals, which in turn contributed to the overall economic growth of the country.

Job Creation:
- The de-reservation of the industry created employment opportunities as private players expanded their operations and hired more workforce.
- This helped in reducing unemployment and improving the livelihoods of people associated with the mining sector.

Efficiency and Competitiveness:
- Prior to the de-reservation, the mining of copper and zinc industry was largely controlled by government-owned companies.
- The entry of private players brought in market competition, leading to increased efficiency and competitiveness in the industry.
- Private players often bring in new technologies and management practices, which can result in improved productivity and cost-effectiveness.

Overall, the de-reservation of the mining of copper and zinc industry in 1993 was a significant step towards liberalization and opening up of the Indian economy. It promoted private investment, economic growth, job creation, and improved efficiency and competitiveness in the industry.

Consider the following statements about Ladakh:
1. Drass, one of the coldest inhabited places on the earth is located in Ladakh.
2. The Gangri glacier is located in Ladakh.
Select the correct answer using the code given below?
  • a)
    1 only
  • b)
    2 only
  • c)
    Both 1 and 2
  • d)
    Neither 1 nor 2
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

  • Drass, one of the coldest inhabited places on the earth is located in the cold desert India. The altitude in Ladakh varies from about 3000m in Kargil to more than 8000m in the Karakoram. Due to its high altitude, the climate is extremely cold and dry.
  • Several glaciers are found in Ladakh, the Gangri glacier and the Siachen glacier are among them. The air at this altitude is so thin that the heat of the sun can be felt intensely.

Consider the following statements with regard to density of roads in India:
1. Major determinants of density of roads in India are Nature of terrain, Population, Level of economic development.
2. The density of roads is high in most of the northern states and major southern states
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
  • a)
    Only 1
  • b)
    Only 2
  • c)
    Both 1 and 2
  • d)
    Neither 1 nor 2
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Nilesh Patel answered
  • Nature of terrain and the level of economic development are the main determinants of density of roads.
  •  
    Construction of roads is easy and cheaper in the plain areas while it is difficult and costly in hilly and plateau areas. Therefore, not only the density but also the quality of roads is relatively better in plains as compared to roads in high altitude areas, rainy and forested regions.
  •  
    Density of roads (length of roads per 100 square km of area) varies from only 12.14 km in Jammu and Kashmir to 517.77 km in Kerala with a national average of 142.68 km in 2011) The density of road is high in most of the northern states and major southern states.
  •  
    It is low in the Himalayan region, north-eastern region. Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan despite having high populations have low road density. Thus, population is not a major determinant.
 
 
 

The 9 degree channel is located on which of the following Islands?
  • a)
    Arabian Sea Islands
  • b)
    Bay of Bengal Islands
  • c)
    Offshore Islands
  • d)
    None of the above
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Rahul Mehta answered
  • The Arabian Sea Islands comprise 36 islands of Lakshadweep Group. The southernmost island, i.e. Minicoy is separated from the rest of the group by the 9 degree channel.
  • Nine Degree Channel separates Lakshadweep and Minicoy. The Nine Degree Channel is a channel in the Indian Ocean between the Laccadive Islands of Kalpeni and Suheli Par, and Maliku Atoll.
  • These two subgroups of islands, together with the Amindivi Subgroup, form the Indian Union Territory (UT) of Lakshadweep.

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